Democratic Arab Center
Prepared By:Aye Abd El-Hafez Mahmoud
Supervisor: Dr. El-Saied AboFarah
In this research we study the role of farek rebels on disabilities of theColombianposition so the president of Colombia who called Santosseeks allthe time to sign the peace agreement with El fare rebels but the refused of this come from many sides from the law maker, rebels, Colombianaudiences, butsaints depending on the soft powers to persuade the commander of rebels in his visitor to him, he gave strategies reform which may be achieved the dis stability in Colombian conditions result for un qualified decision which harm the peace agreement at the long run .
The significance of this study
The Arabian libraries suffer from scarcity in this studies which talk about the effect of guerrillaon a political destabilization inside the borders of the state and effected on the natural of relationships outside those borders which may be cut the relation of the state with other country
This study introduces to us strategies which used in case of lack of security in the Arabian region which happen result for the existence of rebels in revolutionary periods.so we must study the Colombian case to benefit from it .specially after 2011and emergence of the gang war
The major key question: what are the polices which the Colombian government followed it with Welfare rebels
What are the reasons which pushed the government to follow this polices
What are the setters of those polices
What are the implications of this polices
The research approach
The system analysis approach is used in this research , this approach is most importantto study the political and social problems because it provided a framework for the analysis of the political system in which it assumed an integrated circuit of dynamic nature ,that is being with inputs and lead to output with feedback process linking them .the approach help the researchers to collect and classify data and present its results ,this approach concerned with study (what are the purposes of study of the political system ,what is the contain unite of the system and how the system react with the environment
The literature review
This study deals with : farek rebels mean the globalization of crime ,the proliferation of transnational crime networks behind increasing extensive smuggling operations such as illegal raw material the trading ,discriminations against women and children ,it consider threats for political ,economic condition in Colombia because it tried to corrupt the institution of the state
This study deals with :in 21 cent the civil society faced violence and inequality in the institution of the state and the social problem will appear in form human right dignity and establishing the democracy consider challenge such as human right in form social and justice right so the peace agreement adopted to establish them
This study deals with: The sign of peace agreement between the Colombian government and Elfarek rebels consider the first step to achieve the development of the state in form rural development, political participation 
Part one :
Thereasons which push the government to sign the peace process:-
After 50 year, the government and farce rebels become un able to continue in their case of war So the Colombian government seek to sign a peace agreement to stop the killing of civilians that reaching to 200000 and remove more than 8million from their home or stop the transporting of the conflict to new regions or selecting individuals from this region to become actors for farce rebels.
Most of time the negotiations between the Colombian government and el fare rebels are failed so the rebels are practicing transgression toward the Colombian government .Santos who was the president of Colombia traveled to Mesta to meet the commander of revolution armed force and suggest the sign of peace treaty between them.
The commander of rebels are welcomed by it and he said `the sign of this treaty such as you are waiting a child that is finally born or your favorite team scoring a goal 
1-Trading in drugs:
Santos wanted to end this illegal policy which adopted by the Colombian government and El Farek
At governmental level: during the period of raising parliamentary system groups that adopted illegal drugs industry which selling in the region of rebellion to achieve revenue to finance their forces and destroy the abilities of farce rebels
At the level of el farak rebels: at 1980the conflict is escalated result for the activities of the rebels which taking many forms such as trading in drugs and guns both of them not look to public case and the harms
2-The discrimination on the children:
In el fare rebels the children were used as fighters and their parents were accepted these positions result for security, social, economic pressures.Allof these were clear in the reports of the united nation that clearing the range of violence that practicing in front of them which lading to physical results.
3-The role of international organizations
UNISEF worked as safeguard to the children, tried to return them to civil society after picking them from El Fare rebels, introducing high level of education skills, healthcare unisex tried to established law which is used to achieving good live through the protocols which are accepted in the international community
4-The discrimination against the women
The reports which announcing by the united nation tells “until 2012 the discrimination against the women were practicing from farek rebels to Colombian civilians” in rural regions the women were suffering from sexual violence to enforce the citizens to left the natural resources regions.
The women reported most of the discriminate women were young and this events lead them to physiological results which taking form revolution against their government which failed to protect them
So the government adopted 3strategies to face the desperation of law ,this strategies talked form low the level of escaping from the law, determine the needs of underdogs to improve their physiological cases ,put constraints on the officials to clear their positions about the discrimination because some reports which introducing by the united nations reported “there were some discrimination practicing by the officials such as the event that happening in Meta police station the girls face discriminations and the officials enforce them to sign about well transactions .
4-The inside weaponry conflict
At December 2016,the record of underdogs institution reached to 8millions since 1985 resulting for killing process, most of them were civilians those suffering from discrimination from el fork rebels and Colombian government,46000 disappeared may be enforced to work with one of them ,10800 were underdogs for explosives but for the last year the low level of killing process lead to low level conflicts which influenced on the civilians such as farmers, civilians those African roots ,those living in in industrial region and region which ricing by natural resources
5-The discrimination against human rights movement
The leaders of the civil society face a threats and killing process, especially those seeking to achieve the justice and save the environment, farming land and the obstacles to know who were responsible for killing of75 officials of human rights organizations, 3 persons were killed from the committee of united series of Colombian mountain and their families asked the government about amends
6-The land of farming discrimination
The farmer consider themselves victims for the conflicts between the rebels and the Colombian government because the government ignored them so 14000peasant revolted against it result for disputes displacement of land, they asked it to implement the declaration of peasant farmer reservation zone ,to prevent their attention to farming the coca to can provide the services which increased by 13%for the last 4year so the government must be adopted policies toward the farming class to encourage them to plant the profitable goods such as coffee and banana
What are the setters of this policy?
In Colombia the president of Colombia succeeded to translate the polices from using the violence to use the cooperation policy which was result for secret discussion, Santos tried to talk a diplomatic tools to correct the relations between El Equator and Fenzoylaa which consider the training region for el farce rebels to prevent any conflict between el Farrah and Colombian government
1-The agreement of peace
After the discussion betweenSantos and the leader of rebels, the rebels announced their acceptance about the agreement of peace so Santos wanted to be the agreement is accepted from his audience so he announced about questionnaire but the results of it was refused of the peace of agreement, more than 63% refused to select between yes or no cause of
They not have any confidence toward the governmental institutions, result for wording of the audience from the institutions of the state and its operations
The pooraudience that not meansanything toward the government, also they only face the forces conflicts of the fare rebels
A:The refused from lawmakers
A national referendum is failed by the popular vote, result for the opposition of the lawmakers about the concerns of political future, theysaw, it he the rebels left the life of conflicts and they were going to live in civilians life they will look forward to sharing in the authorities
B:The refused of farek
This agreement lead to fill large numbers of caches from weapons and explosives, they will possess small amounts of weapons to save grad themselves so the fare possess doubts about the significance of the agreement
2-The political parties
The parties which not follow the policies of the government were suffering from scarcity to share in the authorities of governmental institutions, the periods of time in the authority depending on the rang of loyalty to the system of the state.
The political reform began at 2003 when the government tried to achieve re arrangement of political parties affiliation, it gave the opportunities to el fare rebels to return them to live in a civil society and gave the legitimacy to the ruler to punish the rebellion, the government tried to ignorance the traditional parties in congress may be it called miss transactions component result for Nemours disciplines in the system of the state.
3- Disarmament process
Bolivia,venzuel returned to make a relationships with Colombia after cutting of this relation result for the drives which practicing by el farek rebels, they wanted to share it in modernization program to avoid the threats of el farek if reaching for the authority, behind these ,most of the budget of the government is used to make control on the rebellion so Santos wanted to adopted a strategic programs to can return the regions which dominating by them ,he saw he must be completed the peace process in form peace agreement, disarmament from rebels
El farek rebels started to become disarmament result for basic paragraph in the peace of agreement which sign with Colombian government to end the oldest conflict in lateenAmerica, by accepting of the rebellion by this agreement they could live as civilians.
The mission of the united nations that responsible for receiving of weapon and explosives announced `the farek rebels sanded 7132 piece of weapon and only little amount stilled with them to protect the security of camp and to secure the peace agreement implementation, the weapons which receiving for the united nations will be melted and shaped 3momerials that referring to end the oldest conflict in lateen America
The results of peace agreement
1-The agricultural reform
The government saw the agriculture reform were basic statue in peace agreement and it form polices with the rebels because the ending of land issues were the first step to solve the conflict between them. The government tried to return the stolen agriculture land ,succeed to receive 2 hectares in a little of one year because the government enacted law ‘no one can reach to the congress if he possessed a black comment` the government wanted to develop the small holder through technical assistance, keeping subsides,redistribute of the agricultural land on the farmer
The problem of el farek rebels not ownership of the farmer or achieving the public polices but it appear in expropriation of land holding and gave it for foreigners to support the foreign investments,
The legislature called for the foreign investors in Colombian state to asked them about the corruption too prevent the xenophobia which face the citizens so the minister of agriculture introduced a measures to regulate and restrict thither foreign investments
Result for the voting on the peace treaty the government known the preventing about voting result for their economic position saw it put condition on the foreign investments ‘use of local goods in their industrial production process.
Neither the peasants farmers nor agribusiness were represented at Havana so the peasant form umbrella group of peasant farmer association to, determined the objectives for rural development also they have misunderstood about the democracy process because they not make a connection between the rural development and the percentage of the owned land for foreigners.
2-The political reform
After the Colombian government signed a peace of agreement, adopted the programs of political reform in congress to prevent the corruption, also this is reform was unfair to civilians because the presidential term will extortion for 5year without election, in faced it, the government gave seats in congress for rebels for 2 term and their leader can entire the future presidential elections
These decisions clear to us 2 cases
1)each of them tried to achieve reform to the citizens torso support their positions
2)they may be use un moral secret tools to earn the election such as when the Colombian government killed the citizens and wearied them the uniforms of rebels to use this event against them at the external world
The member of the congress announced about the low age of voting it was 16years and imposing the mandatory votes to them to prevent any rebellion against the system of the state depending of the term of equality in their reform
The government adopted a peaceful revolution in the Colombianpolitics, it was clear in Santos’s reports `it was not enough toot disarm el fare so we must be given more equal distribution for them through the existence off more than 1party in the political system, it may be lead to wrong result because the legislature committee was consist of the representative of rebels and those not have any political experience to. Enact laws to organize the multi-party political system so they have 2direction firstly: follow the decisions of the government
And the second: opposite the decisions of the government and may be the disagreement reach to their return to their rebellion.
3-treky of social system:-
The dirty play was very clear between El fare and Colombian government all polices which adopted whatever construction of the civil society from any discrimination .the struggle against the private wrongs was required search for mechanisms which used to leverage when the international pressure not avail to the state and adopted of financing strategies of condor will influence on the polices of the state especially if the condors are foreigners ,the government may be adopted the displacement polices to encourage the foreign investment and provide services for individuals such as electricity even if the government redistribution the farming land the distribution will be in unfertilized land and this will create rebellion against the government and the discrimination will appear but from the government not el fare and may be the citizens form rebels forces .
Editor by G.Favarel-garrigus ,J.briqut ,organized crime and state ,posted in CNRS, spring 2010
Editor Andress solimano ,conflict prevention and post conflict reconstruction, world bank publication, 2016
Editor by Edourd posada ,the polices of reforming the state ,latin America studies series institution , 2017
The associated press posted:27jaun 2017 at 3:36pm :the last update
Peter benison ,amnesty international ltd ,1 stone street ,London ,the first print at 2017