Prepared by the researcher : Dr. Roba Alsayed Mohammed Abu Kmeil PhD in Curricula and and Teaching Methods of Science, Headmistress of Musqat Al Tuffah Basic School – A Palestinian Ministry of Education
Democratic Arabic Center
Journal of Afro-Asian Studies : Nineteenth Issue – November 2023
A Periodical International Journal published by the “Democratic Arab Center” Germany – Berlin
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The study was aimed at evaluating Palestinian science books for the tenth grade Palestinian (chemistry, physics, and biology) and analyzing the extent to which they include skills of metacognition. The study used a descriptive analytical method. A tool for analyzing the content of general science books intended for students of the tenth grade in Palestine was built for the academic year 2023/2024 A.D. A list of skills that should be included in science books was constructed after agreement was reached on the analysis procedures and the verification and stability of the analysis tool. The results showed that the books included skills of metacognition (conceptual, procedural, and contextual) is unbalanced: there is too much conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge is medium, and contextual knowledge is very low.
Science is the key to mankind’s future: the universe is full of secrets, and the hard work of discovering them costs us a lot of effort and time. This changing world, which does not prove a single truth or a static one, is sweeping it from far and wide. The education we plan is for a future that has not yet been born. Therefore, the study of science is a link between the structures of the past, the problems of the present and the needs of the future.
Because in the information age, in which the progress of nations is measured by their ability to develop the various branches of science, and to benefit from this development in all areas of life, and because the scientific, cognitive and technological revolution is accelerating at a high rate every day, which is contributing to the increasing problems facing humans, superficial thinking in solving problems is no longer meaningful. Rather, we need more in-depth thinking in order to be able to face problems. For thinking to be more effective in dealing with the complexities of the technological age, it must possess skills that help it to monitor its behavior, plan, adjust and evaluate Therefore, science education needs to practice thinking processes as it is necessary to help our children by designing a creative learning environment that enables them to realize themselves, discover the existing and inherent relationships between Cognition and then reconstruct it to produce holistic systems and combinations. Types of cognition that can be developed for science are the components of metacognition which are educational innovations that have been of interest to educational researchers.
The concept of metacognition was introduced in the mid-1970s by Flavell, who introduced it in his research on evolutionary psychology’s Memory and Metamemory, in experiences that revealed that young children rarely monitor their memory, and that they are utterly lacking in metacognition skills (Daha and Akasha, 114:2012).
Flavell defined it as knowledge and awareness of one’s own cognitive processes, and the ability to actively control and manage them, Flavell suggests that most psychological activities such as cognitive processes, motivations, emotions and motor skills, both emotional and unconscious, can be within what metacognition to cognition (Justice, 2002:19)
Due to the importance of the components of metacognition, it was necessary to scrutinize the curricula and know the extent to which they achieve the goals to achieve the desired quality and the required strength, and thus graduate individuals who are able to keep pace with the present and foresee the future, and this requires a radical reconsideration of the scientific topics presented in textbooks and their quality, so “the curriculum planning process needs serious scientific studies and neglecting these studies leads to leaving decision-makers without scientific support or realistic perception when changing curricula and preparing textbooks (Agha, 1987: 100)
Since the basic stage curriculum is to prepare the ground for the next educational stages, it is necessary to develop students’ abilities to deal with the components of metacognition, develop awareness and control of thought processes so that they can integrate thinking into the learning processes in the classroom, which helps them to play a positive role in collecting, organizing, integrating, following and evaluating information during learning (Flemban, 2011:7).
Curricula – especially the Science Curriculum at this stage – play a major role in supporting and guiding the student toward learning and leave their mark in the student’s future education. Despite the recent developments in the field of education in Palestine through the development of Palestinian curricula and teacher training, it has emerged through the results of national tests and the TIMSS test that there is a decline in student achievement, and that there is a decline in student achievement associated with metacognitive components (Shaheen and Rayan, 2011: 199).
The results of the studies of the TIMSS project indicate that there is a clear discrepancy and difference between the science curriculum for the fourth and eighth grades and the cognitive framework of the science curriculum in the same grade in the TIMSS project based on the National Standards for Science Teaching (NSES), which was reflected in the students’ responses in the various test images and showed that their achievement levels were lower than the acceptable levels in all Arab countries participating in the project (El-Baz, 2005: 112).
Therefore, curriculum evaluation is one of the necessary processes in the educational process in Palestine, as it results in reviewing, following up and modifying paths to achieve the desired goals, and developing curricula, to achieve compatibility with the needs of the individual and society and to keep pace with the knowledge revolution in all directions (Musa, 2012: 18).
Therefore, this study evaluated the components of metacognition included in the Palestinian science books for the tenth grade, which is considered the conclusion of the basic stage for its importance in developing the student’s abilities and to identify the extent to which these books include the components of metacognition and the extent to which they include all components.
Definition of metacognition:
metacognition has been defined by many educational researchers and defined by Flemish (30:2011) as the group of mental activities undertaken by the learner with a degree of awareness during the exercise of the cognitive process, its use of appropriate strategies, its knowledge of the target to be reached, including planning, surveillance, evaluation, and the learner’s ability to meditate.
Shaheen Wahrian (200:2011) defines it as “the student’s perception of his thought processes, the skills he employs during his learning, associated with planning, tuning and evaluation processes.
Flavell defines it” knowledge and awareness of one’s cognitive processes, ability to control and actively manage these processes,flavell suggests that most psychological activities such as cognitive processes and motivations, emotions and emotional and non-emotional motor skills can be beyond knowledge to knowledge (Justice, 19:2002).
Abu Saud (42:2009) defines it as “knowledge of the individual’s thinking and practice, which involves planning, monitoring, meditation, perception, control, evaluation and review of thought processes in order to determine the course in which he is studying a situation and determine the extent to which he is in the direction.”
Haju (10: 2009) is a set of skills and abilities that help the student to think, and to benefit from his knowledge in solving problems, through the skills of self-evaluation of knowledge (conceptual, contextual, procedural).
Human metacognition refers to the process of knowledge about knowledge, if human knowledge refers to the data and information available and given to the individual, human metacognition refers to internal knowledge and processes of information processing internally and metacognition refers to how the individual thinks and controls his processes (Zachary, 2000: 92).
Based on the above, metacognition is a set of abilities and skills that the learner employs in thinking to solve problems through self-awareness of knowledge, and self-organization of knowledge.
Components of metacognition:
Falafel divided the components of metacognition into two main components, as presented by Afaneh and Khazandar (2004:135-136):
A – Self-awareness of knowledge.
B – self-organization of knowledge.
The following is an explanation of these components
The first component: self-awareness of knowledge:
This component includes three main types of knowledge:
Conceptual Knowledge: This knowledge includes the following
A- Awareness of concepts: This means the learner’s knowledge of the concepts he deals with, his awareness of their components, characteristics, uses and the relationship of those concepts among themselves.
B- Awareness of terminology: It is the realization of the meaning of scientific, mathematical, social, economic or other terms, which those terms mean in their content.
C- Awareness of symbols: It is the understanding and awareness of the meaning of abstract symbols and what they mean if they come within a certain content, and whether these symbols are meaningful or not.
D- Awareness of laws: This means knowing the components of the law, whether in science, administrative positive law, constitutional law or others, and knowing the relationship of this law with other relevant laws.
This knowledge includes different types of knowledge, which are as follows:
A – Awareness of steps: in the sense of the learner’s knowledge of the steps that may be followed in reaching the goal or solving a mathematical problem, without addressing the solution or implementing the plan to reach the goal, but rather knowledge of doing something specific and not implementing it.
B- Knowing models: Recognizing certain types of shapes or schemes that relate to a particular content, through awareness of the steps of their formation or organization.
C- Knowledge of solutions: This knowledge refers to ways to solve a particular problem or problem, whether for a problem in science or a specific social problem, where the learner can here understand the steps of the solution and the method of dealing with the problem.
D- Knowledge of structures: It means the learner’s awareness of how to synthesize a specific sentence, draw a specific model, build a specific plan, or install a computer, i.e. awareness of the construction steps and compositions.
This knowledge includes:
A- Awareness of conditions: Recognizing the conditions for learning a particular problem or giving conditions for a certain learning or behavior to occur, as this behavior and this situation cannot occur if there are no certain conditions or conditions for its occurrence.
B- Recognizing reasons: The learner cannot understand a particular situation unless he realizes certain reasons for the existence of something.
- Giving justifications: This means justifying the occurrence of a particular phenomenon, clarifying the weaknesses of that phenomenon or situation, i.e. explaining why the learner was unable to solve a problem.
D- Setting standards: in the sense of setting standards or units of measurement, for example, not in order for a reaction to occur, there must be standards in the reaction materials for this reaction to occur.
E – Problem solving: in the sense of understanding the issue or problem, whether stereotyped or atypical and trying to solve it using a certain strategy, and we mean the typical problem is the one that has previously passed on the learner and can use the steps of the solution in a similar issue.
The second component: self-regulation of knowledge:
This component includes three types of knowledge:
A- Management of Knowledge, which includes the following:
Define strategies: Choose a specific strategy of value and benefit for knowledge management and planning.
B- Develop plans: where knowledge management requires developing plans to carry out a specific knowledge task.
- Building steps: This level requires the formation of a set of steps arranged to accomplish a particular task.
D – Awareness of relationships: This means understanding the relationships between the different aspects of the cognitive position, the learner can not be aware of the cognitive contents without realizing the sequence of those contents and the relationships between their concepts and components.
- Creating conditions: In order for the task to be accomplished and mastered, appropriate conditions or classroom climate must be in place to accomplish that task.
Evaluation of knowledge: This knowledge includes the following
A – Modifying a pattern: It means that the learner modifies his learning style or behavior patterns that he uses and tries to change this pattern in the light of convincing justifications.
B – Switch strategy: The learner may see that the strategy he used to achieve goals was not useful in developing his abilities and improving his skills towards a specific task or situation, so the learner resorts to modifying that strategy with a more useful one.
C- Improving the context: After the learner uses a certain method to present his ideas in a specific style, and finds that this method was not convincing or expressive, he resorts to reformulating the context better using a certain method in presenting the intellectual contents to improve the context of the topic to become attractive or convincing.
D- Making sure of a solution: It is a method used by the learner to verify the validity of a particular topic, idea or hypothesis, in order to give confidence in the steps he used.
Regulation Knowledge: This type of knowledge includes:
A – Re-plan: In light of revealing the strengths and weaknesses so that the learner can reorganize the scheme or the steps he uses in education or thinking, after he puts his hand on the mistakes of not reaching the required goals.
B- Modifying Outputs: The learner can modify certain outcomes through feedback available in the classroom environment or by modifying himself.
- Clarification of errors: This means clarifying errors and how they occur, where they occur and when they occur, in order to fade them and get rid of them in his thinking or in the learning methods he uses.
D- Making treatments: This means immediate treatments of the learning steps or thinking patterns used to solve a scientific problem, for example, through follow-up and review.
E- Organization of thinking: This level is the highest levels of metacognition, and this means that the teacher organizes his thinking from time to time in a comprehensive manner, according to the circumstances and conditions he is going through (Afaneh and Al-Khaznadar, 2004. (142-139):
Jacobs and Paris (1987) argue that metacognition consists of two basic components, as described by Fahmy (2003:118-119):
Self-appraisal cognition: It includes three forms of knowledge:
- Declarative Knowledge: It expresses what is known in a particular field, and answers the question of what.
A – Procedural Knowledge: It expresses the different procedures that must lead to the achievement of the task, and answers the question of how (how).
B- Conditional knowledge: refers to knowing why a strategy was chosen, or when a strategy can be used instead of another.
Self-Management of Cognition: It includes three forms:
A – Evaluation: It is an estimate of current knowledge, such as asking the student himself what I read? Or is there more information I can gather before embarking on the task?
B- Planning: It includes setting goals, choosing the necessary strategies and procedures related to the completion of the task, identifying the underlying difficulties and ways to overcome them, and predicting the results.
C- Organization: It includes verifying the extent of progress towards the goal or sub-objectives, and then reviewing and modifying strategic plans based on their success in achieving the objectives.
El-Khouly (2005:20) lists the metacognitive components as shown by Burkowski & Burke (1996):
– Awareness of knowledge: It includes awareness of its abilities, cognitive processes and strategies that it uses in dealing with different life situations
– Self-organization: refers to the modification or change of strategy in response of the individual to the requirements that arise as a result of the performance of the tasks facing him.
It is clear from the above to agree on the two basic components of metacognition, namely evaluation or self-awareness of knowledge and self-organization of knowledge or self-management, and agreement on the sub-components, and accordingly the tools for analyzing the content of science books for the tenth grade were built, which include the initial dimension of the metacognitive components, which is self-evaluation of knowledge and includes declarative knowledge – procedural knowledge – contextual knowledge (conditional).
The metacognitive components adopted to analyze science books in this study are as follows:
- Conceptual knowledge: It includes all components of scientific knowledge in science books, which are facts, concepts, terms, symbols, principles, laws, rules and theories.
- Procedural knowledge: It included illustrations, solutions and structures, and the processes of science from which observation, classification, conclusion, relationships and experimentation emerged.
- Contextual knowledge (conditional): It included in science books the conditions and reasons, the imposition of hypotheses, and problem solving.
Many educational studies have been interested in evaluating science curricula, including the study of Al-Masry (2013), which aimed to evaluate educational fees in science books for the lower basic stage and enrich them in the light of international quality standards The researcher has followed the descriptive analytical approach, and prepared a list of standards for educational fees in science books for the lower basic stage, and the study sample included science books for the lower basic stage, which is the first grade, second, third, and fourth) and the study found that the number of The tuition fees in the first grade textbook were larger than in other grades.
And the study of Moses (2012), which aimed to evaluate the content of Palestinian and Israeli science books for the fourth grade in the light of the standards of ((TIMSS) The researcher used the descriptive approach and prepared a list of standards (TIMSS-2011) for the content of science curricula included (99) standards distributed in (6) areas (life sciences, physical sciences, earth sciences, knowledge, application, reasoning), and prepared a questionnaire was applied to (211) teachers and the results indicated a weakness in the percentage of availability of standards (TIMSS2011) in the content of the Palestinian and Israeli science curriculum for the fourth grade.
The general percentage of the criteria (TIMSS-2011) in the content of the Palestinian science curriculum was (37.68%), the percentage of life sciences in the content of the science curriculum (37.93%), physical sciences (32%) and earth sciences (4.6%), and the general percentage of these standards in the content of the Israeli science curriculum for the fourth grade was (42.02%), and the percentage of life sciences in the content of the science curriculum was (68.96%), physical sciences (20%) and earth sciences (26.6%).
The study of Mahjaz (2012) aimed to evaluate the topics of chemistry in science books for the basic stage in light of the requirements of chemical enlightenment .
The researcher followed the descriptive analytical approach, and the researcher prepared a content analysis tool to analyze science books for the eighth, ninth and tenth grades, and the results indicated that the requirements of chemical enlightenment have included five main axes: the nature of chemistry, chemical knowledge, the interrelationship between chemistry, technology and understanding the environment and its problems related to chemistry, and the results showed that the highest percentage of enlightenment requirements The chemical when comparing the three grades (eighth, ninth and tenth) is the requirement of chemical knowledge, which amounted to (75.8%), while the requirement to understand the environment and its problems related to chemistry amounted respectively to (3.6%) and (6.5%), and the percentage of the nature of chemistry requirement amounted to (0.2%).
The study of Hassan and Abdel Rahman (2007) has aimed to analyze the content of science books for the preparatory stage in the light of educational and technical standards, and the researchers followed the descriptive analytical approach, and the researchers prepared a standard that was applied to a sample of (50) mentors and teachers of science for the preparatory stage in the governorates of Cairo, Qalyubia, Dakahlia, Gharbia, and the island, and the study indicated the lack of standards in the first basic science book.
Lulu (2004) also carried out a study to evaluate the content of the Palestinian science curricula for the upper stage of basic education in the light of contemporary scientific innovations, and the researcher followed the descriptive analytical approach, and the researcher prepared a questionnaire that was applied to (60) teachers and the results of the study showed that the innovations of environment, energy, genetic engineering and agricultural sciences did not take the appropriate degree of attention in the content of the curricula, while the innovations of medical sciences were available to a medium degree and the innovations of communications, space-going and scientific education were available to a good degree.
Many studies have been concerned with metacognitive skills, including the study of Al-Qara’a and Hajjah (2013), which aimed to find out the effectiveness of a program based on blended learning in science teaching in the achievement of ninth grade students and the development of metacognitive thinking skills, the researchers prepared a test that was applied to (140) students from the ninth grade, and the results showed that there were statistically significant differences in the impact of the educational program based on blended learning in achievement and the development of metacognitive thinking skills.
As for the study of Ezz El-Din (2012), which aimed to prepare a proposed program based on the integration between constructivism and brain-based learning to develop metacognitive skills in laboratory investigation among students of scientific divisions at the Faculty of Education, the researcher followed the experimental approach and prepared a list of metacognitive skills associated with laboratory investigation, and the results showed the effectiveness of the proposed program, and the absence of metacognitive skills in laboratory investigation according to the pattern of thinking.
While the study of Jacobse et al. (2012) aimed to identify the competence of metacognition in solving mathematical problems, and followed in this study the experimental approach, and used a questionnaire was applied to (39) students in the fifth grade, and the study indicated the great role of metacognition in solving mathematical problems.
Studies A study of Dhaha and Okasha (2012), which aimed to identify the effectiveness of a training program metacognitive skills in a cooperative context on the behavior of solving the problem among a sample of first-year secondary students, and the researchers followed the experimental approach, and the researchers prepared a training program on metacognitive skills, a test, and a questionnaire that was applied to (21) students, and the results showed that there are statistically significant differences between the average scores of female students in metacognitive skills in favor of the post-test, and the size of the impact was large.
While the study of Al-Khawaldeh et al. (2012) aimed to identify the degree of acquisition of secondary school students in Jerash governorate of metacognitive thinking skills and their relationship to the variable of gender and academic specialization, and the researchers prepared a test that was applied to (380) male and female students from the second grade of secondary school in Jerash governorate, and the results indicated that secondary school students in Jerash governorate acquire metacognitive thinking skills to an average degree.
The study of Leutwyler (2009) aimed to determine the self-development of students in the use of metacognitive strategies during the secondary stage, and the study was applied to (1432) male and female students of grades (10-12), and the results showed that there is no development in the use of metacognitive learning strategies during the secondary stage, and that the differences are few in favor of females.
Through extrapolation of previous studies, we notice that science curricula have received great attention in educational studies, including studies that have been concerned with evaluating science books and analyzing them according to different patterns of standards, and we note that there is also interest in metacognitive skills, including studies that have been interested in training programs to develop metacognitive skills, and these programs have proven their effectiveness, and there are studies that have been interested in identifying metacognitive skills included in the questions of books, and others interested in identifying the knowledge skills that he possesses. Students and we notice a variety of tools used such as test, analysis card, and questionnaire.
The study problem is determined by the following main question:
What are the evaluative estimates of the metacognitive components included in the Palestinian tenth grade science books (chemistry, physics and biology)?
The main question will have the following sub-questions:
- What metacognition components should be included in the Palestinian tenth grade science book (chemistry, physics, biology)?
- To what extent does the Palestinian chemistry book for the tenth grade contain the components of metacognition?
3- To what extent does the Palestinian physics book for the tenth grade include the components of metacognition?
4To what extent does the Palestinian Biology Book for the tenth grade include the components of metacognition?
Objectives of the study:
This study aims to:
- Building a list of metacognitive components to be included in the Palestinian tenth grade science books (chemistry, physics and biology).
- Knowing the extent to which metacognitive components (conceptual – procedural – contextual (conditional)) are included in the Palestinian tenth grade science books (chemistry, physics and biology).
Importance of the study:
- The study provides an integrated model for the metacognitive components to be included in the Palestinian tenth grade science books (chemistry, physics and biology) that may benefit those in charge of designing and developing science curricula.
- This study provides a content analysis tool that includes a list of metacognitive components that must be available Palestinian tenth grade science books (chemistry, physics and biology) that may help educational researchers identify the strengths and weaknesses of the curriculum.
- This evaluation study of science books keeps pace with one of the modern trends, which are the components metacognition, and keeps pace with all developments in the field of formulating science curricula and developing them at the regional and international levels.
Limitations of the study:
This study is limited to analyzing the content of the Palestinian tenth grade science books (chemistry, physics and biology) for the academic year 2023/2024, and the questions in the books were excluded because they have their own analysis.
This study is limited to the first metacognitive component, which is the self-awareness component of knowledge, namely:
Conceptual knowledge: It included (facts – concepts – terms and symbols – principles – laws and rules – theories).
Procedural knowledge: It included (illustrations – solutions – structures – science processes that included observation, classification, conclusion, relationships and experimentation).
Contextual knowledge: It included (conditions and reasons – imposing hypotheses – solving problems).
Evaluation: It is a systematic process organized and planned in order to issue a judgment on the measured reality, after comparing its specifications that were reached by analogy with a criterion that was accurately determined, and the evaluation in this study was done by monitoring the availability of awareness components of knowledge of science books, with the aim of identifying the strengths and weaknesses in the content of these books in order to take appropriate measures to develop them.
Metacognitive components: It is a set of abilities employed by the learner in thinking to solve scientific problems included in science books through self-awareness of knowledge, and includes conceptual knowledge and included (facts – concepts – terms and symbols – principles – laws and rules – theories), procedural knowledge and included (science processes that consisted of observation, classification, conclusion, relationships and experimentation – illustrations – solutions – structures) and contextual knowledge that included (conditions and reasons – the imposition of hypotheses – solution problems ).
This study used the descriptive analytical approach, through the use of the content analysis tool in the analysis of books, and monitoring the extent to which these books include conceptual, procedural and contextual (conditional) knowledge.
The study group consisted of the content of the Palestinian tenth grade science books (chemistry, physics and biology) scheduled for the academic year (2023/2024) for tenth grade students in Palestine.
An analysis tool for analyzing the educational content of science books prescribed for tenth grade students included the conclusion of the basic stage, a list of metacognitive skills (conceptual – procedural – contextual), the objective of analysis, units of analysis and registration and analysis controls, and the following is a presentation of these components.
- Analysis Objective: The analysis process aimed to monitor frequencies, and calculate the percentage of self-awareness components of knowledge included in the content of Palestinian science textbooks for the tenth grade (chemistry – physics – biology).
- Analysis Unit: The lesson contained in each of the books was chosen as a unit of analysis.
Analysis categories: The categories of analysis were identified by the first component of metacognition, which is the self-awareness of knowledge and consists of knowledge (conceptual – procedural – contextual) and the following is an explanation of each of these components and their procedural definition, noting that reference was made to Agha and Lulu (2009) in the definition of components:
- Conceptual knowledge included:
Facts: It is simplified qualitative scientific knowledge that does not include generalization, fragmented, correct and unquestionable, that can be modified in the light of the emergence of new evidence.
Concepts: It is the knowledge that expresses the mental images that the student has about the common and distinctive qualities of something, and consists of the name and semantics.
Terms and symbols: It is the knowledge that specializes in symbols, relationships, abbreviations and units of measurement.
Principles: A scientific product that links a set of scientific facts and concepts in a descriptive way (non-quantitative quantitative) to describe a particular phenomenon or scientific relationship in the phenomenon.
Laws and rules: a quantitative and qualitative relationship between scientific concepts and facts, where the relationship can be described and clarified in a digital or qualitative form.
Theories: A frame of reference based on a set of assumptions that combine facts, concepts, principles, laws and practical rules in relationships aimed at describing scientific phenomena, interpreting them and predicting their consequences so that they can be controlled.
B – Procedural knowledge: It included:
- Science operations that included:
- Observation: It is the knowledge that the senses are employed in obtaining, and does not include explanation or inference, it is an intentional organized and controlled attention to phenomena or events in order to discover the causes and relationships that make up them and their laws.
- Classification: It is the knowledge that consists in collecting information and data to place elements in certain categories or groups based on common properties and criteria between them, and the classification skill includes the ability to distinguish, compare and identify similarities and differences between materials and things.
- Conclusion: It is the knowledge that consists of drawing conclusions and formulating them accurately and determining the causes of phenomena based on scientific generalizations.
- Relationships: It is the knowledge that expresses the interdependence of two concepts or two or more variables and was represented in this study by spatial or temporal relationships between the relevant scientific concepts.
- Experimentation: represented in all scientific experiments used to solve scientific problems and prove hypotheses.
- Figures and illustrations: They were represented in all the educational forms and drawings included in the book, which are used to illustrate information and knowledge.
Solutions: Models and examples of solving problems, or equations and problems for solving.
Structures: proposed new concepts, proposals for solving environmental problems, developing scientific instruments, etc.
Contextual knowledge: It included:
- Conditions and causes: Knowledge that consists in determining the conditions and causes of the occurrence of phenomena.
- Hypothesis: Knowledge that is represented in the possibilities posed to solve a particular problem.
- Problem solving: represented in the steps of solving scientific problems and creativity in the steps of solving scientific problems.
Analysis controls: All units included in the books were analyzed, ideas, information, activities, figures, and illustrations were analyzed.
Validity of the analysis tool: The analysis tool was presented to a group of arbitrators with competence in curricula and methods of teaching science, supervisors and teachers of science in the field, to express their opinions on the list and its appropriateness in using it as an analysis tool and was modified in light of their guidance.
Reliability of the analysis tool:
The stability of the instrument was verified as the first unit of the chemistry book for the tenth grade was analyzed by three science teachers, and the coefficient of agreement was calculated using the Holsti equation to calculate the coefficient of consistency across people (Taima, 1985: 177), and it turned out that the total stability coefficient is (0.96), which indicates the stability of the analysis tool and the possibility of using it in the analysis process.
Analysis Procedures: The latest edition of the science books scheduled for the Palestinian tenth grade (chemistry – physics – biology) was obtained in the Palestinian education ladder in the year 2023/2024.
Answer to the questions of the study:
Answer to the first question: which states:
What metacognitive components should be included in the Palestinian tenth grade science book (chemistry, physics and biology)?
|Fact||Concepts||Terms and symbols||Principles||Laws and rules||Theories||Conceptual
To answer this question, the educational literature and previous studies related to the subject were reviewed, and a list of self-awareness components of the knowledge to be available in the Palestinian science books for the tenth grade (chemistry – physics – biology) was built, and then it was presented to a group of competent arbitrators, and it was modified in light of their guidance, and therefore the final list contained three main components (conceptual knowledge – procedural knowledge – contextual knowledge), and a branch of the conceptual knowledge skill (6) sub-components, namely (facts, concepts, Terms and symbols, principles, laws and rules, theories), and the branch of procedural knowledge (8) sub-components (observation,
classification, conclusion, relationships, experimentation, illustrations, solutions, and structures), branched from the skill of contextual knowledge (3) sub-components (conditions and reasons, imposition of hypotheses, and problem solving).
Results of the analysis of the tenth grade Palestinian chemistry book in light of the component of metacognition(conceptual knowledge
Answer to the second question, which states:
To what extent does the Palestinian chemistry textbook for the tenth grade include metacognitive components?
The units included in the Palestinian chemistry for the tenth grade were analyzed for metacognitive components and tables (1), (2), and ( 3) show the results of the analysis:
Table ( 2)
|Unit||The procedural knowledge of the tenth grade chemistry book||
Procedural knowledge repetition
Results of the analysis of the tenth grade Palestinian chemistry
book in light of the components of metacognition ( Procedural Knowledge)
Results of the analysis of the tenth grade Palestinian chemistry book in light of the components of metacognition(contextual knowledge
|The contextual knowledge of the tenth grade chemistry book||Contextual Knowledge repetition||
|Conditions and causes||Hypothesis||Problem solving|
A review of Table 1 on conceptual knowledge contained in the Palestinian tenth grader chemistry book reveals that more content consists of terms and symbols, followed by facts and then concepts. There is a low presence of principles, poor presence of laws and rules, and theories only once. For the procedural knowledge of the same book, Table 2 we see a greater amount of procedural knowledge in the availability of illustrations. There is convergence in the availability of observation, experimentation, and solutions. The conclusion is a small and close As for relationships, there was only one relationship. In a survey of Table 3, we deem that conditions and causes are very few and assumptions are rare. There are only three of them, and they share a scarcity of problem solving that is repeated only twice. The researcher suggests that this could be due to the fact that the curriculum is not experienced in the metacognition components
The answer to the third question, which states:
|Unit||Conceptual knowledge of the tenth grade physics book|
|Facts||Concepts||Terms and symbols||Principles||Laws and rules||Theories||Conceptual knowledge repetition|
To what extent does the Palestinian physics textbook for the tenth grade include metacognitive components?
The units included in Palestinian physics for the tenth grade were analyzed for
metacognitive components and tables (4), (5), and (6) show the results of the analysis
Table ( 4 )Results of the analysis of the tenth grade Palestinian physics book in light of the components of etacognition (conceptual knowledge)
Table ( 5 )
Results of the analysis of the tenth grade Palestinian physics book in light of the components of metacognition(procedural knowledge
Table ( 6 )
Results of the analysis of the tenth grade Palestinian physics book in light of the components of metacognition ( contextual knowledge)
|Contextual Knowledge of the tenth grade physics book||Contextual Knowledge repetition||
|Conditions and causes||Hypothesis||Problem solving|
By extrapolating the tables of the components of physics knowledge in the physics book for the Palestinian tenth grade, we notice from Table (4) that there is an availability of conceptual knowledge in different proportions for each component, although most of them are terminology, followed by facts and then concepts, and then laws and rules, and the principles are few and only one theory was mentioned, while Table (5) on procedural knowledge has shown that there is a diversity in the proportions of the components of procedural knowledge, most of which are the following illustrations.
That solutions and this is commensurate with the nature of physics where the nature of the emitter depends on the solution of problems, and there is convergence in the amount of observation, experimentation, compositions and conclusion, and less than theabove relationships and the weakest percentage in the classification, and for contextual knowledge Table (6) Its components were available in a few proportions, especially in the conditions and reasons and in the imposition of hypotheses and there is a complete lack of problem solving, so the researcher believes that it must be repeated Considering the content of the physics curriculum and enriching it with the components of metacognition that are lacking and increasing the few and weak in proportion to the nature of the main titles of the units and the age stage of the students
|Unit||Procedural knowledge of the tenth grade physics book||
Procedural knowledge repetition
The answer to the fourth question, which states:
To what extent does the Palestinian biology textbook for the tenth grade include metacognitive components?
The units included in the Palestinian Biology for the tenth grade were analyzed for metacognitive components and tables (7), (8), and (9) show the results of the analysis
Results of the analysis of the tenth grade Palestinian biology book in light of the components of metacognition ( conceptual knowledge)
Results of the analysis of the tenth grade Palestinian biology book in light of the components of metacognition ( procedural knowledge)
|Unit||Procedural knowledge of tenth grade biology book||
Procedural knowledge repetition
Results of the analysis of the tenth grade Palestinian biology book in light of the components of metacognition ( contextual knowledge)
|Contextual Knowledge of biology book||Contextual Knowledge repetition||
|Conditions and causes||Hypothesis||Problem solving|
By extrapolating the tables of the components of metacognition of biology writers, we notice from Table (7) that there is an abundance in a number of them, most of which were terms and symbols, followed by facts and then concepts, while the principles were few in number (12) and the researcher found a scarcity in laws and rules, so you are repeated only twice, and the theories did not mention only one theory, and the researcher noted from Table (8) on procedural knowledge that they are available in varying proportions, most of which are illustrative forms and Then observation and there is a convergence between classification and experimentation in the lack of availability, there is equality in the scarcity of conclusion, relationships and compositions, they were repeated only three times, and from Table (9) we note that it was limited to its availability in the component of conditions and reasons and the imposition of hypotheses and if the imposition of hypotheses is rare, it was available only three times and the table showed a lack of problem solving component, so the researcher believes that it is better to reformulate the curriculum and enrich it with components that suit With the nature of the subject and the age stage.
By comparing the researcher between the components of the three books, she noticed that they all share that the largest amount of metacognitive components available are terms, symbols, illustrations, there is a lack or almost no problem-solving, and this is one of the important components that must be re-fed curricula, and the ratios in the other components have a kind of randomness that increases, decreases or non-existent in the various units in the three books, so they must be reviewed all and Taking into account the integration between them in the content and quality of metacognitive components commensurate with the age stage by scientific specialists who have experience in metacognitive components.
- The need to prepare courses for science teachers to develop awareness of metacognitive skills, and how they can be developed.
- The need to prepare educational programs in order to develop metacognitive skills among students.
- The need to work on analyzing all curricula to identify the extent to which they include and comprehensiveness on metacognitive skills to help later develop curricula.
- Work on reformulating the curriculum by specialists so that metacognitive skills are included in a balanced manner, with a focus on quality rather than quantity.
- The need to develop teaching strategies that help develop metacognitive skills, and train teachers to use these strategies and conduct studies to identify their effectiveness.
- The need to train student teachers during university study to use metacognitive skills, and metacognitive skills must be included in the university curriculum.
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