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الرئيسية / أخبار عالمية / The impact of globalization on identity and values of citizenship
The impact of globalization on identity and values of citizenship
الكرة الارضية

The impact of globalization on identity and values of citizenship

Democratic Arab Center 

:By
Ebtihal Maher Ali
Ghada Gamal abd elrazek
Hagar gaber mohamed
Keyara Taha mohamed
Sondos aamer hemdan
supervision: DR. Wafaa dawoud

:Abstract

Identity Constitutes a complex tapestry derives from the doctrine of the people, his memories, history, and cultural activities. Therefore, it is a symbol that does not fit compromised and waived in by any price, this feeling at the public level stronger than at the elite level.

At the globalization era and the borderless world the invasion of the culture and civilization has begun, which helps in the appearance of the hybrid culture or mixed identities, that’s make a great argument between the political scholars about the positive and negative impacts on the globalization on identity and values of citizenship.

And by searching in previous studies, found that the researchers are interested in the negative impacts of globalization on the political system of the state, but they don’t focus on its impact on the moral aspects of the system which the cultural aspect that means the identity of the state which considered as an important element in saving its national security.

Hence, this research paper seeks to analyze the mechanism that globalization used to penetrate Arabic identity, with focusing on mass media and social media.

So the research paper is divided into five sections: the first section illustrates the rooting of the identity and citizenship concept.

And the second focuses on the negative impact of the globalization on the values of citizenship and how to promote them.

The research moves from the theoretical framework to the empirical one, and at the third part which shows by analyzing the results of the questionnaire which talks about the impact of the international schools and universities on the local identity and the values of citizenship (which applied on a sample of students study at international schools and universities).

The forth section explains the role of think tanks in keeping the local identities in facing the cultural invasion and western identities.

However, section five focuses on the impact of the appearance of terrorist groups on local identities by comparative study between nusra front and ISIS.

And this research paper depends on the case study methodology in analyzing the research problem.

Key words:

Globalization, cultural invasion, local identity, values of citizenship, Arab countries, think tanks, international schools and universities, terrorist groups, nusra front and ISIS.

 First Introduction:

          In recent decades two parallel processes have coexisted at a world level: globalization, on the one hand, and the reaffirmation of different cultural identities, on the other. Both processes are interrelated, as the cultural homogenization which is usually linked to globalization involves a threat to local cultures, to specific identities. Thus the fear emerges of losing the cultural references that define people and hence the conflicts and demands around local or regional identities. In this dual process the policies of the nation-states, which in many cases govern distinct identities in the same state framework, have had much to do. So that the nation-state does not become a “failed state”, a civilizing endeavor is necessary that legitimizes these identities[1].

Our identity is the very core of who we are as human beings. Nowadays Our Arabic identity faces a lot of challenges especially from outside world because it is so weak in comparison with western identity and because our identity may be more influenced by what others believe about us, their impression of us, and how they react to our actions. The most effective factor in forming identity is education and nowadays with globalization and spreading phenomenon of international schools and universities, foreign education becomes source of danger for identity. This paper seeks to highlight the role of international schools and universities and its influence on Arabic identity. And this through explaining the history of international schools and universities in Arabic world, the role of them, and their dangers especially can face this danger. I will illustrate all this using survey approach in trying to show the influence in the real world. Danger on Arabic identity and how we.

According to the previous elements this research paper will take about penetration mechanisms of local cultures of Arab states. Focusing on the new mass media, especially social media as Facebook and twitter. It will also talk about theoretical framework of some concepts as identity and citizenship. Another part will talk about manifestations of local cultures and citizen ship penetration. Then the research paper will talk about the role of international schools and universities and its impact on local cultures. After that we will take about the role of think tanks in facing western identity. Finally the research paper will talk about the effect of terrorist groups on identity.

Second Research importance:

  1. There is no concern from scholars on the negative impact of globalization. They focus only on the economic side. But this research will focus on the negative impact of globalization on the values and local cultures of some communities.
  2. Illustrating the manifestations of cultural penetration and how to face this kind of penetration.
  • Explaining the mechanisms that helped globalization to affect values and cultures, and how this mechanisms work.
  1. Illustrating the role played by international schools and universities in spreading the cultures of some communities.
  2. Focusing on the role of think tanks as a very important institution and suggest some recommendations to make them more active in enhancing the Arab language and identity.

Explaining the relation between terrorist groups and local cultures.

Third Research problem:

Globalization and citizenship are terms that have become part of public as well as academic discourse. Neither is new and both are “contested” concepts because they involve inter alia arguments about politics, identity, rights, status differentiation, equality and inequality[2] . Most of scholars talk about globalization from positive side especially economic one but this research paper focuses on negative influence of globalization. From this point our research problem is turned around “the influence of globalization on identity and citizenship”.

To study this research problem, the research paper analyzes it to some items as following:

  1. Theoretical framework of identity, globalization, citizenship, think tanks and the main factors that had bad impacts on the values of the citizenship.
  2. The mechanisms that globalization used to affect local cultures and values.
  • The influence of international schools and universities on local identity and if this influence is positive or negative.
  1. The role of think tanks in facing western identities.
  2. The impact of the appearance of extremist and radical thought on the identity and values of citizenship.

Forth Hypothesis:

According to research problem, the hypotheses of study are as following:

H1: There is negative relation between the spread of globalization and keeping identity and citizenship.

This means when globalization increases in one state the level of identity and citizenship decreases.

H2: There is positive relationship between methods of new media and culture penetration of some communities.

This means that in some states the increase in using social media, mass media this will be followed by increase in cultural penetration of this state. Especially when the notions introduced by this method of new media are against the culture of itself .

H3: There is negative relation between the internationalization of education and keeping of local identity.

This means that student in international schools and universities are affected by the foreign culture, identity, life style and this will lead to decline of his/her local identity.

H4: There is positive relation between the spreading of think tanks and strengthening of local identity.

This means that think tanks can face the dark side of globalization and facing western identities.

H5: The more extremist ideas, the more they are affected by identity and values of citizenship.

This means that identity and values of citizenship is highly affected by extremist ideas.

From this hypothesis, the questions of this research will be:

1-which factors impact on the values of citizenship and how to promote them?

2-what is the impact of social and mass media on local cultures and values?

3-what is the relation between identity and education (the role of education in identity formation)?

4-how do international schools and universities influence on local identity?

5- What are think tanks and its role in shaping identity?

6- What is the role of extremist groups to influence on the identity and Citizenship?

Fifth Literature review:

The research depends on a number of studies which are talked about one side of the subject, some of them talked about identity, other about globalization and another about think tank………etc.

We can divide this studies into two types :

First : studies talked about some aspects of the research directly as :

1-The study of  Mirza Jan which is “ globalization of media : key issues and dimensions “ . this study talked about the role of mass media institutions in spreading the cultures and ideologies of powerful states in the world . It also shows the impact of those states on local cultures of developing states. It illustrates how ideas and cultures move from powerful states to weak states[3].

2- the study of  Christine Safwat – Heba Adel – Mireille George – Silvana Sobhy, which is  the effect of technology on human behavior ( a case study on BBC secondary school and British university in Egypt ) . this study illustrated the negative effect of modern technology especially social media and supported ideas with statistical data[4] .

3- the study of  Sanaa khabbar, which is “ identity and internationalization of education: the case of Egyptian students at the American university in Cairo[5].”

This research is empirical research which studied a sample of students in USA to show if the internationalization of education influence on religious, cultural and national identity or not.

Second studies talked about the research topic indirectly as :

1-the study of  Sarah Hopkyns, which is “ The effects of global English on culture and identity in the UAE:a double-edged sword[6].”

This study shows the impact of the study of English on Arab identity and culture through the conduct of questionnaires on a group of students in the United Arab Emirates. The results show that the study of English is a double edged sword. The study of language helps in the growth, development and self-development of the individual. At the same time, it erases the identity of something that has been created, through the extinction of the use of Arabic.

2- the study of Diane Stone, Frank Fischer, Gerald J. Miller& Mara S. Sidney (Eds.). (2007). Handbook of public policy analysis : public policy analysis and think tanks. New York, CRC press:

this book contains three parts; part I includes Historical Perspectives of public policy, part II includes policy process and part three includes Policy Politics, Advocacy, and Expertise and the researcher will focus on the chapter of “Public Policy Analysis and Think Tanks” as think tanks are an important part in the study.

3- the study of Atef Abu sa’aleek. Latinization of Arabic language in the electronic communication: concept and practice[7] :

The study endeavors to examine the Latinized Arabic language and discusses the impact of electronic communication on Arabic language script among Saudi students. In addition, it investigates the linguistic and sociolinguistic issues of the Latinized Arabic on the basis of analysis of the language used in students’ writings in the electronic communication.

this study constitute a very important part in the research as it contains the advanced technology and its impact on Arab language and also focused on the phenomenon of Latinized Arabic language.

4- the study of Charles River editors, The History of the Syrian Rebel Group Formerly Affiliated with Al-Qaeda[8] this book Includes pictures *Explains the group’s ideology and differences with the Islamic State *Includes online resources, footnotes, and a bibliography for further reading *Includes a table of contents Since the Arab Spring uprising of 2011, reports of terrorist attacks around the world have flooded international media. Syria, a country about one and half times the size of Texas, has become the central battleground for many terrorist groups; those the world often focuses on and has heard much of–such as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (also known as ISIS and Da’ash, but from here on referred to as ISIL) –and those the world rarely hears about and is unable to make distinctions between others–such as Jabhat Al-Nusra. Despite the lack of focused attention on its activities, Jabhat Al-Nusra (or, the Nusra Front as it is sometimes referred to) has built quite a reputation in Syria and the greater Middle East for its seemingly endless supply of weapons, ability to ally with strategic partners, and its peculiar mix of international, albeit notorious, and supporters inside the country[9].

5- Banan Malkaw, the Islamic state organization the Sunni crisis and the struggle of global jihadism[10]

This book talk about The Islamic State’s swift military advance and takeover of the city of Mosul and other Iraqi regions in June 2014 flabbergasted the world. The attack was shocking, and within days, IS was able to gain control of several other vital Iraqi provinces, while the Iraqi armed forces quickly collapsed in its wake. In an attempt to justify and explain this sudden event, an Iraqi official speaking to the media found no other words to say except: “We are facing a foreign invasion.” At the same time, there is irony in the fact that armed Sunni factions in Syria themselves considered the “Islamic State” to be a tool in the hands of external parties aiming to thwart the Syrian revolution and conspire against it – in other words, a “foreign invasion” as well[11].

6_ the Affairs House of Representatives Subcommittee on Terrorism, Terrorist Groups in Syria[12].

The Author in that book talk about the crisis in Syria is a complicated mess. Assad has slaughtered innocent civilians and has used chemical weapons on his own people. Assad is supported by the Iranian regime and Hezbollah. Aside from Hezbollah and Assad’s armed forces, there are Shabina’s, irregular militias that are loyal death squads for the regime. On the other side, you have the Sunni fighters who range from so-called moderates to hard core extremists with ties to al-Qaeda. The worst is the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria, ISIS, which is al-Qaeda. ISIS numbers well into the thousands and most of the foreign fighters who have come to Syria fight with ISIS. ISIS sits at the top of the pyramid, followed by Jabhat al-Nusra, or JN, which is another jihadist group that is philosophically aligned with al-Qaeda. The so-called moderates fight for the Supreme Military Command Council, or SMC, but a large faction of the SMC has defected to al-Qaeda. With so-called moderates fleeing to al-Qaeda, it seems that conflict has become a war between radical al-Qaeda affiliated extremists and a brutal dictator[13].

       Sixth Methodology:

There are a lot of methodologies that can be applied in this research but the most suitable one is Case study methodology[14] . which enables a researcher to closely examine the data within a specific context.

In most cases, a case study[15] method selects a small geographical area or a very limited number of individuals as the subjects of study.

Case studies, in their true essence, explore and investigate contemporary real life phenomenon through detailed contextual analysis of a limited number of events or conditions, and their relationships.

The research applied this methodology through  studying the impact of British university and the American international school in Egypt (AISE), studying the effect of the hybrid language (Arabizi) and studying the effect of terrorist groups as ISIS and Al_Nusra front.

Section 1: The values of citizenship and how to promote them

Introduction:

One of the most important factors of developed countries is the indicator of this country globalization rate. As if this country has good indicator or high globalization indicator it’s a positive thing for it, but sometimes globalization has bad effects on the country.

So there are two branches of people some of them are interested in the area of   globalization and others are not because of its bad effects on the economy and on the cultural identity.

The people who agree see that globalization brings about much increased opportunities for almost everyone and increased competions is a good thing since it makes agents of production more efficient.

But others the groups who are anti-globalization see others who agree are not right as they see it damages the identity and makes the economy of the state connected to the rest of the world.  And this paper will talk about the globalization and its impacts on the identity and the citizenship.

First: Theoretical framework

Globalization: globalization isn’t a new phenomenon as it happened and began to appear with global ecological changes, global economy and other global trends also political activity increasingly takes place at the global level all of that can be a reason for the globalization.

One of earliest use of the term of globalization as it known was in 1930[16].

So it’s very old but not about more than 20 years scholars from a variety of fields has been discussed in a very excited debate about this social phenomenon.

There is no one definition for the globalization as a specific one every scholar defines it from his point of view as it may be defined in many ways like economic , social and cultural globalization.

It may be considered as a concept which refers to the ways which developed countries used in one region to make it able to have rapidly a significant consequences for the security and well-being of communications in quite distant regions of the globe.

And others saw it as a dynamic process which impacts on a various cultures around the world by different ways.

And others say it permeates culture bounders and in the process results in the separate of western ideologies and values across the world

Globalization creates global culture in which the identity is amalgamated that might assist the local believes and culture values to be universalized rather than to be demolished and that will be analyzed in this paper

Others say that there are two kinds of globalization:

The old one which was the medium of global empires to enlarge their power as super power.

The new one is shrinking the world by internet and IT, global coordination and social movements.

There are five dimensions of globalization:

Economic, technological, political, cultural and democracy

So now we can say globalization in a very wide term but it has a great impact on the identity.

Identity: Identity is an ambiguous and slippery term.

It has been used in many different contexts and for many different purposes, particularly in recent years.

Identity is something unique to each of us that we assume is more or Less consistent over time.

It’s what distinguishes us from other people.

The main use or the main important for identity and the way that used to begin to define it is the answer of these most important questions: who am I? , who are they? , what is our relationship?

Identity in fact expresses a relationship, the relationship between the individual and the world.

Briefly identity is the answer of “what do I know about me?[17]

Social psychology also has its opinion about what is the identity as it is suggested that identity is a particular form of social representation that mediates the relationship between the individuals and the social world.

It’s a cycle process constituted by three main actions “knowing, claiming and recognizing”.

And some scholars too defined it in different ways as they say

Identity is a concept that occupies a prominent place in the literature of social sciences and psychology. In particular during the last 30 years identity has been a central focus of research in European Social Psychology.

But identity has now left the exclusive framework of the scientific universe and has become part of common sense.

People use identity as an explanatory concept for motivations and actions.

So there is no specific definition for the identity.

The dictionary definition also fails to capture what we intend by declarations of the form \my identity is.

So from that it’s discovered that the citizenship is a legal status and an identity.

Citizenship: Citizenship is by nature a multi-dimensional concept. The concept of citizenship is one of the most complexes in political and social sciences. It correlates and intersects with another set of concepts and values, especially the rule of the law and democracy.

Citizen is a member of a political community, who has some rights and obligations, so we can say that citizenship is the relation between the individual and the state, in which the two are bound together by reciprocal rights and obligations.

The concept of citizenship, in fact, has been increasingly invoked, in its

Political dimension, by states in their official propaganda in order to reinforce their political authority by a renewed and vigorous approval of political reforms from the constituency.

Citizenship has been generally defined as a social status which secures equal rights and opportunities for all individuals, regarding not only gender, included in a given political entity the state. It also implies full membership in a political community, guaranteeing equal civil, political and social rights or responsibilities[18]. It implies a legal and direct relationship between the individuals and the state where the latter is expected to play a leading role for the construction of the concept.

Citizenship identity depends not only on a legal status, but essentially on

Access to social and economic resources.

second: The values of citizenship: 

In the last few decades, Arab countries have not been able to build a real political system on equality and justice, and thus to assure full citizenship, despite of pressures coming from either minority movements or the process of globalization, including social initiatives undertaken by the international community.

Arab political systems have succeeded in building and developing some democratic institutions “elections, national assemblies and independence of the judiciary to mention the most relevant”. But they have also ensured that the status quo would guarantee their hold on power.

Governments seek popular consensus, in a probable effort to reinforce their authority and in order to reach their goal, say to show citizens participation in public affairs.

So we can say in a country like Egypt, Nasser had already stressed in his strategy, the importance of a more inclusive rule of citizens by encouraging, for instance, women to become involved in political life.

And now there are changes in the Egyptian political agenda and new attention towards the citizenship and the political participation.

In theory, the last seven years have taken on the appearance of progress, with a certain reactivation of Egyptian political life triggered by both international and domestic factors[19].

At first glance, the government has embarked on a new wave of political reform with electoral process.

the agenda for change has emphasized three main goals: promoting free and fair elections as defined by the so-called good practices established by the international community; enforcing women’s rights in order to reduce the inequalities and lack of social justice resulting from gender-based discrimination; strengthening the role of political parties by allowing them to compete in elections and participate in a real and inclusive political debate,

Despite the government’s formal commitment to change, the political system still appears reluctant to enforce its general principles in a real and substantial way.

On the contrary, the state’s recent actions, reflecting the ambiguity at the core of the current process of political reform, stand as evidence of the contrast, like the gap between the official rhetoric claiming citizenship and the concrete undertaking to reform political life. Elections are often unfair and marred by a growing level of violence, both direct and indirect.

Political parties have no real chance to compete in the electoral game, either due to the lack of resources such as “human, financial and managerial” or because of the thinness of their mass political base.

Citizens have apparently gained more space to express themselves in political debate and a certain amount of freely voiced opposition to the ruling government has been heard, too tiny still, however, to have led to an official government response or to measure addressing the criticism.

And from these the paper show the Egyptian values of the citizenship which include:  equality, freedom, and respect for cultural differences, and a commitment to social justice.[20]

Equality: We respect everyone’s rights. Everyone has the right to speak out and express ideas that others might disagree with. Governments must treat everyone with Equal dignity and respect.

Respect for Cultural Differences: We try to understand and appreciate the cultures, Customs and traditions of all the people from another country.

Freedom: As Egyptians, we enjoy basic freedoms, Such as freedom of thought, freedom of speech, freedom of religion, and freedom of peaceful assembly.

Peace:  We are proud of our non-violent society.

By searching and looking for these elements we found that there many things impact on these values of the citizenship and try to make it weaker to damage the state all:

Focusing on the less important issues which related to the children rights, human rights and the women rights in the developing countries to make the people interested in it more than the nation issues.

Spoiling the cultural and national privacy from these states.

Try to damage our Arabic and Islamic heritage and effacement the past.

Following the west in their way of clothing…Etc to catch up with the civilization of the west.

The speared of the western cultures in our societies by using the different kinds of the soft power which get us many different traditions which disagree with the society.

All of these and more help in damage our citizenship and our Egyptian and Arabic identity so we have to find the ways to face problems.

The third: Mechanisms to promote them 

By developing a set of basic competences we expect to obtain there are Important

Outcomes directly affecting citizenship identity. Firstly, by providing basic knowledge, skills and attitudes, civic education contributes to the effective articulation of demands, that is, the knowledge of

Rights and duties; the identification of state authorities and institutions Responsible for the application of laws and rules that guarantee the exercise of those rights and duties; the skills necessary to make demands through Legitimate and effective means.

Secondly, the promotion of citizenship conscience and exercise will widen and multiply the spaces for public debate about citizenship construction, that is, the Discussion about the incorporation of new rights, and new meanings of Citizenship status and democracy

Thirdly, civic education, by developing civic competences among

Subordinated groups, empowers citizens to make efficient use of what it defines as the instrumental function of democracy, that is, the

Institutional possibility that individuals have in liberal democracies for

Expressing and defending their demands, and, therefore, for articulating their Economic interests in collective decision-making, and promoting wealth Redistribution.

These are three closely related and complementary forms, in which civic

Education contributes not only to making effective for the majority of the

Population the civic, political and social rights that constitute the modern

Conception of citizenship, but also to the construction of new citizenship

Identities, more reasonable and satisfactory for people who live in a context of Extreme social inequality, and in a world where citizenship identity as national Identity is transforming as the nation-state itself is modifying its traditional role.

And there are many other ways to promote the values of the citizenship too like: 

Ensuring that children and young people acquire social, civic and intercultural competences, by promoting democratic values and fundamental rights, social inclusion and nondiscrimination, as well as active citizenship.

 Enhancing critical thinking and media literacy, particularly in the use of the Internet and social media, so as to develop resistance to all forms of discrimination and indoctrination.

 Fostering the education of disadvantaged children and young people, by ensuring that our education and training systems address their needs.

Promoting intercultural dialogue through all forms of learning in cooperation with other relevant policies and stakeholders.

Conclusion:

As a result from this chapter, the citizenship is one of the most important components of the identity and personality of the person in its community, but in the current events of the world like the globalization and other effects the values of these concepts was damaged. And this paper tries to promote it. 

Section 2: Penetration mechanisms of local cultures and values 

Introduction:

It’s supposed that globalization helps in spreading notions from one side to other sides and vice versa. But what is happening is different as global ideas and cultures moves only in one direction   [21].

This made scholars think that the received view about the globalization of culture is one where the entire world has been molded in the image of western mainly American[22].

Web sites of social media , mass media by all of its shapes , education by all of its ways and other tools that came as a result of modern technology and helped in spreading global ideas have a great role in affecting cultures , values , traditions of some communities in the world today . Those tools have an active and necessary role in spreading the cultures of powerful states such as American and west cultures[23].

This part will illustrate the negative effect of some mechanisms as social media and mass media which globalization uses to penetrate local cultures and values.

 

First: Social media and local cultures 

Social media is considered one of the most obvious features of new media, which came as a result of internet revolution. This websites and networks depend on modern techniques. We can call social media nowadays “alternative media” or “media of citizen”. This kind of media is an intermediate kind of media as all of its members have the right to send or receive unlike traditional media[24].

There is a variety of social media websites. Each site affects cultures in a specific way.

The research will explain that in the following lines.

1_ social media in Arab states:

Studies proved that social media has a huge popularity in Arab states.  The research will analyze the usage of people in Arab states through statistical data.

( report “ session of social media methods in Arab world “ published by the pioneers of social media summit , first report , 2015 )

This picture represents the usage of social media in Arab states.

From the previous figure it’s noticed that Facebook is the most common site in Arab states. It’s use by many denominations. Each denomination has a specific purpose to use this site.

The next site that comes at the second rank is what’s app. then YouTube, and finally Instagram and Twitter.

2_ reasons of using social media in Arab states:

A study proved the following[25]:

55% of people who use social media in Arab states use it to communicate with other people whatever they belong to the same communities or not, have the same culture or not, have the same language or not, have the same religion or not …… etc., 12% of people who use social media in Arab states use it to know news, share photos _ posts_ videos or listen to music. 8% of people who use social media in Arab states use it as they think it’s an interesting method to spend time , 1% of people use social media as it’s free ,21% of people who use social media in Arab states they use it for undefined reasons ,3% of people have another reasons to use social media .

3_ the impact of social media on local culture of Arab states:

Social media has positive and negative effect on local cultures in different communities in the whole world. The effect of social media on local cultures depends on the degree of strengthen of the culture itself. The question here is what is the impact of social media on local culture of Arab and Islamic communities?

There are some studies that explained the relationship between social media and local cultures. Those studies proved that there is a negative relation between social media and the Arab culture because of the following.

A_ reduce integration among people[26]:

This element means that social media made a new method of communication among people. They communicate with each other behind screens of their phones or personal computers. Although this method is fast, it reduces the number of visits that occur among relatives or people who have relations with each other. Islam used to encourage communication among people as it helps in prevailing cooperation and love in the world. But social media destroyed the values of Islam and changed the ways of communication among people.

B_ disintegration within family

Before social media and modern technology individuals of each family used to stay with each other every day. They watch TV, talk and discuss problems they face. The family in the past consisted of grandparents, uncles, aunts, and cousins. The members of this family used to stay in the same house. This family is called “extended family”[27].

After that a new kind of families had emerged which is called “nuclear family”[28] . This family has a small number of members in comparison with extended family. The individuals of this family also used to do the activities of extended family.

Nowadays we faced a new kind of families which is “cyber family”[29] . The individuals of this family are not related through blood ties. They are connected through internet and social media. This kind of family led to disintegration within the original family. This what made parents complain of their sons and daughters usage of social media?

Studies showed that 41.2% of parents complain as their sons and daughters use social media on their smart phones, and 29.9% use social media through personal computers. In both cases the usage affects badly the relations within family and causes disintegration among people.[30] 

C_ information existed on social media:[31]

Large number of people depends on social media on getting news and information, although information that came from social media can be false in some cases as there is no supervision on it. This factor can manipulate minds and spoil their cultures, ideas, principles ………. Etc

 

Second: Mass media and local cultures: 

Mass media is the most obvious mechanism that globalization uses to affect local cultures of communities. It can affect local cultures positively and negatively. It’s seen that visual media supporting cultures of some communities and at the same time it can damage cultures of other communities. Its effect depends on the strengthen of the culture itself[32].

The term mass media involves number of sup terms as printed media (magazines, newspaper), listened media (radio) and visual media (TV). In our study we will focus on visual media as many scholars believe that it has an active role in affecting cultures as it consists of image and audio, the two items that have the ability to manipulate minds. And it also directs its messages to a large number of people with different ages. It transmits it’s notions to children through cartoon movies, and transmits it’s notions to adults and old people with different gender through movies, programs …….. Etc.

What are the changes and the evolution in the media method? ,

What is the impact of visual media on Arab and Islamic states? , how can we prove the previous ideas in a simple model? All this questions will be answered in the following lines[33].

1_ visual media and culture imperialism:

As we all know that globalization that came as a result of media and modern technology made the world as a small village. Some scholars thought that will encourage universal citizenship and allow national cultures to interact[34].

 But what happened is that mass media are seen today as playing a key role in facilitating culture exchange and multiple flows of information and image between countries through international news, broadcasts, television programming, new technologies, film and music[35].

Some scholars think that the received view about the globalization of culture is one where the entire world has molded in the image of Western mainly American culture. This is because of the American monopoly in communication research since the Second World War. And as a result of this some people view mass media as a channel of westernization[36].

We can say that media flows from the rich states to the poorer states. This also means that media flows among states are imbalanced. This makes a power gap between states and affects the culture of poor states negatively.

Huntington said in his book the clash of civilizations “the fundamental source of conflict in this new world will not be primarily ideological or primarily economic. The great divisions among human kind and dominating source of conflict will be cultural. Nation states will remain the most powerful actors in world affairs. But the principle conflict in the global politics will occur between nations and groups of different civilizations. The clash of civilizations will dominate global politics “.[37]

Huntington predicted what is happening in our world today. his words refer to the change and penetration that occurred to some cultures through other cultures as a result of modern technology , globalization and the mechanisms that globalization used to affect cultures of some communities .

So there is a consensus now that culture of powerful, rich states especially the western and American culture affected negatively on cultures of poorer and developing states. But what we need to know now is the impact of media on local cultures of Arab and Islamic societies. 

2_ the impact of media on local cultures of Arab and Islamic states:

It’s fair to say that the impact of globalization in the culture sphere that came as a result of media has been viewed in a pessimistic light. It has been associated with the destruction of cultural identities, victims of the accelerating encroachment of homogenized, westernized consumer culture.[38]

Scholars believe that cultural globalization that came as a result of media and modern technology has a negative effect on local culture of Arab and Islamic communities because of the following reasons;

A_ moving towards private channels[39]:

It’s obvious nowadays the spread of private channels in media. Success of those channels is not measured by benefit through knowledge, cultural or social field .but through financial benefits. The owners of those channels look only for financial returns. The outcomes of the content introduced are not important to them. The result usually affects the cultures, traditions and values of audiences as media has a great ability in manipulating minds of audiences.

B_ the over control of media on people’s taste[40]:

We can see this in American music and movies which became very famous at Arab communities. We can see today Arab people looking for American songs and movies rather than Arabic songs and movies. In addition to the life style of large number of Arab _ Islamic people which became so similar to American and Western styles. This is seen nowadays in Arab communities as a kind of welfare. So they are linked with high income and standards of living. So the more increase in standards of living in Arab communities, the more directing towards American and Western cultures. 

C_ media programs that spread western life style[41]:

Programs of music and competition as Arab Idol, star academy, etc. . . Members who participate in these programs are affected by the western and American life style. This is very obvious in their speech, the way they dress in, and their behaviors. And as a result they help in spreading those ideas and life styles indirectly through screens of televisions. After a short time we can see the effect of those people on the audiences. We will find them using other languages, dressing in another style. And believe in ideas of other cultures that they are influenced by. 

The third: Content analysis (case study): 

We can summarize the previous manifestations of penetration of local culture of Arab states through analyzing an Egyptian movie, which is called: a lie for every day  

           [42] “كدبة كل يوم “

We choose this movie because

It’s very recent. It was produced in 2016.

_ it achieved a great success in Arab states especially Egypt.

_ It has lots of manifestations of culture penetration.

** In this movie we can see clearly the actors influenced by the western and American life style.

_ They speak English most of time although they are Arab and _they are communicating with Arab people .they forget their Arabism as a result of influencing by western cultures. In their Arabic speech they use some English words as (ok, by, yes, hi, ………… etc.)

_they are fan of the western and American fashion especially women. They look forward western brands in clothes, make up, food, drink …… etc.   

_they drink alcohol most of time although this thing is discarded in Arab and Islamic states.

Conclusion:

At this part of our research we talked about the penetration mechanisms of local cultures of Arab and Islamic states. We focused on the two mechanisms which they are social media and mass media. We talked also about their impact and negative effect. In the following part we will talk about the third mechanism that affects local cultures which is education. We will also focus on its institutions, methods and all its shapes that can affect local cultures of communities.

From the previous data it’s obvious that there is a negative relationship between mass media, social media and local cultures and values of Arab states.

 

Section 3: The influence of international schools and universities on local identity

Introduction:  

      Identity Constitutes a complex tapestry derives from the doctrine of the people, his memories, history, and cultural activities. Therefore it in the eyes of their owners something does not fit compromised and waived in any and price, this feeling at the grassroots level stronger than at the elite level. Therefore the nations and peoples have been defending its identity in various ways and various means. Identity is not shaping from nothing but everything in our life has role like families, education, and all social institutions. I will focus on the role of education as education becomes the language of the age then education in Egypt and international education.

 

First: Identity and education  

The role of education in shaping identity[43]:

– Education at all levels contributes significantly to the formation of identity and then the development of identity and promotion in the advanced stages of education. The process of identity formation cannot begin in a vacuum. It is always based on an existing set of symbolic symbols (the homeland – culture and social values ​​- history) which form the cornerstone of identity[44].

This confirms that the process of building identity needs individual, social, political, environmental, geographic, historical and cultural factors to build this distinctive mold.

There is no successful factor that develops the concept of identity better than education. Education is not only an educational act; it is a political action of the first order. It is not surprising that the educational policy in any society reflects its political system and its special philosophies, ideologies and values. Becomes a serious social force used by society or the State to achieve the goals of increasing belonging and loyalty and promoting the concept of identity of members of society[45].

Education contributes to the building of identity and its rooting in society. The study of the country’s history, geography, national education, national and historical celebrations, national peace and other educational and educational practices all contribute to the promotion of identity and identity among students.

Higher education plays a very important role in emphasizing the processes of political development. In this sense, higher education becomes an effective tool for establishing and instilling the identity of society. If it is in the way of university education is to characterize the personality of the individual and the formation of habits and trends and values ​​and grow tendencies and preparations and determine the course of mental development, psychological, social and emotional.

University education in any society is the culmination of the educational ladder and therefore has a great responsibility for promoting identity among members of society. Some of the functions of university education include[46]:

  1. Dissemination of knowledge, promotion of identity and development of social intellectual trends.
  2. Establishing the right democracy the more human learning, the greater the freedom because education frees man from the chains of slavery and ignorance.

** The education of individuals on identity cannot be fully achieved unless there is close cooperation between all institutions of education. This also requires coordination and integration with other educational institutions that are exposed to the individual such as the media, newspapers, magazines, entertainment and interaction with other.

 

Second: International education in Egypt

Types of schools in Egypt[47]:

There are four types of schools in Egypt; private, public, embassy schools, and national institutions[48]. Public schools are administered and funded by the Ministry of Education in Egypt. UNICEF has reported that these schools are characterized by a lack of resources and poor teaching quality. The majority of students (92%) in Egypt attend public schools (El-Meshad, 2012). Public schools are divided into two main types: local Arabic schools where the Egyptian curriculum is taught in Arabic and experimental schools that teach mathematics and science in English (or French), with the remainder of the subjects being taught in Arabic.

The national institutions are neither wholly public nor entirely private. Students pay fees that are slightly lower than private school fees. These institutes are administered and funded by social committees or national institutions such as the Ministry of Religious Endowments and follow a special curriculum that is somehow different from that of the Ministry of Education as it teaches Quran-related and religious subjects.[49]

Private schools come under different categories. Some offer the national curriculum while other schools offer international diplomas such as the British International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE), an American certificate, the French Baccalaureate, and the International Baccalaureate (El-Meshed, 2012).

International schools are supervised by the Ministry of Education. However, they do not offer the Egyptian high-school diploma; Thanaweya Amma. Rather, the schools follow a special curriculum for accreditation by international systems (El-Meshed, 2012). In Egypt, English and French-medium schools have become more popular in contemporary society due to the benefits students can experience in terms of employment opportunities and the academic prowess of these schools[50].

The study targets English-medium international schools which offer either the British international general certificate of secondary education (IGCSE) or an American certificate.

These types of schools are the same types of universities in Egypt.

International education in Egypt[51]:

Due to globalization, Egypt, like other countries, liberated its foreign trade and shifted its public spending from sectors like education and health to more productive ones. This economic liberation coupled with other factors led to the spread of private schools and universities. By the beginning of the 1996-97 academic years, four private universities had been established[52]. The establishment of these universities was cheered by investors and educators, who saw it as a good solution for the complex educational problems, but it also raised neo-colonialism and cultural imperialism concerns because these universities were affiliated with American and British universities and the admission criteria included an English language exam[53] . These concerns were to become more alarming with the establishment of foreign universities; especially if we take into consideration that Egyptians had already been discontent with the national system of education on the grounds that it is too westernized[54]. Up till then, the American University in Cairo (AUC), founded in 1919 was the only foreign university in Egypt. However, in the last few years, Egypt has witnessed an unprecedented spread of “foreign” universities; namely, the German University in Cairo (2003), the British University in Egypt (2004), Al-Ahram Canadian University (2005), the French University in Egypt (2006), The Egyptian Russian University (2006), and Egypt-Japan University of Science and Technology (2008). The language of instruction in all these universities is English with the exception of the French university that teaches in French, English and Arabic. This sudden consecutive emergence of private universities that adopt foreign curricula has heated the already existing debate about “international schools” in Egypt[55].

 

The third: The influence of international schools and universities on local identity: (The results of questionnaire)

1-The influence of international schools on local identity:

First Personal data:

-the sample consists of 50 students in ASIE who are all of them than 18 years,

From urban region, Teaching of parents is high education, and 20% male and 80% female.

Second, study the impact of international schools and universities on students:

(A)Some indicators are used to illustrate the impact of international schools on the cultures and identities of communities . those indicators are greeting flag , listening to the anthem  and using the languages . the results of the questionnaire explained that the impact of international schools on identity and cultures is very limited because : all the sample proved that they listen to the anthem at events and celebrations , 60% of the sample don’t greet the flag as they come late to school , and 40% using English language in all places ( schools , clubs , homes and with friends ) . and the rest of percent using English in schools only .

(B)One of the most important components of identity is culture. And enhancing culture comes from celebrating national and religious events. The research studied this and the result proved that: 80% of the sample celebrate national and religious events. The manifestations of celebrating can be summarized in the following figure:

(C)By studying another side of the culture , the researcher found that 80% of the sample follow the new in literature, songs, magazines, movies, serials and everything new in the Western and American world and they proved that this phenomenon doesn’t affect Egyptian and Arabic identity . In other side 20% think that this phenomenon can influence identity by increasing the use of English, Practicing hobbies as western and American world, and the style of life is affected by western and American world.

(D) International schools as anything in the world of globalization is a double-edged weapon as 80% of the sample say that international schools influence their local identity , but 25% think that this influence is negative as shown in the following figure . the manifestations of this negative  effect are students in this school want to live abroad and don’t want to stay in Egypt , and They refuse governmental education and consider it the worst in world.

2-The influence of international university on local identity:

First Personal data:

-the sample consists of 50 students from British university who are all of them more18 less than 25 years, From urban regions, Teaching of parents is high education and female.

Second, study the impact of international schools and students:

(A) The role of universities is limited in shaping students’ local identity but the role of universities is more important in enhancing the identity. Some indicators to measure that are listening national anthem and the languages. By the analysis of the results of questionnaire we found that students using English only in universities and listening to national anthem as following

(B)To keep identity you must keep culture and enhance it. And enhancing culture comes from celebrating national and religious events. The research studied this and the result proved that: 67% of the sample celebrate national and religious events. The manifestations of celebrating can be summarized in the following figure:

(c)As students in universities are very interested in discovering world, benefit from useful things and avoid harmful things. This idea is confirmed by checking the results of questionnaire as it is found that 100% of students follow the new in literature, songs, magazines, movies, serials and everything new in the Western and American world and all of them say that this doesn’t affect your Egyptian and Arab identity.

(D) To increase confirmation on the previous points, 100% of sample think that international universities affect your identity and say that influence is positive and the manifestations of this effect are Expanding the horizons, knowledge of other cultures and being adhering to your identity when compared to other identities. 

Conclusion:

-after researcher studied and analyzed the results of surveys, she noticed that:

The local identity of people is so important matter which is consisted of country, language, culture and religion. This identity is formed through a lot of institution starting with families, education, ……..etc.

Education has important role in shaping and strengthening local identity from schools to universities.

The institutions of international schools and universities play Effective and decisive role in shaping the character of students.

The influence of these institutions on local identity is limited which cannot exceed the influence on language and show on foreign culture and style of life.

These institutions don’t want to keep Egyptian and Arabic identity, they want to erase this identity but because of society, family, clubs and other institutions which students live and react in it the influence is limited.

Section 4: the role of think tanks in facing western identity:

Introduction:

In the modern era, wars are not battles in its traditional sense, but they have become intellectual wars using soft power.

“Soft power” is one of the most effective and relevant means of implementation of the foreign policy strategy for any state claiming to be the leader in the system of the international relations[56].

The objective of this part of the study consists in revealing the specifics of operation of the “think tank” as the soft power mechanism.

As  will be illustrated the Arab World facing an extremity danger concerning with the penetration of the Arab language , customs and culture therefore the penetration of the Arab identity through the use of communication technology and the western life style.

So the study seeks to recruitment think tanks to reduce this crisis through its role as a type of soft power and the study will illustrate that through the recommendation that the researcher reached.

First : think tanks:

  1. I) think tank:

There are a lot of scholars who addressed think tanks in their studies, and according to these studies the researcher will classify it into two trends.

First that associated the concept of think tanks with the area of public policy, one of the most pioneers of this trend is (Diane Stone) who defined it as ” policy research institutes involved in the research and analysis of a particular policy area or a broad range of policy issues, seeking to advise policy makers or inform public debate on policy issues.”

Aside from policy analysis, these organizations also perform a range of activities that help their policy analysis and sometimes propel their policy products into decision-making circles[57].

Also a considerable part of the scholars including and stone see think tanks as a key actors in shaping the climate of opinion[58]. In this sense think   shaping tanks mainly provide ideas and examples of how public policy should be organized as well as a general ideological direction that should be followed. Additionally they prepare the system to receive certain ideas and they function as mediators by bringing academic knowledge to politics.

The roles and functions of think tanks put them at the intersection of academia and politics where they aim to make connection between policy analysis and policy making, thereby there is considerable diversity among think tanks in terms of size, ideology, resources, and the quality or quantity of analytic output[59].

On the other hand, the second trend linked the concept of think tanks with organizations and entities such as interest groups and one of the pioneers here is (Grant) who stated that , They are  different from advocacy groups, interest groups, pressure groups and lobby groups as they have a much more limited membership, they don’t take part in lobbying and

They are primarily interested in research[60].

Also urrutia defined it as” An organization that has its own freely-accessible communication resources (website, blogs, publications, conferences etc.) in order to disseminate information to as broad an audience as possible[61].”

The main reasons for the high level of ongoing growth of think tanks globally:[62]

Information and technological revolution ,end of national governments’ monopoly on information ,increasing complexity and technical nature of policy problems ,increasingly large and fragmented government ,crisis of confidence in government and elected officials and globalization and the growth of state and non-state actors.

Stone sets up some criteria in order to identify think tanks. These criteria are as follows:[63]

1) Organizational independence and permanence: which means that they usually have a charity or nonprofit status and they are independent from governmental or corporate interests. At the same time they have a permanent presence.

2) The self determination of the research agenda: It is interesting to note that even if organizations state that they are independent, it is likely that funding criteria influences their agenda and sometimes even their findings.

3) Policy focus: This refers to the objective of bringing knowledge and policy-making together, where possible, by informing and influencing the policy process.

4)  Public purpose: Think tanks claim that their goal is to conduct research in order to inform the public and the government on how to improve public policy.

5) The expertise and professionalism of research staff: This is the intellectual resource of institutes, but also a way of legitimizing their findings.

6) The organizational yield of the institutes: This is research, analysis and advice, which comes in the

Form of various publications or of activities like conferences, seminars, workshops etc.

  1. II) Influence:

The philosopher Auguste Comte said that “ideas govern and disrupt the world; that is to say that the entire social mechanism is built on opinions”[64]. So, with conscious influence being an indirect and asymmetric strategy to gain the approval of the “other” through prestige and attractiveness based on image and reputation, think tanks, NGOs, lobbies or public relations firms (influential organizations) are familiar with this process.

As pointed out by Abelson[65],think tanks develop their activities and exercise their influence either directly – through the revolving door mechanism and through connections with important political movers and shakers – or indirectly – through publications, meetings and seminars.  The process of bi-directional influence guarantees think tanks the opportunity to participate in decision making, to set priorities on the political agenda, and to contribute to the climate of opinion.

Finally, it is difficult to make general conclusion about the influence of think tanks because they play different roles in different countries and often in the same country and their role also changes over ti

Second : identity:

  1. I) Identity:

Identity is about how individuals or groups see and define themselves, and how other individuals or groups see and define them. Identity is formed through the socialization process and the influence of social institutions like the family, the education system and the mass media.[66]

The central elements of any culture or civilization are language

And religion[67].

Because of the importance of the identity as a cornerstone for all individuals in any societies, we can say that our fear of death is actually a fear of identity loss.

Here the study will illustrate the Arab identity.

The Arab identity:

The Arabs are defined by their culture, not by race; and their culture is defined by its two essential components of Arabism and Islam.[68]

To most of the Arabs, Islam is their indigenous religion; to all of the Arabs, Islam is their indigenous civilization. The Arab identity, as such, is a culturally defined identity, which means being Arab is being someone whose mother culture, or dominant culture, is Arabism. Being Arab does not contradict with being non-Muslim or non-Semitic or not being a citizen of an Arab state.

Islam called upon the Arabs to reinstate ethics, reason, and brotherhood in their life; beyond that, it propels them to raise a culture that transcended tribalism and race and opened up to humanity at large.

It was this cultural, ethical, rational, and inclusive character of Arabism, as prompted by Islam that attracted peoples of other races and religions. As these other peoples embraced Islam and took to studying it through learning Arabic and reading the Qur’an, they became Arabized, in much the same way as people of various ethnic backgrounds embracing the American experience and learning the English language become Americanized.

One remarkable outcome of the Arabization trend was that many scholars of non-Arab descent became perfect and prefer Arabic language rather than their native languages and authored their intellectual product in it. Thus, they became part of a common culture, Arabism that, like Islam, indeed, because of Islam, rejected discrimination among people based on ethnic background.

Our scholars through publish their enterprise in the vast Islamic world, using in what they wrote, debated, and taught, the Arabic language, they enrich it all the more. As a result, a yet incredible wealth of recorded knowledge was commonly generated and shared throughout the Muslim world in the Arabic language, and also through translation, shared with Europe as well.

If we would look back on Bukhari or Razi or Farabi or Ibn Sina or Salahuddin Al Ayoubi, all notables of non-Arab lineage, but Arabism like Islam, transcended race and ethnic origin. People from all over the world who came in contact with and lived the Arabic cultural experience became Arabized.[69]

Although the rich civilization her heritage, why our youth in the modern era lagged behind the other great nations?

Here we can state many reasons such as; lack of freedom, mediocrity of the educational system, despotic governance, religious and social strictures. According to this point we find the Arab communities especially the youth prefer the western identity represented in imitating them in all their customs regardless of our Arab customs and traditions.

As a result the Arabic language has declined as the Arab world started to imitate the west in their life style and started to speak the foreign language, especially the English one, among them, and this lead to the appearance of a new language or what called (the hybrid language)

The third : The hybrid language (case study).

  1. I) The hybrid language:

Now we can turn to a very important part in our study that is: the consequences of the weak of the Arab identity represented in the decline of the Arab language as language is a component of identity.

In the present environment, one cannot consider identity without reference to new communication technologies.

The use of the Internet and computer technology has significant impact on language change and usage. The characteristics of spoken language are shared in the style of written text, which used in electronic mail.

This leads to the emergence of the phenomenon of Latinized Arabic[70], Arabizi[71] , Arabish[72]  or the hybrid language.

The word Arabizi is a mixture of Arabic and English languages, in which

Arabic words are written using English letters.[73]

Many young Arabs prefer Arabizi in texting and conversations on their smart phones and social media because they find typing in English easier than in Arabic. For this reason there is a For this reason there is a fear of the terrifying result of what called Arabizi as it will weaken the Arabic language, or even replace it, and threatens Arab identity, as well as, the Arab value system.

As language forms a part of speakers’ identity construction and the

Arabic language played an important role in shaping Arab identity, So that we choose our case study about hybrid language as we are care about the Arab language and Arab identity and their survival.

In this part of our study we will illustrate that:

1-What is the hybrid language?

2-What are the reasons for its appearance in the Arab World especially in Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Jordan?

3-What are the recommendation for preserving the Arabic language and the Arabic identity?

1-What is the hybrid language?

Arabizi, is basically typing the Arabic language letters in English letters, or mixing the Arabic language alphabet with English letters and fitting in English words in between.[74]

This expression is a blend of two words “arabi” (Arabic) and “engliszi” (English). „Arabish‟ also is a combined of two words “Arabic” and “English”.[75]

In Arabizi, Arabic numbers and other symbols are added to replace Arabic letters that have no equivalents in English or French.

(صبا الخير)                                                 For example

(means “Good Morning”) is written as “9aba7 2l5air”

is replaced with7  ح,     is replaced with3ﻉ

Thus, the Arabic letter [76]

Now, English language has a great spread and it is argued that one inevitable effect of the spread of global English is its killing of other

Languages.

Globalization has struck the world like a storm as the result of the spread of technology.

During the 90s , most Arab countries , if not all, witnessed an increasing importance of the English language, which rose to dominate many technological devices and realms , such as online chats , short message service (SMS) , and mobile phones.[77]

2- What are the reasons for its appearance in the Arab World?

There are lots of researchers who interested in the phenomenon of Arabizi and that could be classified in linguistic and technological reasons. In addition to the impact of globalization during the past two or three decades, allowed the English language to occupy a singular position among language” .and the dominance of the English language was facilitated by the spectacular rise of the American power. The glamour of the American media and the appeal of the Western education made English the first language of 341 million people in 1999 and first or second language of about 500 million[78].

  1. A) Linguistic reasons: 

Some Arabizi users prefer writing in English rather than Arabic because they perceive

English as prestigious because it’s the language of the “educated” and

“Knowledgeable” people.[79]

Also, Arab World doesn’t make effort to develop the Arabic language as a result there  is a great gap between the Arabic language that used among Arab in their daily life and the classical Arabic (the fus-ha ) that used in Qur’an.

Weakness of pertinence to our culture and our Arabic language.

The dereliction of language teacher and think tanks in addressing this phenomenon.

  1. B) Technological reasons:

A lot of researchers emphasized on the use of the Internet and computer technology has significant impact on language change and usage such as:

  • Daoudi (2011) refers to the influence of globalization on the Arabic language, and refers to a new emerging language as e-Arabic. The e-Arabic is a combination of English and Arabic fueled by the wide use smartphones and the Internet, mainly blogs, emails, and social networks. And made it easier to use Arabizi and the slang English as languages of online communication.[80]
  • Some scholars stated that this hybrid language emerged in the chat programs in 1990s through (UNIX) computer systems, in which the writing is limited to Latin characters hence; this enforced the Arab to use Latin characters[81] .

There is a program for the transformation between Arabic and Arabizi .[82]

such as the following picture of the program:[83]

Resource:

Rumaih, Mona. The language of Arab youth in the modern media: the culture of changing the Arabic language to the youth of the Arab world and its impact on cultural identity.

Yet, the language is important as it embodies the historical and religious heritage of the nations especially the Arab society as the Arabic language is the language of the Quran, also it is a component of our identity.

Opponents of Arabizi, argue that the Arabic language is the language of the Quran, and when the Arabic language is not typed or spoken appropriately people are undermining its value.

They believe that using the Roman letters endangers the existence

Of the Arabic language, and undermines the Arab identity and may replace it with a foreign one.[84]

Recently, Arabizi emerged in some television programs, mass media

Messages, and commercials, which many people consider unprofessional, inadequate and unacceptable.[85]

Table 1: Arabizi Characters:[86]

 

Arabic Letter Arabizi letters English letters Example
ء 2 —- Bala2 (disaster)
ح 7 H 7alwa/ halwa
خ 5-‘7 Kh Ru5am/ ru’7am/ rukham (marble)
ص 9 —- 9ad (catch)
ض ‘9 D Ma’9rab/ madrab (racket)
ط 6 —- 6alib (student)
ظ ‘6 —- ‘6abi (gazelle)
ع 3 —- La3ib (player)
غ ‘3 —- ‘3areeb (strange)
ق 8, 2 (in some Arabic dialects) K 8arib/ 2arib/ karib (boat)

Resource: Wid, H.Allehaiby .Arabizi: An Analysis of the Romanization of the Arabic Script from a Sociolinguistic Perspective .

In non-Western societies there is a trend appear to be underway.  English is increasingly used at the university level to equip graduates to function effectively in the global competition for capital and customers.

So the research will stated the impact of Arabizi Language on three Arab countries; Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Jordan

  1. A) Arabizi in Egypt: 

As an advocate for Arabizi, Lelania Sperrazza (2009) is eager for her native Arabic Egyptian speaking students to embrace a dual cultural and linguistic identity.

aslo she stated that ” I want my students to be aware that they are products of a new era, and subsequently, a new identity: one that is increasingly migratory and globalized, and one that is constantly in the process of adapting and reinventing itself. This identity, fueled by the power of an English-based technology, is the Arabizi identity. Therefore, I believe it is necessary for my students to recognize that they are members of a legitimate and valid community, which has emerged from the globalized and interdependent relationship between the East and the West.”[87]

Such these opinions get egyptian youth to influence by it and to change their language, culture therefore their identity as they want to keep up with the globalized world and this affects on youth and make them to imitate the west in their language , customs and their life style but , this will erase Arab identity. And this creates a gap between the generation of  parents and the present-day of  generation.

Towards the end of the nineteenth century, English was only the fourth largest of the European languages in Egypt, after French, Greek and Italian. English spread rapidly in the public schools during British occupation, but French was still the first choice of the Egyptian aristocracy Today learning a foreign language is mandatory in schools, and English, French and German are most common. The Egyptian government is trying to promote more foreign language teaching in schools, especially English.[88]

when Sadat opened up the Egyptian economy, more and more students are learning English in the hope of getting employment in a foreign company operating in Egypt.

English language schools are now much more common than French . This is one of the reasons why  English forms the basis when chatters on the Internet Romanize Arabic rather than any other language .[89]

As mentioned before, the use of Arabic in web addresses is still very rare, and it was not even possible until recently as only Roman characters were accepted. That meant that if the user in the internet want to write  in Arabic, the user had to write using the Roman script.

  1. B) Arabizi in Saudi Arabia :

Facebook has in very few years become immensely popular among students and youth all over the world. Among Internet users in their teens and twenties, it is uncommon to come across anyone who does not at the very least have an account on Facebook.[90]

As mentioned before, the content that available on the internet is in  the English language in 1990s.[91] this affects on the Arabic language ,which emerged late on the internet, as the Arab users of the internet turns to  Arabizi to solve this problem thereby , this leads to lack of Arab language use in social media and in the daily dealing. This phenomenon emerged in all Arab countries with several rates.

Although the Saudi society is known as a conservative society and It is more religious than other Arab societies, this society has not escaped from the Arabizi phenomenon.

The researcher can explain that through an Arabic study [92],which make a survey for a sample of  Saudi youth who used Arabizi in social media especially face book and twitter to know to what extent the use of Arabizi affects on the Arabic language and the Islamic identity.

The results were that:

40% of the sample stated that Arabizi doesn’t affect on their language and their identity.

Their answers were that ” their identity doesn’t affect by Arabizi as ,in their opinion, Arabizi isn’t a language but ,it is a font of writing ” .

Also , 30% of the sample stated that Arabizi affects on their language .

There answers were that ” they forget the rules of Arabic language and they found the writing in Arabic is so hard “.

30 % stated that Arabizi affects on the Arabic languge and their identity but, the great effect is on the language.

From the result mentioned above, 60 % stated that there is a danger on both the Arabic language and the identity.

  1. C) Arabizi in Jordan : 

The bilingualism phenomena in Jordan is appeared by the use of hundreds of English loanwords .Duane defines a loanword as” a word taken from one language and used by another contemporary language without translation ” [93]  and expressions. This for reasons such as prestige, showing off, modernity, and education requirements and so on.[94]

As a result , Romanised Jordanian Arabic (RJA)  appeared

Basically, it represents colloquial Jordanian Arabic, a patois, just like any other spoken Arabic variety,which over the last decade has been developing an electronically transmitted system of writing implementing

a hybrid of characters, Roman (Latin), which the English language uses, and a special set of Arabic numerals.[95]  (Arabizi).

Such a code (Arabizi) has been widely used by social media users . If this writing system persists in the long run, it may present a big challenge to our Arabic languge at the age of globalisation in the Arab world. Indeed,

there are great fears among particularly the conservatives and language purists as  the code will remain a favourite linguistic choice among youth.

Also, many Jordanians have been encouraged to learn English and become bilingual.[96]

Arabizi is looked at as negative phenomenon, its use has become visible and widespread throughout many Arab countries, despite the fact that the Arabic script is now supported on the majority of advance mobile devices and computer software. This strong tendency to use Arabizi ensures that this variety of language will continue to be utilized by native Arabic speakers and might pave the way for its acceptance among wider social groups and ages.

And as mentioned before it affects badly on the Arabic language and Arab identity.

So, the whole Arab World should face this phenomenon to prevent our language and our identity.

 Conclusion:

The study has reported on the use of Arabizi in the Arab world especially between youth. Also, the study reached that Arab world is used Arabizi for certain factors such as : prestige, showing off, modernity, and education requirements. The challenge facing young Arabs is that they do not have enough confidence and trust in their own language, and consequently, in their identity, and self.

Arab youth – or seems students in general – are given a Western education to make them more employable, without preparing them to withstand a foreign cultural encounter. In the long run, this process will indirectly cause damage to the Arab value system, and the symbol of Arab identity, the Arabic language.

Also, the Arab world should stand against what called universal civilization which is a distinctive product of Western civilization. As in the in the nineteenth century the idea of “the white man’s burden” helped justify the extension of Western political and economic domination over non-Western societies. At the end of the twentieth century the concept of a universal civilization helps justify Western  cultural dominance of other societies and the need for those societies to ape Western practices and institutions. Universalism is the ideology of the West for confrontations with non-Western cultures.[97]

So the Arab world have to face these challenges to maintain the Arabic language and the Arab identity.

Section five: The impact of the appearance of extremist and radical thought on the identity and values of citizenship

Case studies of (ISIS and Al-Nusra Front” Fatah al-Sham”)

Introduction: –       

In the era of globalization and the prevalence of technological progress, terrorist organizations have not use weapons, extremis and violence to recruit young people and citizens. Instead, they start to use mechanisms that are difficult for countries to control such as social media sites (Facebook, Twitter, Youtube, etc.…). Terrorists spread their ideas through these sites. Gradually, it begins to shape the identity of citizens, form their thoughts and even control their minds. This is through the brainwashing operations of the marginalized categories in the community. Thus, it collects information that reaches to them and helps them to create a new identity in the manner they want. The truth may be that these groups try to exploit the lazy minds by making them not thinking logically, but they give people simple answers and simple solutions for all things. These groups always claim that they answer everything and they have solutions for all problems. Hence, this chapter focuses on the role of two groups (ISIS, Al-Nusra Front) and their accurate analysis[98].

First : Identity and terrorism 

-in this part, the study aim to highlight the reasons for the spread of extremist and radical thought especially in the middle east. and in the second part determinants intellectual and ideological of extremist groups) ISIS, al_nusra front) The next part talks about to what extent the people know the terrorist groups in the end the study explain the impact of the emergence of these groups such as (ISIS, al_nusra front) On the identity and values of citizenship.

First : The reasons for the spread of extremist and radical thought, especially in the Middle East: –

there are many reasons which led to the spread of radical and extreme thought in the countries in the middle east.

In the beginning, these radical groups appeared as moderate groups like any other intellectual movements or maybe for local factor or religious motives purely. there are many political internal and external conditions changed them gradually to radical movements adopted terrorism. Internal factors include inherited culture, education, the living crisis and authoritarian governments while the external factors are related to the cold war.

First: internal factor: –

1 – inherited social culture

There is a link between extremism and the culture of the inherited Muslim peoples and despotic regimes that have provided fertile ground for the growth of religious extremism. It is known that the social culture, especially in the Arab countries, is a Bedouin culture inherited from the pre-Islamic era and backward in its content, resistant to change and development, facing modernity with disdain and sanctify bloody violence and link it with originality and masculinity and courage and honor … etc[99].

2- Islamic teachings themselves, hostile to non-Islamic ideas and treated as alien ideas hostile to Islam, and this position has many historical roots.

3- The role of governments in the spread of political Islam: The oppressive governments in the Arab and Islamic countries helped the growth of “moderate” Islamist movements with the intention of continuing to acquire power as a result of selfishness and shortsightedness and took these movements as a tool to confront secular democratic movements in order to remain in power unrivaled. And took education as a means to corrupt the minds of young people in the spread of religious intolerance and hostility to the other and thus prepared the minds of people from the earliest age to accept religious extremism and hatred of non-Muslims. They also allowed the Islamists to spread their ideas and work freely. They had mosques and places of worship, with full freedom to speak to the public and spread their ideas, and even expand their political organizations, in addition to the use of modern technology in the various media for their benefit in spreading their speeches on audio and video tapes. While secular intellectuals and democrats were imprisoned, tortured, tortured, executed, exiled and charged with infidelity and atheism. Thus, Arab and Islamic societies remained deprived of Enlightenment culture and received only one color of culture: the Salafist religious culture against modernity and democracy; incitement against foreigners; and the inciting of people to intolerance of unilateralism; spreading hatred against non-Muslims even if they were citizens of those Islamic countries[100].

4- The failure of Arab governments to solve the escalating crises: The other reason for the emergence of Islamic extremism is the failure of Arab governments to solve the escalating economic, social and political crises that have been exacerbated by the population explosion, widespread unemployment, corruption of government, bribery among government officials and the waste of the country’s wealth in armaments and militarization. . How can these governments solve the problems of a people whose population doubles every twenty years and about seventy percent of it under the age of thirty[101]?

2- The external factor of Islamic extremism is the Cold War between the two Western capitalist camps led by the American and Eastern Communist led by the Soviet Union. At that point, communism was the greatest threat to the interests of the West. Therefore, Western countries, especially America, have helped to support the Salafi parties to confront the “destructive ideas” of communism in the Islamic world, especially the Arab countries. There is no doubt that America made terrible mistakes against the peoples of the Third World during this era. After the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, America spent tens of billions of dollars on the formation of the movements of Islamic militants, including the al-Qaeda movement led by bin Laden and the Afghan Taliban against the Soviet army. When the Cold War ended in favor of the West, the Soviet Union fell, and communist rule fell in Afghanistan, America abandoned these terrorist movements to exhaust its role. The “Mujahedeen” organizations then plunged into fierce wars against each other and turned from “moderate” Islamist organizations aimed at liberating Afghanistan into terrorist organizations without a job looking for an enemy[102] . Therefore, when the Afghans returned to their country, they practiced their profession against their governments and their people in spreading terrorism. This terrorism has gone beyond striking US interests that culminated in September 11, 2001, the major event that led to America adopting a new policy to fight terrorism in the world.

Therefore, these terrorist organizations are the product of the oppressive Arab governments and the secretions of the Cold War. The war must continue until they are eliminated and all the swamps of terrorism are dried up.

In this context, one of the most important factors that led to the emergence of extremist ideology is the weakness and inability of the central authority in the Arab state in general, Syria, Iraq and Yemen in particular. Provided the conditions for the spread and expansion of radical Islamist groups on the one hand, and the association of the internal conflict with the dimensions, doctrinal and sectarian points of view that formed a social incubator for these groups on the other hand. Thus, the failure or disintegration of the Qatari state led to the rise of state organization in the context of the grinding chaos in Libya, the political vacuum and the growth of Salafist groups there. Besides, in Yemen with the control of the Houthis in Sana’a, the Bahraini crisis and the internal Arab crises, the collapse of the moral authority of the state, and return to the primary forms of expression of identity[103]. There are also many internal factors that have paved the way for the rise of extremist thinking in many Arab countries, such as the high rates of poverty, the escalation of unemployment levels and the adoption of exclusionary policies on the basis of ethnic, sectarian and any others factors. The erroneous policies adopted by many international and regional powers in The Middle East also supported the spread of these ideas and produced terrorism. Analysts also often associate extremism with poverty. The sense of deprivation increases the feeling of resentment and envy of a society where the gap between the rich and the needy widens. This has already happened in the Middle East.[104]

 

Second : Determinants Intellectual and ideological of extremist groups (ISIS, Al-Nusra Front): –

ISIS and nusra front it’s not a new terrorism organizations but have a historical origin back to al Qaeda organization Each of them adopts Salafist jihadist ideology

First, ISIS organization and its ideas and ideology to recruit and control young people:

The organization aims to establish the Islamic Caliphate is a state governed by a political leader and religious one according to Islamic jurisprudence and the Salafist jihadist doctrine Takfiri and found that ISIS organization try to apply unless al – Qaeda can’t implement and says it is coming to achieve the Islamic caliphate and its emergence on the ground and Take steps and actions to do this not just by saying[105].

It is clear that ISIS organization its most extremist more than any terrorist organizations and aims to achieve the succession is a common goal among many of the extremist Islamic organizations, including Al Qaeda and nusra front. ISIS organization goal is to reach this goal, and it is well on its way to doing so. The first goal is to control as much of the Middle East as possible, as this will give it legitimacy and give it greater credibility in the eyes of its followers. The second goal is to carry out a spectacular attack against the West, which would once and for all ensure a place to speak at the top of the global “pyramid of terror” and declare the death of al-Qaeda It also wants to urge all Muslims to declare allegiance to the caliphate all over the world[106].

so, ISIS organization uses a mixture of means (persuasion, violence, intimidation, subjugation)

It has a huge network of secret clergy and media to master brainwashing and persuasion, and its operations are horrifying violence of slaughtering, cutting of heads and steel, etc. They are subject to sedition (such as achieving security and reassurance, and strict application of their understanding of Sharia) to reach their goal. And also, began to organize a social media using the means of communication to the world level; the most dangerous and most influential to young people[107]. The organization pushed Twitter into a broader format and continued to use it to a wide-ranging crackdown by the security services, especially in the West, in a frenzied attempt to target the accounts of Daqash and his supporters to disable it. These measures have led the organization to move towards the implementation of the Telegram, a more effective, easier and more sophisticated means of counterterrorism in the world so far.

The most dangerous and used application by the “ISIS”, in an attempt to “build identity”; to consecrate and deepen his personal identity as a defender of Muslims in the world, to spread his ideas and recruit members and to guide them in Europe, especially the process of attracting and recruiting foreign fighters. Indeed, it is clear that a large proportion of soldiers are Westerners[108].

Some network terrorism experts, such as Nico Porcha of the University of Vienna, estimate that the use of Telegram’s “push” has seen a quantum leap by the beginning of 2016, with more than 30,000 messages now being published every week.

As for nusra front organization, it arose during the Syrian civil war and soon grew its capabilities to become within a few months of the most prominent forces of armed opposition fighting the Syrian state. The Front called in a statement to the Syrians “for jihad” and took up arms against the Syrian regime, Of the establishment of the front saying that it came from the founders of the “to restore the authority of God to his land” and was indeed came and was created to protect the Syrian people oppressed the oppressive regime oppressor[109]. As the number of fighters joining under the banner of the victory is estimated at 12 thousand individuals, mostly Syrians, with the presence of thousands of “Mujahedeen” Arabs, including a number that appears larger with previous leaks that talked about the fighters of the front not more than five thousand fighters across Syria , Most of the elements of the front when they were founded were Syrians who fought in the battlefields, such as Iraq, Afghanistan, Chechnya and others, who have a long tradition of fighting armies, and is also embedded with Arab fighters, Turks, Uzbeks, Chechens, Tajiks and a few Europeans. The opposite of an ISIS organization that is totally supportive of an understanding that adopts the same thought, but the nusra front is limited to its objectives in Syria as it was revealed to us even most of its members are Syrians , but its thinking is global and its first and final objective is the caliphate  Hence, it shows us that a global influence is not confined to Arabs But also Westerners[110], but the nusra front affects the young people and Arab citizens in a large way and also use social networking sites for recruitment through which and “nusra front” publish its data and publications exclusively through the White Manara Media Production. The Nasar Front also has correspondents in most of the Syrian governorates. They publish the group’s publications and news in those areas, such as Idleb, Aleppo correspondent and Damascus correspondent. Al-Nasra also founded Al-Basra Media Production Corporation, which focuses on its publications on the advocacy side, fighting ideas that it deems deviant, and contrary to religion[111] .

also, ISIS and nusra front organization regularly publish images of violence, a form of psychological warfare that aims to instill fear in both his enemies and his base. The organization chooses to disseminate information when needed and in accordance with changes in the local context. For example, if the organization senses that the local population is beginning to be restless, spreading more publicity about its development initiatives; and if it senses a growing likelihood of political or military confrontation, it will publish more brutal images to instill fear in its opponents. High-cost tactics and highly organized returns have helped both military and propaganda gains, sometimes called “propaganda through action” Thus, it is possible to say that both organization (ISIS . nursa front) agreed on the same ideology which related to advertising propaganda and how to use the social networking sites and benefit from it. but ISIS is different from nusra front in many things as we said before that the ISIS and nusra front dissident from al-Qaeda organization, but ISIS organization advocating rebellion against the organization of the rule and followed the style of more racist and Takfiri so ISIS announced a long-term goal is the establishment of an Islamic state, or succession, based on extreme jurisprudence in the law, more than just a terrorist organization. [1

The third   :to what extent the people know the terrorist groups (isis –al-Nusra front )  how to know it :-

Table (1): Initial knowledge of the “Islamic State”..

A militant group called the “Islamic State” in Iraq and Syria, known as ISIS or ISIL Took control of some areas of Iraq and Syria, and killed two American journalists, to what extent you heard or read about it and its work: a lot, a little, not much, no knowledge?

Much Little bit

 

 

not much There is no knowledge I don’t know there is no answer
End of [113]June 36% 31% 29% 3%  *
Mid of September[114] 48% 33% 18% 2% *
End of September[115] 56% 23% 15% 5% *
Beginning OF October [116] 56% 31% 12% 1% *

Table 1: Conducted by CBS News/New York Times

This Polls show that there is considerable knowledge of the “Islamic state “And this knowledge is growing among Americans, as the percentage of the people who know it much is increase to be  (56%) in the Marist College Institute for Public Opinion conducted at the end of September 2014, as well as a poll CBS News conducted in October of the same year, while the knowledge was Significantly (36%) only at the end of June 2014 as in a poll, CBS News It is obvious that the length of time of air strikes and coalition operations and their important events will increase public knowledge, as well as the issue of the execution of Western and Arab hostages, and the depiction of head cropping and burnings will lead the percentage of knowledge to be 87% of much and little bit . These results are also consistent with the NBC News / Wall poll Street Journal in early September 2014 before the start of air operations, where it turned out (78%) of Americans have a great deal of knowledge (27%) or little knowledge (51%) Media coverage in the heads of American journalists, and follow the bulletins While those who did not know anything about the subject were (22%) (Table 2).

It is interesting to note that all the questions that asked about knowledge of Islamic state  “has been known to the issue of killing American journalists, some of them were written on The issue of cutting heads.

Table 2: Knowledge of the cutting off of American journalists by the “Islamic state”

As you now know, the ISIS in Syria and Iraq has won Significant regional gains in these countries, announced the establishment of an independent Islamic state, you have seen or read Or heard news coverage of the headscarf of American journalists by the terrorist group ISIS? ) If yes, ask: Have you seen, read or heard a lot or a little about this

Subject[117]?

No

 

Yes A little Yes a  lot
22%

 

51% 27 %

Table 2: conducted by NBC News, Wall Street Journal, Conducted by Hart Research Associates/Public Opinion Strategies

And on the identification of the existence of the organization «Islamic state», it was found from a survey Pew Research Center for the People & the Press At the end of September 2014, the highest percentage was known to be the existence of the “Islamic State” In Syria (67%) compared to other countries.

And This chart(1) shows what I mean  :

Graph 1 made by Author according to Princeton Survey Research Associates International,[118]

As result this chart assured that a large number of people not only know where the ISIS existed but also know everything about it and This chart also confirms the table that we talked about it in Above .

In the follow-up developments concerning the «Islamic State» in the Arab countries Which is included in the Arab public opinion poll on the international coalition against the organization «Daash» We find that (75%) of the Arab public opinion are watching permanently or follow sometimes, In addition to (13%) they rarely follow, and only (11%) do not follow at all ,Follow-up countries led Lebanon, Iraq and Syrian refugees, which are countries that Have a direct relationship to the “Islamic state”, and when comparing the latest results with the opinion of The American public, as we have seen previously, is fairly close to gather .With regard to follow-up and knowledge, some questions have been asked as to the extent American interest in the “Islamic state”; and its results are not different from the follow-up And knowledge from CNN / ORC poll conducted at the end of the month September that the vast majority of Americans are very interested, and are somewhat interested in The Islamic State (85%) (51%, 34%)

As we show in this -:(3) Table

How much attention is given to the current situation with respect to ISIS troops in Iraq and Syria

very interested Little interested Not very interested Not interested at all No opinion
51% 34% 9% 7% *

Table 3 conducted by ORC International[119].

All of that tables and charts is related to ISIS organization and explain very clearly how the people know this organization and The extent to which people know this group and it is already clear that the world, whether Arab or Western follow the news of this group and has a popularity not only Arab but also Western and now I will speak about nusra front organization.

Where there is A poll on Public Opinion Towards Terrorist Organizations in Iraq, Syria, Yemen, and Libya released from Independent Institute for Administration and Civil Society Studies (IIACSS) Iraq.

Chart (2)

Some people describe the following movements as terrorist while others describe them as non-terrorist. Do you think Nusra Front is a terrorist movement or non-terrorist movement?

Conducted by Independent Institute for Administration and Civil Society Studies (IIACSS)[120].

So this chart explain that nusra front organization is consider as terrorist organization in Iraq by 65% compare to Syria that consider it as a not terrorist movement with a large percentage reach to 43% and 35% from Syrian people remember them as terrorist movement so It can be concluded that Syria considers the group of nusra front non-terrorist in proportion to the other groups and the people help them because nusra front  arose in order to defend the Syrian people and during the Syrian revolution to protect the Syrian people and therefore must be supported and considered it is  non-terrorist group Unlike in Iraq because of the spread of what do yo do by ISIS organization in this country so all of people think that anything related to ISIS from close or far is terrorist Movement.

Another chart explains that the nusra front is less extremism than Isis

Chart (3)

Conducted by Independent Institute for Administration and Civil Society Studies (IIACSS)[121].

This chart shows what we talked about the nusra front and that it is less extreme than ISIS and the most extremist groups are ISIS and Hezbollah.

Thus, it is possible to conclude from all these questionnaires that his group is supportive and his group is the front of the victory. They have a great community and many people know them. Therefore, we can conclude that it is easy for these groups to influence their national identity either at the Western or Arab level and can change this identity. And the values of citizens for many people and therefore we can move to the last point and what are the role of these groups in the formation of a new identity for young people and change their thinking and recruiting them and what tools they use to do all of this.

And the fear here on the new generation that is born on all these crimes and violence and acts of terrorism naturally affected by all this and over time will end the identity whether Arab or Western that did not fight these groups and are blown because if these groups will continue to be a new identity of them Interacting with these groups and adopting their ideas and another fighting these groups, such as extreme right wing in the West. Here, a big gap will occur. A racist society will be created that hates all Muslims and can’t distinguish between the moderate Muslim and the extremist Muslim.

*conclusion: –

The organization of “Islamic state” in Iraq and Syria and nusra front represents a threat to the neighboring countries of Iraq and Syria in light of the danger of exporting terrorism to the Gulf states through the formation of networks to recruit young people from the Gulf states to fight in the ranks of the ISIS and El Nusra Front in Syria . Moreover, the danger of such terrorist group is because of the probability of the entering countries Gulf Cooperation Council in the kind of sectarian war as it a threat to its national security.

However, as we mention before about such terrorist group and how they appeared , we should face those reasons , whole the Arab leaders and Arab countries should provide good education to their population to be aware of the threats that they may face if those groups spread in our countries , they also should support the standard living as such terrorist group always tries to attract the poor people to join them , they also use the social media to manipulate the youth brains trying to change their identity and their beliefs .

At the end, if we didn’t face those groups from attacking youths, we will lose our Arabic Identity even our countries, they will prevail the corruption in everywhere, all the countries in the middle East should double their efforts and walk through the way of unity to be unbeatable.

Recommendation:

Now, Globalization becomes clear fact in our life which we should not ignore it but we must deal with it in attempting to save our local identity in the same time.

The problem is greater than that of an individual with whatever capabilities, and the solution is combined with an institutional effort that realizes the reality of the problem.

(A)Institutional level:

First: think tank:

Here the study will illustrate the role of think tank that related with the problem collaborated with the universities.

1- Universities Help think tanks in identifying newer themes for research. As well as,

Collaboration with university faculties in their individual capacities as consultants in research undertaken by think tanks results in value addition. [122]

by applying this on this study, the researcher reaches that Arab identity and Arab language are the basic of the Arab World and the use of communication technology penetrate our identity as mentioned, so this theme should be added to the Agenda of think tank in Arab societies.

Here, the researcher found that the poor performance of Arab think tank  in facing the pentration of Arab language and Arab identity .

So, Arab think tanks should double its efforts in writing researches focus on Arab identity and the importance of sticking to the Arab language in Arab societies.

2- The contributions of students of Ph.D. and other research students working as interns in think tanks helps capture young and fresh minds, and motivate them to participate in the research activities of think tanks.[123]

As the topic of this study is almost new theme and related more to youth especially those who use communication technology in the modern era, such previouse concept will attract youth to read think tank researches and be aware of the Arabizi phenomenon and its side effect on the Arab identity and Arab language.

3- Participation of think tank faculties/staff in various seminars and conferences organised by universities.

This is a very important point as conferences and seminars that related to university reached a great segment of youth so think tank should put in his regard to choose new topics related to the modern era such as: the Arab identity, the importance of Arab langueage and their impact in penetrating Arab societies.[124]

Example for the efforts that adopted by think tank in this area is that:

The Nigerian Center for Arab Research ,which established in 2005, that aims to serve Arabic language and enrich the culture in the Arab countries through scientific seminars, workshops, lectures and scientific publishing in Arabic.[125]

Second : Alazhar Alsharif:

Alazhar has a great role to play in publish the Arabic language -as mentioned before – which is a core of the Arab identity.

Alazhar should make great efforts to teach Arabic language to non-native speakers that’s through developing an annual plane for a range of distinct

And specialized programs. And all programs should be provided by Alazhar without fees on trainee to attract a great number of non-native speakers to prevail Arabic language.

An example for the efforts that made by Alazhar is that:

Dr.Ahmed Al-Tayeb, sheikh of Al-azhar, received south korea’s ambassador in cairo in 2-1-2017, and Dr.Ahmed stated that Al-azhar is ready to provide scholarship to the Muslim students in south Korea to study at Al-azhar and learn Arabic language through the teaching of Arabic to non-native speakers of Al-azhar center . also he stated that he is ready to establish a center to teach the Arabic language in south Korea.[126]

Government: Third

Government should supervise international schools and universities, review the curricula offered to students, organize conferences and seminars for students to show importance of local identity and how save it, strength the role of think tanks in facing of western identity as we will see in the next chapter…..etc.

put medium and long-term programs (within the framework of the national strategy to combat terrorism) to neutralize or reduce the chances of new members joining terrorist groups by promoting rights such as the right to education, supporting the rule of law, combating administrative and financial corruption.

promote the spirit of citizenship and belonging and to prevent any discriminatory methods in the distribution of wealth and employment opportunities in different regions and to emphasize the value of achievement, efficiency and performance instead of subsidiary loyalties.

promote programs of tolerance culture in the region and to create an appropriate atmosphere for dialogue and the right of difference between religions and sects as a means of creating societies that reject religious extremism in the region.

Encourage the media to contribute to uncovering the crimes of terrorism and its destructive effects and to avoid misleading, falsifying and blurring the truth

(B)individual level:

The research can’t overlook the role of the individual in facing this phenomenon. This individual efforts and responsbilities may be distributed in different areas.

1-the specialists in Arabic language  should publish what they produce on the internet in Fu-sha ,so that the languge will be more used . If added to these millions of academics, university professors, institutes, teachers, poets, writers, and intellectual ,this will be a milestone in the dissemination of the fu-sha .

2- the family affects in enhancing Arab language among its individuals.

3-to instill linguistic identity and Arab cultural identity through youth campaigns and electronic games translated into Arabic.

4-the Arab governments have to develop a language policy supported by an obligated political decision ,including linguistic planning for teaching Arabic at school and university, and to put rules to teach Arabic language  for the first phase of the study without competition from another language before eight or nine years old.

5-the need to ensure renewal and innovation in the language and put laws to protect Arabic language, and support it to face the era of science and technology and the information technology.

People as students should form culture and knowledge about their local identity with all components, study their history, be proud of the Arabic language, and Adheres to the teachings of religion.

People as parents also should do what is mentioned above in addition to supervise their sons and teachings of their schools and university.

, our local identity considers us and we are nothing without it.

References:

English references: 

First  books:

_ 1-Cook W .John . ( 1999 ) . morality and culture differences , Oxford university press

in_2-Hasselblatt, Houtzagers & van, Pareren.( 2011). language of contact times of globalization, 38 ed, Amsterdam, New York: Rodopi

3-Huntington, p. Samuel.( 1996). The clash of civilizations and the remaking of world order.New York, Simon& Schuster Rockefeller Center.

Second periodicals :

1_ Al btoush,Mhammad. (2014).  English loanwords in colloquial Jordanian Arabic. International Journal of linguistics, Vol.6,NO.2.

2- Alkhresheh, Mutaz. (2015). Code-switching and mixing of English and Arabic amongst Arab students at Aligarh Muslim University in India. International Journal of science and research publications. Vol.5, issue 3_Al-Tamimi, A. Yaser&Gorgis ,T. Dinha.(2007).Romanised Jordanian Arabic E-Massages. The international Journal of language society and culture.issue 21.

4_ Demaine.Jake. (2002) globalization and citizen ship education, international studies in sociology education, Vol .12, Num. 2 .

5_ M.Kraidy , Marwan.(2002) globalization of culture through media , university of pennsylvania ,Vol 2 .

6_ Sedral Seven and Mehmet Akif Inci(2016) , social behavios in nuclear and extended families ,international journal of social science and humanity , Vol.6 , No.2.

7_Wid, H.Allehaiby. (2013). Arabizi: An analysis of the Romanization of the Arabic Script from a sociolinguistic Perspective . Arab World English Journal. Volume 4, Number 3.

Third studies :

1-Aboulfetouh, Mona, (May 2014). Parents’ Attitudes towards Their Children’s Bilingualism and Cultural Identity in International Schools in Egypt: for the degree of master, The American University in Cairo.

2-_Banerjee, Anuradha,Mishra, Vainod& Sabharwal Nidhi. Exploring effectiveness and impact: think tank- University relationships in South Asia. India, Institute of Dalit Studies.

3_Bjornesson,Jan. (2010). Egyptians Romanized Arabic: A study of selected features from communication among Egyptian youth on face book. Thesis of the degree of Master of Arts in the field of Arabic language. University of Oslo.

4_Buckingham, David.(2008). Introducing identity. Institute of Education, University of London, Center for study of children, youth and media.

5_ Castells,Manuel,Globalization and identity, University of California, Berkeley.

6_ Cafarella .Jennifer, Gambhir. Harleen, and Zimmerman. Katherine. (2016)  .” JABHAT AL NUSRA AND ISIS: SOURCES OF STRENGTH,(Washington . institute for the study of war.2016) .

7_Daoudi, Anissa. (2011). Globalisation and E-arabic: The emergence of a new language at the literal and figurative levels. Studies in Slavic and General Linguistics.

8_ Hopkyns. Sarah, The effects of global English on culture and identity in the UAE:a double-edged sword, zayed university,UAE.

9_ Jan. Mirza.(2012) globalization of media : key issues and dimensions , Gomal university , pakistan

10_ Matos , Carolina,(2012) globalization and mass media  , city university of london , oxford wiley Black well.

11_ Safwat. Christine , Adel. Heba, George. Mireille , Sobhy. Silvana &, the effect of technology on human behavior ( a case study on BBC secondary school and Biritsh university in Egypt ) graduation project , faculty of economics and political science , cairo university

12-Studying identity in social psychology some thoughts on the definition of identity and its relation to action, Xenia Chryssochoou, University of Surrey, 2003 .

13_ Tomlinson ,John , globalization and cultural identity .

14_ Urrutia, Olivier.. 2013. the role of think tanks in the definition and application of defence policies and strategies. Revista del Instituto Espanol de Estudios Estrategicos.

15-Wang , Dawei.(2008) globalization of the media : does it undermine national cultures ? , communication university of china.

Fourth Reports :

1_ Affairs House of Representatives Subcommittee on Terrorism, Terrorist Groups in Syria.

2_ BIBARS I. Gender and citizenship in the Arab World: to be or not to be and their compromised citizenship. ASSOCIATION FOR DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT OF WOMEN. Reported at the UNDP in 2005.

3_ Charles River Editors(2016) ,”The Al-Nusra Front: The History of the Syrian Rebel Group Formerly Affiliated with Al-Qaeda”(American , Create Space Independent Publishing Platform .

4_ European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice, 2016). Promoting citizenship and the common values of freedom, tolerance and non-discrimination through education: Overview of education policy developments in Europe following the Paris Declaration of 17 March 2015. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

5_ Hargreaves, E. (1997). The Diploma Disease in Egypt: Learning,teaching and the monster of the secondary leaving certificate. Assessment in education: principle, policy&practice

Fifth conferences:

1_ Ladi, Stella. (5-9 december 1999). Globalization, think tanks and policy transfer. Paper presented in the World Bank conference of the global development network . Bonn, Germany.

2_ Taha, Mustafa. (2015). Arabizi: is code-switching a threat to Arabic language. Paper presented in the Asian conference on Arts & Humanities. UAE.

Sixth Articles:

-1-ABELSON, Donald (2002). Do Think Tanks Matter? Assessing the Impact of Public Policy Institutes. Kingston and Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

2_ Alikberova, R. Alfiga & Valeyevul, M. Ramil (2015). think tanks as the soft power tool in the foreign policy of the people’s Republic of China, Medwell Journals.

3_ citizenship and political reform in egypt ” which role for women?” ,erica konti,lucca institue for advanced studies , italy .

4_ Herleen k.cambhir,” The Strategic Messaging of the Islamic State”, DabiQ ,august 15,2014

5-Hjarvard, Stig. (2004). The Globalization of language. How the Media Contribute to the Spread of English.

6_ Huntington, Samuel(2004) ,  the clash of civilization , council on foreign affairs

7_ Lister .Charles. ( 2016 ) .”profiling jab hat al-nusra “Washington USA – center for middle east policy ” .

8_ Ladi, Stella.(2005). Globalization, policy transfer an policy research institute

9_ Malkaw.Banan.the Islamic state organization the Sunni crisis and the struggle of global jihadism

10_ Malkaw. Banan, Mahmud. Hassan, Suliman. Mohammad& (2015)“the Islamic state organization the Sunni crisis and the struggle of global jihadism” : (Jordan, Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung Jordan & Iraq).

11_ Mcgann, James.(2012).Global go to think tank.

12_ Nonproliferation, and trade of the Committee on Foreign Affairs House of Representatives Subcommittee on Terrorism,” Terrorist Groups in Syria ”(America , Create Space Independent Publishing Platform ,2014)

13_ Positive discipline coalition of durham region , introdution to the roles of extended family .

14- Stone Diane, Fischer Frank, Miller J. Gerald& Sidney S. Mara (Eds.).(2007). Handbook of public policy analysis: public policy analysis and think tanks. New York press.

15_ Sulaiman, Jawad, Sadek .(2007). The Arab identity. Al-Hewar / The Arab- American Dialogue.

21_ Thompson, John B,(1995) The Media and Modernity,Social Theory of the Media Polity Press Cambridge, 1995.

Seventh internet resources:

_ 1-Conducted by CBS News/New York Times, June 20 – June 22, 2014 and based on 1,009 telephone interviews. Sample: National adult, the interviews were conducted by land-line and cell phones. Interviews were conducted by SSRS-Social Science Research Solutions, * = less than 0.5%.

_ 2-Conducted by CBS News/New York Times, September 12 – September 15, 2014 and based on1,009 telephone interviews. Sample: National adult, the interviews were conducted by land-line and cell phones. Interviews were conducted by SSRS-Social Science Research Solutions, * = less than0.5%

3_ Conducted by CBS News, October 3 – October 6, 2014 and based on 1,260 telephone interviews. Sample: National adult, the interviews were conducted by land-line and cell phones. Interviews were conducted by SSRS-Social Science Research Solutions, * = less than0.5%.

4_ survey by IIACSS Prepared for March 4, 2015 Presentation at CSIS, Washington, D.C.

5_ Survey by Cable News Network, Conducted by ORC International, September 25 – September 28, 2014 and based on 1,055 telephone interviews. Sample: National adult. The sample included 704 interviews among landline respondents and 351 interviews among cell phone respondents,* = Less than 5%.

6_ Survey by Pew Research Center for the People & the Press, Conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates International, September 25 – September 28, 2014 and based on 1,002 telephone interviews. Sample: National adult. 501 respondents were interviewed on a landline telephone, and501 were interviewed on a cell phone, including 289 who had no landline telephone.

7_ Survey by NBC News, Wall Street Journal, Conducted by Hart Research Associates/Public Opinion Strategies, September 3 – September 7, 2014 and based on 1,000 telephone interviews. Sample: National registered voters. The sample included 350 respondents who use a cell phone only and 32 reached on a cell phone but who also have a landline, Asked of Form A half sample.

8_ Survey by McClatchy, Conducted by Marist College Institute for Public Opinion, September 24 – September 29, 2014 and based on 1,052 telephone interviews. Sample: National adult, Interviews were conducted by landline and cell phones.

Eighth websites:

1 _Bickle , Laura(2009) the cyber family  , todaysparent.com , May11. https://www.google.com.eg/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=%2Famp%2Fwww.todaysparent.com%2Ffamily%2Fparenting%2Fthe-cyber-

2 _ CHASTAIN. MARY,” ISIS Propaganda Manual Reveals Social Media Strategy”,breitbart store, 28 Oct 2015

http://www.breitbart.com/national-security/2015/10/28/isis-propaganda-manual-reveals-social-media-strategy/

3_ COKER, CHRISTOPHER (2002): Globalization and terrorism,

http://www.g8.utoronto.ca/conferences/2002/tokyo/cocker.pdf , accessed  Jan 7,2017 .

4_ El-Meshad, S. (2012). Egypt’s school system: Taking a look at schools, their curricula, and accreditation. Retrieved from http://www.egyptindependent.com/node/1156966.

5_ F. Gregory Gause ,“The Year the Arab Spring Went Bad”, Brookings , December 31, 201

https://www.brookings.edu/opinions/the-year-the-arab-spring-went-bad/  accessed Jan4,2017 .

6_ İbrahim Kalın . ( 2015 ) .” Failed states, weak governments: A global threat”, daily Sabah columns , February 3

https://www.dailysabah.com/columns/ibrahim-kalin/2015/02/03/failed-states-weak-governments-a-global-threat accessed Jan 7,2017 .

7-M. Cherif Bassiouni ,” Islamic Civilization”, middle east institute Jan 24, 2012

http://www.mei.edu/content/islamic-civilization accessed Jan 1, 2017 .

8_ Singal. Jesse” Why ISIS Is So Terrifyingly Effective at Seducing New Recruits”, science of us, August 18, 2014

http://nymag.com/scienceofus/2014/08/how-isis-seduces-new-recruits.html accessed 5 Jan 2017.

9_ The tragedy of the Arabs”, the economist, Jul 5th 2014

http://www.economist.com/news/leaders/21606284-civilisation-used-lead-world-ruinsand-only-locals-can-rebuild-it accessed Jan4,2017 .

10_ Zelin. Aaron. ( 2013 ) .“International Jihad and the Syrian Conflict,” The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, Augus17, Accessed 7 Jan 2017.

http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/international-jihad-and-the-syrian-conflict.

11_………………. ( 2016 ) .” MSM using pro-al Nusra “media center” as source for war-propaganda “,off-guardian, August 18 accessed 7 Jan 2017 .

https://off-guardian.org/2016/08/18/media-using-pro-al-nusra-media-center-as-source-for-war-propaganda/

ثانيا مراجع باللغة العربية:

أولا الكتب:

1-إبراهيم ،إنتصار،صفد حسام الساموك , الإعلام الجديد.(2011 ).الطبعة الاولي، جامعة بغداد , سلسة مكتبة الإعلام والمجتمع .

2- الرميح، مني. لغة الشباب العربي في وسائل التواصل الحديثة: ثقافة تغيير اللغة العربية لدي شباب الوطن العربي وأثرها علي الهوية الثقافية.(2014).الطبعة الأولي، الرياض، مركز الملك عبدالله بن عبد العزيز الدولي.

3- الشويرخ ، صالح. لغة الشباب العربي في وسائل التواصل الحديثة: العربيزي.(2014).الطبعة الاولي، الرياض،مركز الملك عبد الله بن عبد العزيز الدولي .

4- الغامدي ،حمدة. لغة الشباب العربي في وسائل التواصل الحديثة: الشباب السعودي يغرد بالعربيزي …ما الدوافع؟.(2014). الطابعة الاولي، الرياض،مركز الملك عبد الله بن عبد العزيز الدولي .

5- الهامشي هشام . ( 2015 ) . عالم داعش تنظيم الدوله الاسلاميه في العراق والشام, (لندن -دار الحكمه).

6- عطية، محمد عبدالرؤوف،التعليم وأزمة الهوية الثقافية.(2009). مؤسسة طيبة للنشر والتوزيع، القاهرة،مصر.

ثانيا الدوريات:

1- عماره دينا ,” تنظيم القاعدة‏..‏ بصمة أمريكية وراء النشأة و التأسيس”.(8 يناير 2014). الاهرام(مصر).

2-غسان ملحم ,الحركات الاسلاميه الراديكاليه في الشرق الاوسط.(25 أبريل 2013). الاخبار(مصر) .

ثالثا الرسائل العلمية:

1- برهان حافظ عبد الرحمن ،دور التعليم العالي في تعزيز الهوية الفلسطينية وأثره على التنمية السياسية من وجهة نظر الطلبة والعاملين .(2010).جامعة النجاح أنموذجا هذه الدراسة استكمالاً لمتطلبات الحصول على درجة الماجسـتير فـي التخطـيط والتنمية السياسية ،كلية الدراسات العليا، جامعة النجاح الوطنية.

2- جلسة وسائل التواصل الإجتماعي وإثراء المحتوي القومي للتنمية الإقتصادية العربية الشاملة, محور تأثير وسائل التواصل الإلكتروني في التطور الإجتماعي – الإقتصادي , جامعة الدول العربية.

3- لعياضي نصر الدين , إشكالية الإعلام في عصر العولمة , كلية الإقتصاد والعلوم السياسية والإعلامية , جامعة الجزائر .

4- محمد صايل نصر الله الزيود , تأثير العولمة علي الثقافة العربية ,كلية العلوم التربوية , الجامعة الأردنية , عمان .

رابعا التقارير:

1-تقرير “وسائل التواصل الإجتماعي في العالم العربي ” .(2015). الصادر عن قمة رواد التواصل الإجتماعي العرب , التقرير الأول .

خامسا الندوات والمؤتمرات:

1- الدوكالي،بالنور:التعليم العالي وسوق العمل،ندوة التعليم العالي،خمسون عاما من العطاء.(2005).

سادسا مادة إعلامية:

1- كدبة كل يوم , الصادر عن السينما المصرية , الماسة للإنتاج الفني, إخراج خالد الحلفاوي.

 

Questionnaire for

“Impact of international schools and universities on local identity”

Please fill in this form as it seeks to measure the impact of international schools and universities on the local Egyptian identity if this effect is positive or negative through a number of indicators.

First Personal data:

1-Age:        year

2 – Gender:    Male                                 Female

3- Residence: Urban                               countryside

4 – Teaching of the Father:

Illiterate

Less than average

Average

Collectors above

5 – Teaching of  the Mother:

Illiterate

Less than average

Average

Collectors above

Second, study the impact of international schools and universities on students:

  1. Since when did you study at this institution?

7-Do you greet the flag in the morning with your colleagues?

Yes                           No Go to Question 8

8-Why do not you greet the flag?

9 – Do you listen to the national anthem at events and celebrations?

Yes                           No

  1. What subjects are taught in Arabic?
  1. Does the school / university celebrate religious and national events?

Yes Go to Question 12                  No

12-What are the manifestations of celebration?

– Seminars and conferences

– Concerts

– Plays

  1. Does the school / university host public figures on historic national occasions and holidays?

Yes                                          No

  1. Do the school / university hold regular seminars and conferences?

Yes Go to Question 15                  No

15- What are the topics of these seminars?

_Date

-National nationalism

– Cultural differences

-Other not mentioned

  1. Where do you use English?

– School / University

– Home

-friends

– All places

  1. In your opinion, is Arabic a weak language?

Yes                                         No

18- Do you follow the new in literature, songs, magazines, movies, serials and everything new in the Western and American world?

Yes Go to Question 19                 No

  1. Does this affect your Egyptian and Arab identity?

Yes Go to Question 20                  No

  1. What are the manifestations of this effect?

21- Are you looking for foreign friends?

Yes Go to Question 22                      No

  1. Do these friendships affect your identity?

Yes Go to Question 23                      No

23 – What are the manifestations of this effect?

Do you like to buy famous foreign brands?

Yes Go to Question 25                      No

  1. What are the reasons behind this?

26- Do you think that schools and international groups affect your identity?

Yes Go to Question 27                     No

  1. What kind of influence is this?

Positive                                         negative

  1. What are the manifestations of this effect?
  2. What do you prefer to follow in your life’s behaviors?

– Some customs and traditions of Egyptian society

– The traditions of Western society

  1. Is your participation of holidays and events with your family and friends necessary?

Yes                                               No

  1. Do you engage in any civil action?

Yes Go to Question 32                       No

  1. What is the nature of this work?
  2. Why participate in this work?
  3. What are the occasions and festivals you celebrate?

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5-khabbar.Sanaa.(2016) identity and internationalization of education: the case of Egyptian students at the American university in Cairo, European educational research association.

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http://nymag.com/scienceofus/2014/08/how-isis-seduces-new-recruits.html accessed 5 Jan 2017

113- CHASTAIN. MARY,” ISIS Propaganda Manual Reveals Social Media Strategy”,breitbart store, 28 Oct 2015

http://www.breitbart.com/national-security/2015/10/28/isis-propaganda-manual-reveals-social-media-strategy/

accessed 5 Jan 2017

114- Zelin. Aaron. ( 2013 ) .“International Jihad and the Syrian Conflict,” The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, Augus17,

http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/international-jihad-and-the-syrian-conflict. Accessed 7 Jan 2017

115- lister .Charles. ( 2016 ) .”profiling jab hat al-nusra “(Washington USA – center for middle east policy ” ,pp 29-35

116________-(2016) .” MSM using pro-al Nusra “media center” as source for war-propaganda “,off-guardian, August 18

https://off-guardian.org/2016/08/18/media-using-pro-al-nusra-media-center-as-source-for-war-propaganda/

accessed 7 Jan 2017

117- Cafarella .Jennifer, Gambhir. Harleen, and Zimmerman. Katherine. ( 2016 ) .” JABHAT AL NUSRA AND ISIS: SOURCES OF STRENGTH

,(Washington . institute for the study of war.2016) ,pp 11,16

118- Conducted by CBS News/New York Times, June 20 – June 22, 2014 and based on 1,009 telephone

interviews. Sample: National adult, the interviews were conducted by land-line and cell phones.

Interviews were conducted by SSRS-Social Science Research Solutions, * = less than 0.5%.

119- Conducted by CBS News/New York Times, September 12 – September 15, 2014 and based on

1,009 telephone interviews. Sample: National adult, the interviews were conducted by land-line and

cell phones. Interviews were conducted by SSRS-Social Science Research Solutions, * = less than

0.5%.

120- Survey by McClatchy, Conducted by Marist College Institute for Public Opinion, September 24 –

September 29, 2014 and based on 1,052 telephone interviews. Sample: National adult, Interviews

were conducted by landline and cell phones.

121- Conducted by CBS News, October 3 – October 6, 2014 and based on 1,260 telephone interviews.

Sample: National adult, the interviews were conducted by land-line and cell phones. Interviews were

conducted by SSRS-Social Science Research Solutions, * = less than 0.5%.

122- Survey by NBC News, Wall Street Journal, Conducted by Hart Research Associates/Public Opinion

Strategies, September 3 – September 7, 2014 and based on 1,000 telephone interviews. Sample:

National registered voters. The sample included 350 respondents who use a cell phone only and 32

reached on a cell phone but who also have a landline, Asked of Form A half sample.

123- Survey by Pew Research Center for the People & the Press, Conducted by Princeton Survey Research

Associates International, September 25 – September 28, 2014 and based on 1,002 telephone

interviews. Sample: National adult. 501 respondents were interviewed on a landline telephone, and

501 were interviewed on a cell phone, including 289 who had no landline telephone

124- Survey by Cable News Network, Conducted by ORC International, September 25 – September 28, 2014

and based on 1,055 telephone interviews. Sample: National adult. The sample included 704 interviews

among landline respondents and 351 interviews among cell phone respondents,* = Less than 5%.

125- survey by IIACSS Prepared for March 4, 2015 Presentation at CSIS, Washington, D.C.

126- survey by IIACSS Prepared for March 4, 2015 Presentation at CSIS, Washington, D.C.

98-Banerjee, Anuradha,Mishra, Vainod& Sabharwal Nidhi. Exploring effectiveness and impact: think tank- University relationships in South Asia. India, Institute of Dalit Studies. P.40.

     IPID. P.40.99-Banerjee ,Anuradha,Mishra, Vainod& Sabharwal Nidhi

IPID. P.41.100-Banerjee, Anuradha,Mishra, Vainod& Sabharwal Nidhi

http://www.azhar.eg/ArticleDetails/101-

http://www.azhar.eg/bookfair2017/ 102-

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