fbpx
Research studies

University Youth Interaction with the Libyan Crisis through Facebook -A Field Study on the Users of the BBC Arabic Channel and the “American Free Arabic” Channel’s Pages

Prepared by the researcher –

Dr. Sekkal Babou Meryem–  Associate professor  – Moulay Taher Saida University, Algeria

Dr. Mahmoud Mohamed Ahmed – PhD in Media and Communication from Minia University – Egypt

Democratic Arab Center

Journal of Afro-Asian Studies : Sixth issue – July 2020

A Periodical International Journal published by the “Democratic Arab Center” Germany – Berlin. The journal deals with the field of Afro-Asian strategic, political and economic studies

Nationales ISSN-Zentrum für Deutschland
ISSN 2628-6475
Journal of Afro-Asian Studies
 :To download the pdf version of the research papers, please visit the following link

https://democraticac.de/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/Journal-of-Afro-Asian-Studies-Sixth-issue-July-2020.pdf 

Abstract:

The study aimed to identify the interaction of the researchers with the Libyan crisis on the pages of the BBC’ Arabic channel ‘ and the channel ‘Al-Hurra American Arabic’, A descriptive method was used in sample scanning as a data collection tool, The field sample consisted of 400 individual students from Cairo and Minya universities who were followers of the Libyan crisis, on the BBC channel ‘Arab’ and the channel ‘Al-Hurra American Arabic’. It turns arround the existence of a statistical function correlation between the follow-up of the researchers to the Libyan crisis on the pages of the BBC ‘Arabic’ channel and the channel ‘Al-Hurra American Arabi’, and the forms of interaction with it,=. The value of the correlation factor (0.41**), a function at a level (0.01).

Introduction

Interactivity via Facebook is a feature of news pages as it permits the audience to receive information and become a participant and producer of it at the same time. The patterns of receiving in addition to the forms of interaction with news contents of contemporary media are among the most important elements for the success and circulation of the news article. In fact, the social networking site “Facebook” is an important means for exchanging information and news around the world. Social media has enabled journalists and broadcasters to broadcast live events with audio and video as they happen across the world especially the interaction with the Libyan crisis on the pages of the BBC Arabic channel and the American Hurra channel. In light of what has been mentioned, the current study will investigate: the extent of university youth interaction with the Libyan crisis through Facebook.

Previous studies:

 The researchers relied on the following studies on the interaction of Facebook:

Basing on the study of Mahmoud Mohamed (2020), we look at the interaction of the respondents with the videos of the Lebanese movement in the two pages of the press programs today in the ‘An-Nahar’ channel, a reading in the German press in the DW Arabic channel. Then we have found that there is a significant correlation between the respondents ’follow-up of the Lebanese movement’s videos with the two pages of the“ Today’s ”journalistic program,“ An-Nahar ”, a reading in the German press on the DW Arabic channel, and the forms of interaction with them. The correlation coefficient value reached (0.41 **), which is a function at the level of (0.01 )( [1]),

In the same context, the study Khaled Mustafa (2019) aimed to monitor the forms of audience interaction with the official pages of Egyptian satellite channels via ‘Facebook’ and their implications for building its agenda, at audience’s impressive admiration came first in the forms of interaction with the issues under study in the pages of ‘Paper and Pen, Hamza Wasl’ via ‘Facebook’ (65.5%) ([2])

            Areen Zoghbi (2019) main target is to know the priorities of the news in the Arabic-speaking news websites as reflected in the Facebook pages. The results demonstrate that the contents of the political news dominated the list of the contents of the news in the Arabic-language news websites as reflected by the Facebook pages (20.8%) ([3]), Whereas, the study Abdul Hadi Borby (2018) aimed to monitor and analyze the interaction of the users of the Facebook social network with issues of general concern on a Facebook page. Algeria is represented in the issue with the arrival of Mrs. Zahia bin Qara to the presidency of the People’s Assembly. Abdul Hadi Borby’s shows that the users interact admirably with the arguments and proofs about the arrival of Mrs. Zahia bin Qara to the presidency of the municipal people came by (80%), and that the comments on the arguments and proofs about the arrival of Mrs. Zahia bin Qara to the presidency came in the proportion of (50%), where we note that the participants and admirers do not engage in shock reactions involved with sarcasm.([4]),

In a related context, the study of Nitish Kelvin Bisonot sought to analyze (360) video clips about ethics and responsibility on social media on Facebook and YouTube. The research shows that Facebook helped the video journalist in asking questions related to ethics and responsibility on social media for the public (360) and capturing and broadcasting videos on the network, in addition to judging the credibility of video sources better ([5]).

Comments on previous studies and ways to benefit from them:

  • It is clear from previous studies that Arab and foreign schools are interested in interactive video journalism through social media sites as it is a means that allows the user to interact with the media contents that include different topics and issues. Indeed, it is a property of the means and the user together, and among these studies is the study of Khaled Mustafa (2019) and Areen Al-Zoghbi (2019) Abd al-Hadi Burbi (2018), Nitish Kelvin Bissonauth (2017).
  • The two schools differed in the sample, curriculum, goals and results, as the researcher benefited from previous studies in determining the study problem, its goals, hypotheses, questions, and samples. Actually, the theoretical frameworks of previous studies that were commented on in the current study relate to the extent of university youth interaction with the Libyan crisis on the pages of the BBC Arabic channel and the American Hurra channel.

The Research  Problem:

Through a review of previous studies, it becomes clear that interactivity in the pages of news channels via Facebook acquires a special importance for its users, as the public depends on it to extract information and news related to the Libyan crisis. This is also confirmed by the scientific literature relevant to the subject of the study and related to the forms of interaction of users with the Libyan crisis on the pages of the BBC Arabic channel and the American Free Channel. Therefore, the problem of the study revolves around a major question that says: to which extent do university youth interact with the Libyan crisis on Facebook? The study works to achieve its goals by answering this question

From this question emerges the following sub-questions:

  • What is the relationship between the respondents’ follow-up to the Libyan crisis on the BBC Arabic channel and the American Free TV channel, and the forms of interaction with it ?
  • What is the relationship between the extent of the respondents’ follow-up to the Libyan crisis on the BBC Arabic channel and the American Free TV channel, and the degree of benefit from them?

Study hypotheses:

To achieve the aims of the study and to answer its questions, the study hypotheses were in two main hypotheses, namely:

  • There is a statistically significant correlation between the respondents’ follow-up to the Libyan crisis on the BBC Arabic pages and the American Free TV channel, and their interactions with them.
  • There is a statistically significant relationship between the extent of respondents’ follow-up to the Libyan crisis on the BBC Arabic pages and the Free American channel, and the degree of benefit from them.

The Significance of the Study:

  • The theoretical importance of research is due to the focus on the interaction of university youth with the Libyan crisis via Facebook, as it is an important media outlet that contributes to informing the public about the latest developments in the crisis at the local and global level.
  • The applied importance of research stems from the fact that the public benefited from the sample news pages of the study in order to know about the latest developments related to the Libyan crisis and to look for the patterns of interaction of the public towards them, in order to reach new and innovative theories and perceptions within the framework of the relationship between the public and the new media.

Objectives of the study:

The study aims to identify the following main goal: youth interaction with the Libyan crisis through Facebook.

From this goal the following sub-goals are derived:

  • Knowing the relationship between the respondents’ follow-up to the Libyan crisis on the BBC Arabic channel and the American Hurra channel, and the forms of interaction with it.
  • Explaining the relationship between the extent of the respondents’ follow-up to the Libyan crisis on the BBC Arabic pages and the American Al-Hurra channel, and the degree of benefit from them.

The Sample of the Study: 

The study was conducted on a sample of (400) singles from Cairo and Minya University students who used the pages of the BBC Arabic channel, and the American Hurra channel between the ages of 18-20 years. The reasons for selecting the sample are as follows:

  • The researcher has chosen the sample of the Egyptian youth to describe the topic as a category and a segment that represents an active sector in the human society, in addition to the fact that young people in this period are eager to know the news related to the Libyan crisis that arouses their interests.
  • On social media, there are young people with different age levels, varied educational levels, and different genders which provide the researcher with a sample that adequately represents the indigenous community for young people within the community. Therefore, the study sample was distributed equally between both males and females between the pages of the BBC Arabic channel, and the American Hurra channel on Facebook. In order to identify the forms of the respondents’ interaction with the Libyan crisis, it was taken into consideration when selecting the sample that it should be representative of males and females, and the following is a description of the sample according to demographic variables:

Table (1)

Sample description according to demographic variables (n = 400)

% Repetition Demographic characteristics
50% 200 Males Type
50% 200 Females
61.75% 247 18: 35 Age
38.25% 153 35: 40
67.5% 270 Bachelor’s Educational level
32.5% 130 Postgraduate
50% 200 Cairo Geographical distribution
50% 200 Minya
33.75% 135 countryside Residence
66.25% 265 Attended
100% 400                                       Total

The above table shows the followings:

  • In terms of type: male and female use of the BBC Arabic page and Al Hurra American came on an equal percentage (50%), This is because both pages are an important source of public access to news related to the Libyan crisis under consideration on both pages.
  • In terms of age: the age of users of both the BBC Arabic channel and the American Hurra channel was as follows: From (18: 35) in the first place at (61.75%), according to the respondents’ follow-up to the issue under study, followed by (35: 40) in second place at (38.25%). It is clear from the previous results that a category of (18:35) is the younger age group and the most likely to follow the Libyan crisis on the pages of the BBC Arabic channel and the American Free TV channel, this explains that the younger the age is, the more attention and follow-up to the case in question.
  • In terms of educational level: the distribution of the vocabulary of the study sample according to the variable of the educational level reflected the different educational levels at Cairo Minya University which follows the issue under study on the BBC Arabic pages and the American Free Channel. Consequently, (Bachelor’s) are found in the first position with a percentage (67.5%), then (Postgraduate Studies) in the second position with a percentage (32.5%). It is clear from the previous results that the category “Bachelor”, “Postgraduate” is the most likely to follow up on the issue under study and interact with it on both the BBC Arabic channel and the American Free Channel. The findings also explain the extent of the respondents’ awareness of the follow-up to the Libyan crisis, the higher the follow-up rate, the more interaction.
  • In terms of geographical distribution: the distribution of the vocabulary of the study sample according to the variable of geographical distribution came equally for each of the governorates of Cairo and Minya. Each governorate has obtained (50%) of the total sample of the users of the BBC Arabic channel and the American Al Hurra channel.
  • In terms of residence: the distribution of the vocabulary of the study sample according to the variable of residence for the users of the BBC Arabic channel and the American Hurra channel were as follows: (Al-Hadr) is ranked first (66.25%), and it comes at second and last rank (Al-Reef) with (33.75%). It is clear from the previous results that the “urban” category is the most likely to follow and interact with the Libyan crisis, this is because the urban areas are densely populated from the countryside.

The Limits of the Study:

  • Human frontiers: The human limits of the study are represented in a sample of students from the universities of ‘Cairo’, ‘Minya’, who use the pages of the BBC Arabic channel, and the American Hurra channel, between the ages of (18: 40) years, as they were applied during the year 2020 AD.
  • Spatial limits: Restricted to the governorates of ‘Cairo,’ Minya, that was chosen because it relates to the place of study of the researcher as it represents the tribal side, while the governorate of Cairo was chosen because it represents the face of the sea.
  • Objectivity border: the Libyan crisis is limited to the pages of the BBC Arabic channel and the American Al Hurra channel on Facebook.

Time limits:

 It is the period during which researchers conducted the field study on a sample of Egyptian youth using the pages of the BBC Arabic channel, and the Free American Channel, that is in the period from 1/1/2020 to 30/2/2020.

Study tool:

Questionnaire newspaper applied to an intentional sample of (400) individuals from the students of the universities of “Cairo”, “Minya” From the users of the BBC Arabic channel and the American Al Hurra channel, And that is in the period between 1/1/2020 AD and until 2/30/2020 AD.

Type and method of study:

This study belongs to descriptive field research, which mainly seeks to know the interaction of university youth with the Libyan crisis on the pages of the BBC Arabic channel and the American free channel.

Study variables:

  • Independent variable: youth interaction.
  • The intermediate variable: Facebook.
  • Dependent variable: Libyan crisis.

The Cognitive Framework of the study:

Libyan crisis:

It is a military campaign launched by the Libyan National Army that represents the Tobruk government to seize the western region of Libya. Ultimately, the capital, Tripoli, is under the control of the National Accord government ([6])

Interacting with the Libyan Crisis through Facebook:

Interact means the ability of users to communicate, dialogue and share with each other news articles that include topics and issues of common interest ([7])

And Facebook is a social network that plays a pivotal role in broadcasting, reporting and circulating news among its followers ([8]).It is a network that allows its users to obtain information and news and interact with them through and comment on them ([9]).

Interacting with the Libyan crisis is a key feature of the electronic news media, as it allows its users to publicly record their reactions to a video or news article ([10]).

Forms of interaction with the Libyan crisis on the pages of the BBC, “Arabic” channel and the “American Free” channel:

There were many forms of interaction with the Libyan crisis on the pages of the BBC Arabic channel and the American Hurra channel, including:

LIKES records:

It means showing affection for the content on the site and is available among friends, groups and channels ([11]).

Interaction through Writing Comments:

It is a form of interaction available on the news pages of the social networking site ‘Facebook’ where users can write ‘comments’ about issues that interest them and then press the inter button, It also features to achieve the mechanism of interaction between users ([12])

Share:

It means the users’ participation of the content provided by the news pages of the social networking site ‘Facebook’ and exchanged among the users via the user’s e-mail or published on a joint group between the users or another social networking site ([13]).

Honesty and Persistence:

The questionnaire newspaper was designed to verify the apparent honesty in the light of the aims and assumptions of the study. It was presented to a group of arbitrators in the field of media, The questions were designed in the light of previous studies related to the subject of the study, and the form was modified according to their observations, The questionnaire was also applied to a sample of users of the BBC Arabic channel and the American Al Hurra channel. This procedure took place in the period 1/1/2020 AD and until 30/2/2020 AD. The researcher relied on calculating the stability of the results of the questionnaire on the method of re-testing. The researcher, after collecting data, conducted a study on (5%) of the total field study items (20) individually using a parameter” Cranach’s Alpha coefficient” which indicates that there is a high consistency between the respondents ’answers and the following table, that shows us the calculation of the value of the stability factor for the questionnaire newspaper:

                                                                    (2)

Alpha Kronbach coefficient to measure the stability of the form

Alpha Kronbach coefficient the field
0.91 Alpha Kronbach parameter for all paragraphs of the form

The above table data indicates the following:

  • The value of the alpha Kronbach coefficient was high, as the value of the alpha coefficient for all paragraphs of the form (0.91). This means that the stability factor is high, indicating that there is no significant difference in the respondents’ answer’s as well as the validity of the questionnaire for application.

Statistical Analysis:

After completing the collection of field study data, the data was coded and entered into the computer, then it was processed, analyzed and extracted statistical results using the statistical package for social sciences program known as ‘spss’, By resorting to the following statistical treatments, tests and treatments, which are: ” Ratios and simple statistical iterations of survey questions, Pearson correlation coefficient to find the severity and direction of the correlation between the respondents’ follow-up to the Libyan crisis on the BBC Arabic channel and the American Free TV channel, and the forms of interaction with it. It also emphasizes the fact of showing the relationship between the extent of the respondents’ follow-up to the Libyan crisis on the pages of the BBC Arabic channel and the Free American channel, and the degree of benefit from them.

Results:

The sample of the field study was represented in the 18: 40 age group of Egyptian youth. We included a sample of (400) individuals from the universities of ‘Cairo’, ‘Minya’.

Table (3)

Respondents follow the Libyan crisis on BBC Arabic channel and Al Hurra American channel (N = 400) (you can choose more than one

Al Hurra channel page BBC Arabic channel page Follow-up of the respondents to the Libyan crisis n
% Iteration % Iteration
91.5% 366 92.5% 370 Yes 1
8.5% 34 7.5% 30 No 2
100% 400 100% 400 Total

 

The data of the previous table indicate:

  • The respondents’ follow-up to the Libyan crisis on the BBC Arabic page reached (92.5%), compared to (91.5%) for the American Free Channel page.

As for the respondents’ failure to follow the Libyan crisis, they were as follows:(8.5%) for the ‘American Free’ channel page, compared to (7.5%) for the BBC’s ‘Arabic’ channel page, It is clear from the previous results that: respondents’ follow-up to the Libyan crisis is necessary, as it came in a high percentage on the BBC Arabic channel page. This is due to the presence of a well-known writer on Libyan affairs who enjoys the confidence and follow-up of the respondents. It thus attracted the largest audience and opened the way to enriching the interactive discussion on issues of public interest in the interactive pages on the web.

Table (4)

The extent of the respondents’ follow-up to the Libyan crisis on the BBC Arabic channel and Al Hurra America channel (N = 400)

% Iteration The extent of the respondents’ follow-up to the Libyan crisis n
39.25% 157 I follow in a very large degree 1
28.5% 114 I follow very much 2
32.25% 129 I follow at unlimited times
100% 200 Total

 The data of the above table indicate:

  • Although there was a response (I follow very much) on the highest percentage of the BBC Arabic channel and the American Free TV channel (39.25%), there is a difference in the two categories (I follow a large degree, I follow at unlimited times). It is clear from the previous results that the exposure to the Libyan crisis on the BBC Arabic channel, and the American Al Hurra channel, among the respondents, has become something that they have within the exposure habits of the public or a ritual exposure when they can navigate the network.

Table (5)

The degree of the beneficiaries’ benefit from following the Libyan crisis on the BBC Arabic channel and the American Free TV channel (N = 400)

% Iteration The degree of benefit from following the Libyan crisis n
49.75% 199 I benefit very much 1
38% 152 I benefit greatly 2
12.25% 49 I benefit a little
100% 400 Total

 The data of the previous table demonstrate that:

  • The degree to which the respondents benefited from following the Libyan crisis on the pages of the BBC Arabic channel and Al Hurra American channel, was as follows: (I benefit very much) in the first place by (49.75%), and comes in the second position (I benefit greatly) with (38%), then (I benefit a little degree) in the third position with (12.25%), It is clear from the previous results that the vast majority of the respondents benefit greatly from following the Libyan crisis on the pages of the BBC Arabic channel and the American Free TV channel. This is because interactive news pages aim to attract the largest audience and open the door to enriching the interactive debate about the Libyan crisis that arouses the public’s interest.

Table (6)

Forms of the respondents’ interaction with the Libyan crisis on the BBC Arabic channel and the American Free TV channel(N = 400) (you can choose more than one)

Al Hurra channel page BBC Arabic channel page Forms of interaction

 

n
% Iteration % Iteration
32.5% 130 33.25% 133 LIKEs records 1
34.25% 137 34.75% 139 Writing comments 2
33.25% 133 32% 128 Sharing work 3
100% 400 100% 400 Total

 The above results show that:

  • The respondents’ preferences for using forms of interaction with the Libyan crisis on the BBC Arabic channel page were as follows: (Commentary) in the first place with a percentage of (34.75), and the use of the comment tool is due to the fact that it expresses the opinion of the public freely regarding the aforementioned issue, then (like records like) in the second position with a rate of (33.25%), and finally (the work of the participant Share) In third place (32%). The respondents use the participatory tool because it allows the issue to expand and multiply its audience from one location to another.

These results are compared with the results of the findings of Hisham Saeed’s study (2015), whereby the phrase writing a comment got first (69.7%). Whereas in the current study, it came first.([14]).

As for the page of the American Free TV channel, the respondents’ preferences for using forms of interaction with the Libyan crisis were as follows:             

         (Commentary) comes in the first place with a percentage of (34.25%), and the use of the comment tool is due to the fact that it expresses the opinion of the public freely regarding the aforementioned issue, then (the work of the participant Share) with a rate of (33.25%). The respondents also use the participatory tool because it allows the issue to expand and multiply its audience from one location to another, and finally (like records like) by (32.5%). These results are consistent with the findings of Maryam Noumar (2012), where the phrase “commentary tool” ranked first (25.2%).([15]). It is clear from the previous results that the respondents find that the interaction and tools on the BBC Arabic channel and the American Free TV channel an important thing, because it helps in knowing their opinions and ideas regarding the Libyan crisis- resulting from the campaign launched by the Libyan National Army that represents the Tobruk government to seize the western region of Libya- which is controlled by the Government of National Accord.

Hypothesis Validation Results:

The first hypothesis that there is a statistically significant correlation between the respondents’ follow-up to the Libyan crisis on the BBC Arabic pages and the American Free TV channel, and their interactions with them.

                                                               Table (7)

The Relationship between the Respondents’ follow-up to the Libyan Crisis on the BBC Arabic Channel and the American Free TV Channel and the Forms of Interaction with it

Respondents’ follow-up to the Libyan crisis on MY pages BBC Arabic channel, and Al Hurra American channel  

Variables

Value of t Significance level Significance level
**0.41 0.01 0.05 Forms of interaction

 

* D at level (0.01).                                                                 ** D at level (0.05). The data of the previous table indicate:

To validate this hypothesis, the Pearson correlation coefficient was used to measure the severity and direction of the correlation between the respondents’ follow-up to the Libyan crisis on the BBC Arabic channel and the American Free TV channel, and the forms of interaction with it. The value of the correlation coefficient was (0.41 **) that is a function at the level (0.01). Henceforth, this we accept the assumption that there is a statistically significant correlation between the respondents’ follow-up to the Libyan crisis on the BBC Arabic pages, and the American Free TV channel, and the forms of interaction with it. This indicates that the more respondents follow the Libyan crisis on the pages of the BBC Arabic channel and Al Hurra America, the higher the percentage of interaction is.

The second hypothesis states that there is a significant relationship between the extent of respondents’ follow-up to the Libyan crisis on the BBC Arabic pages and the Free American channel, and the degree of benefit from them.

Table (8)

The Relationship between the Extent of the Respondents’ follow-up to the Libyan Crisis on the BBC Arabic channel and Al Hurra American Channel, and the Degree of Benefit from them.

The extent of the respondents’ follow-up to the Libyan crisis on the BBC Arabic channel and Al Hurra America channel  

Variables

Value of t Significance level Significance level
0.45** 0.01 0.05 Degree of benefit

 

* D at level (0.01).                                                                         ** D at level (0.05). The data of the previous table indicate:

To verify this hypothesis, the Pearson correlation coefficient was used to measure the severity and direction of the relationship between the extent of the respondents’ follow-up to the Libyan crisis on the BBC Arabic channel and the American Free TV channel, and the degree of benefit from them. The value of the correlation coefficient was (0.45 **) which is a function at the level (0.01), Thus, we assume that there is a statistically significant relationship between the extent of respondents’ follow-up to the Libyan crisis on the pages of the BBC Arabic channel and the Free American channel, and the degree of benefit from them. This indicates that the more follow-up, the greater the degree of benefit is.

The results of the study in light of the hypotheses:

     After conducting the field study, we reached a set of results, the most important of which are:

  • The first hypothesis has been proven truee. the presence of a statistically significant correlation between the respondents’ follow-up to the Libyan crisis on the BBC Arabic pages and the American Free TV channel, and the forms of interaction with it. The correlation coefficient value was (0.41 **) which is a function at the level (0.01).
  • The second hypothesis has also been proven i.e. the presence of a statistically significant relationship between the extent of the respondents’ follow-up to the Libyan crisis on the BBC Arabic pages and the American Free TV channel, and the degree of benefit from them, The correlation coefficient value was (0.45 **) which is a function at the level (0.01).

Conclusion:

Through this study, the researcher tried to find out the extent of which university youth interaction with the Libyan crisis through the pages of the BBC Arabic channel and the American Al Hurra channel as media platforms for presenting different opinions and ideas related to the Libyan crisis. What is the relationship between the respondents’ follow-up to the Libyan crisis on the BBC Arabic channel and the American Free TV channel, and the forms of interaction with it?, as well as the relationship between the extent of respondents’ follow-up to the Libyan crisis on the pages of the BBC Arabic channel and the Free American channel, and the degree of benefit from them? In effect, interactive media has a major impact in shaping the public’s attitudes towards the Libyan issue, in order to reach new and innovative theories and concepts in the context of the relationship between the public and the new media. The study reached a set of recommendations, the most important of which are:

  • Emphasizing the need for social media attention to broadcast various media contents that meet the needs of the masses of media organizations. In addition to conducting a survey to find out the public’s satisfaction with the performance of the media institutions with regard to the contents they provide that interest him.
  • The necessity of social media commitment to be neutral in presenting its news to know the opinion of the public towards provoking and presenting different ways to address it, As well as the necessity of conducting more studies related to the interaction with the contents of social media, And in order to reach new and innovative theories and concepts in the context of the relationship between the public and the new media.

Research proposals:

In light of the study, the researcher presents a set of proposals, namely:

  • Use social media to address racism issues.
  • Using social networks to spread the values ​​of tolerance.

Resources and References:

  • Al-Jilani Chrysanthemum, Mahloul Jamal, Rabih Zemam (2019). The role of social media in the February 22 Facebook movement of theorizing, framing and foresight, research published in the Journal of Media Studies, Germany: Berlin, the Arab Democratic Center, Issue No. 8, February 2019, p14.
  • Abdel Hadi Bourby (2018). Interactions of Facebook social media users with issues of public concern between representation and debate, research published in the Al-Hekma Journal for Media and Communication Studies, Algeria: Kunooz Al-Hekma Foundation for Publishing and Distribution, No. 13, Volume 13, June 2018.
  • Areen Omar Al-Zoghbi (2019). Priorities of news in Arabic-speaking electronic news websites as reflected in ‘Facebook’ pages, research published in the Algerian Journal of Media and Public Opinion Research, Algeria: Faculty of Humanities, Islamic Sciences and Civilization, University of Laghouat, Department of Media and Communication Sciences, Volume 2, Issue 2, December 2019.
  • BBC English (2019). “Libya general tells forces to take capital”, Available at the following link by date10/ April 2019.
  • Hisham Saeed Fathi Omar Al-Burj (2015). The effect of using social networks via the Internet on the social relationships of the Egyptian family, unpublished Master Thesis, Cairo University, Faculty of Information, Radio and Television Department,P130.
  • Khaled Mustafa Hassan (2019). Audience Interactivity with Egyptian Satellite Channels Pages via Facebook: A Study of the Implications of Interactivity on Building the Media Agenda, Unpublished Master Thesis, Cairo University, Faculty of Information, Radio and Television Department,p59.
  • Mahmoud Mohamed Ahmed (2020). University youth interaction with the videos of the Lebanese movement on Facebook ‘A field study’, Research published in the Journal of Afro-Asian Studies, Number4, Germany: Berlin: The Arab Democratic Center, January 2020.
  • Mahmoud Mohamed Ahmed (2017). Interactive communication of users of news channel pages with social networking sites and their verified gratifications, unpublished Master Thesis, Minia University: Faculty of Specific Education, Department of Educational media Department, p57-58.
  • Mary Maryman Nomar (2011). The use of social networking sites and its impact on social relations: a study on a sample of Facebook users in Algeria, an unpublished Master Thesis, Algeria: Al-Hajj University attended by Pante, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Department of Media and Communication ScienceD, P133.
  • Nitish Kelvin Bissonauth(2017). 360-­Degree Video Journalism: AN ANALYSIS OF THE DIFFERENT ANGLES OF MODERN TECHNOLOGY AND NEWS REPORTING, requirements for the degree of Master of Digital Media, Canada: Ryerson University, Faculty of Information.pp41.
  • Rakoran Mustafa’s Housewife (2018). Political marketing via social media, research published in the Arab Journal of Information and Communication, research published in the Arab Journal of Information and Communication, Saudi Society for Media and Communication, the sixteenth issue, November 2016 1438 AH, p20.
  • Schmitz Weiss, De macedo goyce(2017). compressed dimensions in digital4media occupations: journalism in transformation, journalism: theory, practice, criticism, vol 10,NO 5,16SEPTAMPER,PP593,Avalibale at: http//www.sagepub.co.uk/gournalspermission,nav ,recevedat:13-12-2017.

[1]Mahmoud Mohamed Ahmed (2020). University youth interaction with the videos of the Lebanese movement on Facebook ‘A field study’, Research published in the Journal of Afro-Asian Studies, Number4, Germany: Berlin: The Arab Democratic Center, January 2020,p81.

[2]Khaled Mustafa Hassan (2019). Audience Interactivity with Egyptian Satellite Channels Pages via Facebook: A Study of the Implications of Interactivity on Building the Media Agenda, Unpublished Master Thesis, Cairo University, Faculty of Information, Radio and Television Department.

[3] Areen Omar Al-Zoghbi (2019). Priorities of news in Arabic-speaking electronic news websites as reflected in ‘Facebook’ pages, research published in the Algerian Journal of Media and Public Opinion Research, Algeria: Faculty of Humanities, Islamic Sciences and Civilization, University of Laghouat, Department of Media and Communication Sciences, Volume 2, Issue 2, December 2019.

[4] Abdel Hadi Bourby (2018). Interactions of Facebook social media users with issues of public concern between representation and debate, research published in the Al-Hekma Journal for Media and Communication Studies, Algeria: Kunooz Al-Hekma Foundation for Publishing and Distribution, No. 13, Volume 13, June 2018.

[5] Nitish Kelvin Bissonauth(2017). 360-­Degree Video Journalism: AN ANALYSIS OF THE DIFFERENT ANGLES OF MODERN TECHNOLOGY AND NEWS REPORTING, requirements for the degree of Master of Digital Media, Canada: Ryerson University, Faculty of Information.pp41.

[6] BBC English (2019). “Libya general tells forces to take capital”, Available at the following link by date10/ April 2019.

[7] Mahmoud Mohamed, Shaima Al-Hawary (2019). University student interaction levels with New Zealand mosque attacks via social media, research published in the Journal of Media Studies, Germany: Berlin, the Arab Democratic Center, Issue 8, February 2019.,p18.

[8] Al-Jilani Chrysanthemum, Mahloul Jamal, Rabih Zemam (2019). The role of social media in the February 22 Facebook movement of theorizing, framing and foresight, research published in the Journal of Media Studies, Germany: Berlin, the Arab Democratic Center, Issue No. 8, February 2019, p14.

[9] Rakoran Mustafa’s Housewife (2018). Political marketing via social media, research published in the Arab Journal of Information and Communication, research published in the Arab Journal of Information and Communication, Saudi Society for Media and Communication, the sixteenth issue, November 2016 1438 AH, p20.

[10] Schmitz Weiss, De macedo goyce(2017). compressed dimensions  in digital4media occupations: journalism in transformation, journalism: theory, practice, criticism, vol 10,NO 5,16SEPTAMPER,PP593,Avalibale at: http//www.sagepub.co.uk/gournalspermission,nav ,recevedat:13-12-2017.

[11]Khaled Mahdi Hamed (2018). Treatment in YouTube channels and the extent to which the Egyptian public is aware of it, an unpublished master’s thesis, Al-Azhar University, Media College, Radio and Television Department,p59.

[12] Mahmoud Mohamed Ahmed (2017). Interactive communication of users of news channel pages with social networking sites and their verified gratifications, unpublished Master Thesis, Minia University: Faculty of Specific Education, Department of Educational media Department, p57-58.

[13]  Khaled Mahdi Hamed (2018). Treatment in YouTube channels and the extent to which the Egyptian public is aware of it, an unpublished master’s thesis, Al-Azhar University, Media College, Radio and Television Department,p59.

[14] Hisham Saeed Fathi Omar Al-Burj (2015). The effect of using social networks via the Internet on the social relationships of the Egyptian family, unpublished Master Thesis, Cairo University, Faculty of Information, Radio and Television Department,P130.

[15] Mary Maryman Nomar (2011). The use of social networking sites and its impact on social relations: a study on a sample of Facebook users in Algeria, an unpublished Master Thesis, Algeria: Al-Hajj University attended by Pante, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Department of Media and Communication ScienceD, P133.

الوسوم

المركز الديمقراطى العربى

المركز الديمقراطي العربي مؤسسة مستقلة تعمل فى اطار البحث العلمى والتحليلى فى القضايا الاستراتيجية والسياسية والاقتصادية، ويهدف بشكل اساسى الى دراسة القضايا العربية وانماط التفاعل بين الدول العربية حكومات وشعوبا ومنظمات غير حكومية.

مقالات ذات صلة

اترك تعليقاً

لن يتم نشر عنوان بريدك الإلكتروني. الحقول الإلزامية مشار إليها بـ *

زر الذهاب إلى الأعلى
إغلاق
إغلاق