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Research studies

Media Coverage of the For the US elections in the news channels On social net media sites A comparative analytical study between of the two pages of“BBC ‘Arabic ‘channel and Sky news Arabia’ channel

 

Prepared by the researcher  – ASS. prof Dr. Eman Mohamed Ahmed Hassan.  Assistant Professor of Radio and Television, Department of Educational Media, Faculty Specific Education, Minia University-Egypt.

Democratic Arab Center

Journal of Afro-Asian Studies : Ninth Issue – May 2021

A Periodical International Journal published by the “Democratic Arab Center” Germany – Berlin. The journal deals with the field of Afro-Asian strategic, political and economic studies

Nationales ISSN-Zentrum für Deutschland
ISSN  2628-6475
Journal of Afro-Asian Studies

:To download the pdf version of the research papers, please visit the following link

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Abstract

The study aims to reveal the levels of media coverage of the American elections on the pages of BBC Arabic and Sky News Arabia, for each of the two candidates, “Joe Biden” and Donald Trump. The study uses the descriptive method and the content analysis method as a tool for data collection, The analytical sample was represented on the pages of the BBC Arab channel and Sky news Arabia, The study results show that There are not statistically significant statistical differences between the pages of BBC Arabic” and “Sky news Arabia” my channels in the levels of media coverage the American elections. the number of the observed frequencies reaches (59, 46),respectively for the pages of ” of BBC Arabic ” and ” Sky news Arabia” channels, the value is (1.60**), significant at the level of (0.01), And There are statistically significant statistical differences between the pages of ” BBC Arabic” and “Sky NEWS Arabia” channels in The statement of the position of the candidates during of media coverage of American elections.the number of the observed frequencies reaches (23,10),respectively for the pages of ” BBC Arabic ” and ” Sky news Arabia” channels, the value is (5.12**), significant at the level of (0.01).

INTRODUCTION

With the tremendous development brought about by the information and communication technology, the world has come to live in the era of the technological revolution in all its manifestations and meanings. and News channels has witnessed in recent years rapid changes as a result of the information and communication revolution and the use of technology, which made news available to everyone.

considered asocial networking site “Facebook” is an important To communicate between individuals and different peoples.
.
It is also News channels on social networking site “Facebook” is an important To communicate between individuals and different peoples And a source from which the public can get news and information that interests them.

And Especially getting news related to media coverage of the US elections.

Also With the integration of television and the Internet, the recipient it became interactive with the latest related of news related to of the topics that of US presidential candidates talked about in my page “BBC Arabic” channel and Sky NEWS Arabia channel. In addition to the availability of interaction mechanisms on the site, which allow users to interact The different opinions regarding the views of both candidates, Through the mutual reactions between them, So The study will look from a recent perspective on: the levels of media coverage the American elections on the pages of ” BBC Arabic” and ” Sky news Arabia ” channels.

Previous studies:
The researcher adopted the division of previous studies On the following axis:
• Studies on news channel and social media sites:

The study aimed at Shaima Rida (2019 AD).To monitor and analyze the persuasive methods used in the televised media discourse and its role in shaping public opinion trends towards political issues.The study uses the descriptive method and the content analysis method and the sample survey as a tool for data collection. The analytical sample was represented in My program every day on the channel ON E, Al Hayat Today on Al Hayat channel, By 16 and 12 episodes for each program. The sample includes (436) individuals A member of the Egyptian public from the governorates of Cairo, Giza, Qalyubia, The study has found that: there are statistically significant differences between Show the volume of exposure to methods of persuasion in the media discourse and the intensity of the positive trend towards the issue under study ( ).
In the same context, the study sought of Lubna Zaheer (2016 AD). To know how students of the Indian University of Punjab use social media and the effect of that use on their political participation, It used the descriptive method through the sample survey method as a tool to collect data. The sample included (400) individuals from the university students, The study has found: That male students it participate in political and economic issues on Facebook more than females. That the sample members They trust in of political topics broadcast on Facebook ( ).
In a related context, the study aimed at Abd al-Hadi Burbi (2018 AD). To monitor and analyze the interaction of Facebook pages users with The case of the arrival of Mrs. Zahia bin Qara to the presidency of the Municipal People’s Assembly, Shaqara, in the Wilayat of Mellah, as the first woman to win an Islamist party, The study uses the descriptive method and the content analysis method as a tool for data collection, The analytical sample was represented in The page of Hana Algeria channel, The study has found that: That the users interact with the arguments and the evidence Concerning the arrival of Mrs. Zahia Bin Qara to the Presidency of the Municipal People came in the forefront, followed by comments, The members of the sample confirmed that , They do not engage in confrontational reactions that include sarcasm ( ).
In the same context, Murray Daniel’s (2016 AD). study sought to identify how news organizations use social media as a means of dialogue and communication between the public and the media institution. The study uses the descriptive method and the content analysis method as a tool for data collection. The analytical sample was represented in five American news networks On Facebook, namely “fox, cNN, NBc, CBS, ABC”,The study has found that: that These networks provide a short description about them and links to their websites. That “NBc” network These provide a description of its mission, while the ‘cNN’ network included the contact information ( ).

Comment on previous studies and their benefits:
• It has been evident from previous studies that the Arab and foreign schools are interested in the interaction of social media as a source of news that the public relies on in filing political news that interest the public, Especially news about the US elections, Where social media is an important interactive tool for shaping public opinion trends towards the topics that of US presidential candidates talked about talked.
• The two schools differed in objectives, sample, curriculum and results, The results formed the scientific basis on which the study was based, with an attempt to build on it to provide a scientific addition and benefit from its reading mainly in: Identify the problem, purpose, questions and the study Sample.
• The theoretical frameworks of previous studies commented in the current study are related: the levels of media coverage the American elections on the pages of ” BBC Arabic” and Sky news Arabia ” channels.
• Note that a content analysis will be made the topics that of US presidential candidates talked about “Joe Biden” and “Donald Trump”, And monitor the patterns of interaction around.
The Study Problem:
In light of the amazing acceleration in the field of modern information and communication technology and the emergence of interactive applications for Web 0.2, And employ news channels for social media to cover various the topics related to current events.
With regard to the of media coverage the American elections for each of the candidates ‘Joe Biden’ and ‘Donald Trump’ on the pages of ” BBC Arabic” and ” Sky news Arabia ” channels.
The researcher it conducted an exploratory study on a sample of (14) users of the news channels pages on social networking sites. In order to know the users’ reactions to issues related to current events, In addition to knowing the highest percentage of follow-up on these pages.
As for the reasons for The individuals of the sample following the pages of news channels, The study results show: The percentage Quick access to information And Reliability, modernity and timeliness in reporting related to current events has reached the rate of (35.71%), then It allows Let me get to learn about current events issues a rate of (21.34%), Followed by The ability to communicate and interact with others on issues of common interest a rate of (7.15%).
and Results of some previous studies, such as the Johnson Kaye study (2016), Which study has found that: That Social media is the most reliable source of political information for the public, Followed by the “cnn” channels, then the “fox news” channel, And Finally, Twitter sites.
And given that the media coverage of the American elections is linked to political, economic, social, religious and cultural changes with the different nature of programs presented to the public by both candidates through social media, Therefore, it is considered an essential pillar in influencing the producers, its participants and followers.
The thing that became has become worthy of scientific study.
In the same context, we will focus on conducting an analytical study on: The Media coverage of the topics that of US presidential candidates talked about ‘Joe Biden’ and ‘Donald Trump’ in my page “BBC Arabic” channel and Sky news Arabia channel. We have also monitored patterns around them using quantitative analysis without recognizing the uses of the undecided on both pages, So the problem of study in is a key question: What are the levels of media coverage the American elections on the pages of ” BBC Arabic” and ” Sky news Arabia ” channels?
The significance of the research:
The current study seeks to identify the following main goal: What are the levels of media coverage the American elections on the pages of ” BBC Arabic” and ” Sky news Arabia ” channels?
• Identifying the differences between the pages of ” BBC Arabic” and “Sky NEWS Arabia” my channels in the levels of media coverage the American elections.
• Identifying the differences between the pages of ” BBC Arabic” and “Sky NEWS Arabia” channels in The statement of the position of the candidates during of media coverage of American elections.
• Identifying the differences between the pages of ” BBC Arabic” and “Sky NEWS Arabia” channels in Interact by like with the media coverage of American elections.
• Identifying the differences between the pages of ” BBC Arabic” and “Sky news Arabia” channels in Interact by Comments with the media coverage of American elections.
• Identifying the differences between the pages of ” BBC Arabic” and “Sky NEWS Arabia” channels in Interaction by Sharing with the media coverage of American elections.
The significance of the research:
• The theoretical importance of the research can be justified by the need to focus on levels media coverage the American elections on the pages of “BBC Arabic” and “Sky news Arabia” channels, where social interaction on media coverage the American elections is the most effective means on these pages.
• The applied importance of research, The practical significance is based on conducting a content analysis to find out the levels of media coverage of American elections. on the pages of “BBC Arabic” and “Sky news Arabia” channels, noting that we will conduct an analytical study related to the media coverage of American elections on the two Facebook pages of “BBC Arabic” and “Sky news Arabia” channels, without identifying the uses of frequent visitors of the study sample sites.

Study questions:
• What are kind of the topics that of US presidential candidates talked about talked during of media coverage of American elections In my pages “BBC Arabic” channel and Sky NEWS Arabia channel ?
• What are Forms of interaction with of the topics that of US presidential candidates talked about in my pages “BBC Arabic” channel and Sky news Arabia channel ?
• What are The time for the of Visual media used in the coverage of the topics that of US presidential candidates talked about talked on my pages “BBC Arabic” channel and Sky news Arabia channel ?
• What are methods of a persuasion of American presidential candidates in my page “BBC Arabic” channel and Sky NEWS Arabia channel ?
• What are of the position of the candidates during of media coverage of American elections In my pages “BBC Arabic” channel and Sky news Arabia channel ?
• What are the media coverage sources of American elections In my pages “BBC Arabic” channel and Sky news Arabia channel ?
• What are The period in which the content It is published the media coverage of American elections in my pages “BBC Arabic” channel and Sky news Arabia channel ?

b. The Study Hypotheses:
• There are statistically significant statistical differences between the pages of ” BBC Arabic” and “Sky news Arabia” my channels in the levels of media coverage the American elections .
• There are statistically significant statistical differences between the pages of ” BBC Arabic” and “Sky news Arabia” channels in The statement of the position of the candidates during of media coverage of American elections.
• There are statistically significant statistical differences between the pages of ” BBC Arabic” and “Sky news Arabia” channels in Interact by like with the media coverage of American elections.
• There are statistically significant statistical differences between the pages of ” BBC Arabic” and “Sky news Arabia” channels in Interact by Comments with the media coverage of American elections.
• There are statistically significant statistical differences between the pages of ” BBC Arabic” and “Sky news Arabia” channels in Interaction by Sharing with the media coverage of American elections.
The Study Sample:
An analytical study is conducted on the media coverage the American elections on the Facebook pages of “BBC Arabic ” and ” Sky news Arabia”. The analytical sample was selected on the basis of the survey results, It was taken into account in choosing the sample that these sites belong to the sector of sites that provide daily news and below is a description of the sample:

Analysis Study Sample (Table (1
The pages of “BBC Arabic” and Sky news Arabia channels ” F %
The page of BBC Arabic channel 82 53.59%
The page of Sky news Arabia channel 71 46.41%
Total 153 100%
The data of the table above show the following:

• The page of “BBC Arabic” channel ranks first in terms of media coverage of American elections with a rate of (53.59%), while the page of ” Sky news Arabia” channel ranks second and last with (46.41%), Previous results show: that there is superiority in The page of “BBC Arabic” channel in terms of media coverage of American elections , And that’s because in The page “Sky news Arabia” channel, It seeks to prove its worth in covering various issues at the local and international level to attract the largest number of followers and to be a place and competition among Global media.

Type and method of study:
This study belongs to descriptive studies that rely mainly on the use of the method of analysis of the content, Where the optimal way to obtain quantitative and qualitative data in research units, quantitative analysis contains the collection of data according to word and subject units as essential parts of the measurement of the enemy, So to find out The levels of media coverage the American elections on the pages of ” BBC Arabic” and ” Sky news Arabia ” channels., Where the qualitative analysis depends on the interpretation of the numerical results obtained in the quantitative analysis on the study sample pages, This is because in this type of studies the researcher begins by observing the results through the data.
We have followed this approach because it responds to the aim of the study in knowledge, The levels of media coverage the American elections on the pages of ” BBC Arabic” and ” Sky news Arabia ” channels.
This is to analyze shape of the topics that of US presidential candidates talked about. study sample, is represented in: Fighting “Covid 19″, Helping American families affected by the Corona pandemic, racial discrimination, Climate change, National Security and Leadership”.
The Analytical Study Tool:
• A content analysis paper prepared by the researcher to identify the levels of media coverage the American elections on the pages of ” BBC Arabic” and ” Sky news Arabia ” channels, and to monitor the forms of interaction with them. Firstly, the initial drafting of the content analysis form design was prepared and then it was presented to a number of specialized arbitrators in the field of the study.
• The paper focused on modifying some of the analysis categories related to media coverage the American elections on the pages of ” BBC Arabic” and ” Sky news Arabia ” channels, and removed some other categories.
• Following the amendments made by the researchers, the paper is now ready for application in its final form to serve the purposes of the study. The form was applied through the follow-up of the media coverage the American elections on the pages of ” BBC Arabic” and ” Sky news Arabia ” channels, and removed some other categories, and through monitoring the forms of interaction with it all over a three months, from 3 th November 2020 to 26 th November 2020, as every issue has a specific life cycle linked to a specific time frame.
definitions of the analysis categories included in the content analysis paper:
The content analysis paper included the main category and five sub-categories. The main content category includes:
a) The category of topics that he two of candidates talked about during of media coverage of American elections In my pages “BBC Arabic” channel and Sky NEWS Arabia channel, which the researcher have divided it into: ” Fighting “Covid 19″, Helping American families affected by the Corona pandemic, racial discrimination, Climate change, National Security and Leadership”.
While the sub-categories analysis includes five sub-categories, namely:
(1) The category of Forms of interaction with of the topics that of US presidential candidates talked about on my pages “BBC Arabic” channel and Sky NEWS Arabia channel, The researcher divided it into: “Number of likes, number of comments, number of posts.
(2) The category The time for the of Visual media used in the coverage of the topics that of US presidential candidates talked about talked on my pages “BBC Arabic” channel and Sky NEWS Arabia channel, The researcher divided it into: “From 3: 1 minutes, from 2: 3 minutes, more, Furthermore.
(3) The category of methods of a persuasion of American presidential candidates in my page “BBC Arabic” channel and Sky NEWS Arabia channel, The researcher divided it into: “Submit evidence and proofs, Relying on a personal point of view, exchange of views, A poignant picture display”.
(4) The category of statement of the position of the candidates during of media coverage of American elections In my pages “BBC Arabic” channel and Sky NEWS Arabia channel, The researcher divided it into: “Endorsement for Donald Trump, Opposition for Donald Trump, Endorsement for ‘Joe Biden’, Opposition for ‘Joe Biden”.
(5) The category Of media coverage sources of media coverage of American elections In my pages “BBC Arabic” channel and Sky NEWS Arabia channel, The researcher divided it into:” Newspapers and news agencies world on the Internet, Reports of correspondents and delegates by The page of BBC Arabic channel, American Newspapers, Reports of correspondents and delegates by The page of Sky NEWS Arabia channel, Official source on Donald Trump, Official source on ‘Joe Biden’ , Meetings with guests in the studio, Party and judicial sources.
(6) The category Of period in which the content It is published the media coverage of American elections in In my pages “BBC Arabic” channel and Sky NEWS Arabia channel, The researcher divided it into: ” Morning Shift 6:12, Noon Shift 6: 12, Evening shift 6:12, Evening period 12: 6.

The truthfulness and constancy of the content analysis paper:
To test the validity and reliability of the content analysis sheet, And to ensure its ability to achieve the objectives of the study, The form was presented to a group of arbitrators, In light of the observations made by the arbitrators, the form was modified, The researchers also analyzed the contents under study in my page “BBC Arabic” channel and Sky NEWS Arabia channel, And that is under the guidance of a researcher who has the same experience in analyzing the contents under discussion on both pages, And that is how to deal with the model and analyze its vocabulary, The stability coefficient was also calculated by using the Holosti equation = 2m from% n1 + n2, The value of the correlation coefficient between the opinions of the two analysts was (0.96%),It is a statistically significant correlation coefficient indicating the clarity of the content analysis sheet. And then its suitability for analysis.
Study community:
The analytical study community in the topics that of US presidential candidates talked about talked on my pages “BBC Arabic” channel and Sky NEWS Arabia channel.

The limits of the study are:
• Objective boundaries: Are the topics that of US presidential candidates talked about talked on my pages “BBC Arabic” channel and Sky NEWS Arabia channel. It included the following: ” Fighting “Covid 19″, Helping American families affected by the Corona pandemic, racial discrimination, Climate change, National Security and Leadership”.
• Time limits: The analytical study was conducted on the media coverage the American elections 3 th November 2020 to 26 th November 2020, This is done by using the industrial week method, This was the period during which media coverage of the US elections extended. This is because it is a period that extended over a period of (15) fifteen days. ; This is because it extended over the course of (15) fifteen days.

Study variables are:
• Independent variable: levels of media coverage the American elections in news channels.
• Dependent variable: social media sites.
The Statistical Analysis:
After completing the data collection of the analytical study, the researchers used the following statistical factors and tests in analyzing the data, namely:” Ratios and percentages of questions of the content analysis sheet, Ca2 test to calculate differences between Watched repeats in my page “BBC Arabic” channel and Sky NEWS Arabia channel, The ‘Holoste’ equation to calculate the stability of the analysis for all classes of the Analysis Form.
Study concepts are:
• News Channels: They are channels loaded on satellites and social networking sites that broadcast their media contents in text, audio and image.
• Social media sites: It is of the Web 2.0 interactive applications that Allow its users to communicate and interact with each other, And that by participating in the various activities and topics that interest them.
• The media coverage: It is the role played by the media in covering various events, by providing the public with information and news about the events that interest them.

The Knowledge Framework:

The media coverage on social media sites:

It is newsletters that are presented through the television screen, including issues of public opinion interest ( ).
Social networking sites are also an interactive media that allows users to know and share news on topics of interest to them ( ), This is done through feedback between the sender and the receiver ( ),Within a defined framework through publicly available technology web services ( ).

The “Facebook” network as an of interaction medium with the media coverage the American elections on the pages of ” BBC Arabic” and “Sky news Arabia” channels:
Facebook: A network that allows communication between users , and between themselves to exchange news, information and messages in various forms like texts, pictures or videos ( ),It is an interactive network with an international culture based on communication and interaction between users, or between other members of the same network ( ).
Especially of interaction with the of media coverage of American elections on my pages “BBC Arabic” channel and Sky news Arabia channel.
The ‘Facebook’ network is also the fastest way to reach the heart of the event whether it is news pages for newspapers or channels, This is because it is an important source in obtaining information through tablet computer systems ( ).
Interactivity through social networking sites:

It is a series of reactions that occur between the human being and the outside world, which includes the communication environment and its various components ( ), Also, the core of the interactive for ‘Heter’ is action and reaction ( ).
The interaction depends on the style of the dialogue and participation between users regarding the contents of the media message ( ).
Forms of interaction with the of media coverage of American elections on my pages “BBC Arabic” channel and Sky news Arabia channel:
There were many forms of interaction with of media coverage of American elections on my pages “BBC Arabic” channel and Sky news Arabia channel, AND They include the following:
• Interaction with admiration: it means showing admiration for the content on the site available for friends, groups and channels that join them ( ).
• Interaction with Comments: it is a form of interaction available on the news pages of the social networking site “Facebook”, where users can write comments about issues that interest them and then press the button ‘inter’, this method is characterized by achieving the mechanism of interaction between users ( ).
• Interaction by Sharing: The new media worked to transform the audience from a recipient to the most active and interactive element of the topics that interest him, And that is by freely expressing his views and exchanging them with others, In addition to information widely shared among users ( ).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

The analytical study was conducted on the media coverage the American elections 3 th November 2020 to 26 th November 2020. An analysis has been carried in terms of the topics related to the media coverage the American elections on the two pages of “BBC Arabic” and “Sky news Arabia” channels, below is a presentation of the analytical study outcomes:

Table (2) The category of topics that he two of candidates talked about during of media coverage of American elections In my pages “BBC Arabic” channel and Sky NEWS Arabia channel
The page of Sky news Arabia channel The page of BBC Arabic channel
The topics that the two candidates talked about
% F % F
41.30% 19 44.06% 26 Fighting “Covid 19”
23.91% 11 28.82% 17 Helping American families affected by the Corona pandemic
21.74% 10 13.56% 8 racial discrimination
0.00 0 0.00 0 Climate change
13.05% 6 13.56% 8 National Security and Leadership
100% 46 100% 59 Total
The data of the table above show the following:
• The category of topics that he two of candidates talked about during of media coverage of American elections in The page of BBC Arabic channel: The Themes topic of fighting COVID-19 received a rate of (44.06%), followed by Helping American families affected by the Corona pandemic a rate of (28.82%), then racial discrimination, National Security and Leadership a rate of (13.56%),While a topic Climate change not get on any rate.
This result is consistent with the findings of the study of Alaa Maher (2013), The Themes topic of National Security and Leadership has received attention, and it also received attention in the current study.( ).
• And in The of topics that he two of candidates talked about during of media coverage of American elections in The page of Sky news Arabia channel: The Themes topic of fighting COVID-19 received a rate of (41.30%), followed by Helping American families affected by the Corona pandemic a rate of (23.91%), then racial discrimination a rate of (21.74%), followed by National Security and Leadership a rate of (13.05%), While a topic Climate change not get on any rate, Previous results show: The page of BBC Arabic channel Interested in covering of topics that the two candidates talked about The American Presidency, And represented in fighting “Covid 19”, Helping American families affected by the Corona pandemic This has led to the death of more than 200 thousand Americans and has infection nearly 6 million citizens. In addition to the high unemployment rate and job losses. With regard to issues of racial discrimination, Both candidates stressed the need to fight it, as a result of the killing of a defenseless black man named “George Fleweld” as a result of a violent assault by a white man, a member of the American police. By placing his foot over his head until he breathed his last, As for the issue of national security and leadership, Trump attacked the Democratic candidate, Biden, saying that he threatens US national security, This is similar to the Biden family’s crime with the Chinese Communist Party, The aforementioned topics also dealt with the candidates’ programs in varying degrees, but they differed in their visions and how they were addressed in their electoral programs.
(3) Table Forms of interaction with of the topics that of US presidential candidates talked about in The page of BBC Arabic channel
of social issues in The page of Al-Ahram newspaper Forms of Interaction
Total National Security and Leadership Climate change racial discrimination Helping American families affected by the Corona pandemic Fighting “Covid 19” F
6869 1001 0 1001 1002 3865 F Number of Likes
100% 14.59% 0.00 14.59% 14.57% 56.27% %
135 16 0 0 27 92 F Number of Comments
100% 11.85% 0.00 0.00 20% 68.15% %
92 9 0 11 12 63 F Number of Posts
100% 6.54% 0.00 11.95% 13.04% 68.47% %
The data of the table above show the following:
• With regard to the number of likes: The percentage of likes for to The of topics a Fighting “Covid 19” has reached the rate of (56.27%), Then the racial discrimination, National Security and Leadership has reached the rate of (14.59%), And then a Helping American families affected by the Corona pandemic has reached the rate of (14.57%), While a topic Climate change not get on any rate.
• In Regarding the number of comments: percentage of comments for to The topics Fighting “Covid 19” has reached the rate of (68.15%),followed by Helping American families affected by the Corona pandemic rate of (20%), And then National Security and Leadership has reached the rate of (11.85%), While a topics Climate change And racial discrimination not get on any rate.
• In Regarding the number of posts: percentage of posts for of topics a Fighting “Covid 19 to has reached the rate of (68.15%), Then a Helping American families affected by the Corona pandemic has reached the rate of (13.04%), while the racial discrimination to has reached the rate of (11.95%), Then National Security and Leadership has reached the rate of (6.54%), While a topic Climate change not get on any rate. Previous results show: That The of topics a Fighting “Covid 19”,Helping American families affected by the pandemic, were at the forefront of interaction, Coincide come in light of the outbreak of the virus, As it led to the death of 200 thousand Americans and the loss of millions of American families to their jobs, which prompted the American government to provide unemployment benefits to those affected, With a difference in the patterns of participatory interaction for topics that both candidates speak in different ways during their by presentation in their electoral programs to convince the public of them.

(4) Table Forms of interaction with of the topics that of US presidential candidates talked about in The page of Sky NEWS Arabia channel
of social issues in The page of Al-Ahram newspaper Forms of Interaction
Total National Security and Leadership Climate change racial discrimination Helping American families affected by the Corona pandemic Fighting “Covid 19” F
8530 0 0 1000 830 4000 F Number of Likes
100% 0.00 0.00 17.15% 14.24% 68.61% %
2392 0 0 2016 117 259 F Number of Comments
100% 0.00 0.00 84.89% 4.89% 10.82% %
1280 0 0 1132 50 98 F Number of Posts
100% 0.00 0.00 88.43% 3.92% 7.65% %
The data of the table above show the following:
• With regard to the number of likes: The percentage of likes for to The of topics a Fighting “Covid 19” has reached the rate of (68.61%), Then the racial discrimination has reached the rate of (17.15%), And then a Helping American families affected by the Corona pandemic has reached the rate of (14.24%),While a topics Climate change and of National Security Leadership not They get on any rate.
• In Regarding the number of comments: percentage of comments for of topics a racial discrimination to has reached the rate of (84.89%), This result goes in line with the findings of the study of Mahmoud Mohamed (2020) where the term “comments In the foreground, and It is also the same with the current study where it comes ( ), followed by Fighting “Covid 19” rate of (10.82%), And then a Helping American families affected by the Corona pandemic has reached the rate of (4.89%),While a topics Climate change and of National Security Leadership not They get on any rate.
• In Regarding the number of posts: The percentage posts for of topics racial discrimination to has reached the rate of (88.43%), followed by Fighting “Covid 19” rate of (7.65%), And then a Helping American families affected by the Corona pandemic has reached the rate of (3.92%), While a topics Climate change and of National Security Leadership not They get on any rate, Previous results show: That The of topics a Fighting “Covid 19”,Helping American families affected by the pandemic, were at the forefront of interaction, Coincide come in light of the outbreak of the virus, As it led to the death of 200 thousand Americans and the loss of millions of American families to their jobs, which prompted the American government to provide unemployment benefits to those affected, In addition to the killing of a black American citizen called ‘Gog Flewild’ by a white man from the American police, by placing his foot on his head until he breathed his last, With a difference in the patterns of participatory interaction for topics that both candidates speak in different ways during their by presentation in their electoral programs to convince the public of them.

(5) The time for the of Visual media used in the coverage of the topics that of US presidential candidates talked about talked on my pages “BBC Arabic” channel and Sky NEWS Arabia channel
The page of Sky news Arabia channel The page of BBC Arabic channel
The time period of the media
% F % F
47.05% 8 60% 9 From1: 3 minutes
59.95% 9 40% 6 From 2: 5 minutes
0.00 0 0.00 0 Furthermore
100% 21 100% 15 Total
The data of the table above show the following:
• The page of BBC Arabic channel, relied primarily on The time for the of Visual media used in the coverage of the topics that of US presidential candidates talked about talked From1: 3 minutes with a rate of (60%), followed by From 2: 3 minutes with a rate (40%),While of time Furthermore not he get on any rate, and regarding Visual media used in the media: It came in the form of ‘video clips, videotapes, subject photos, and personal photos.
• The page of Sky NEWS Arabia channel, relied primarily on The time for the of Visual media used in the coverage of the topics that of US presidential candidates talked about talked From 2 : 5 minutes with a rate of (59.95%), followed by From 1: 3 minutes with a rate (47.05%),While of time Furthermore not he get on any rate, and regarding Visual media used in the media: It came in the form of ‘video clips, videotapes, subject photos, and personal photos. Previous results show: The page of BBC Arabic channel Interested in covering The time for the of Visual media used of topics that the two candidates talked about The American Presidency Joe Biden and Donald Trump, It was 1: 3 minutes, With a difference The page of Sky NEWS Arabia channel She was Interested in covering The time for the of Visual media used of topics that the two candidates talked about The American Presidency Joe Biden and Donald Trump, It was 2:5 minutes, This may indicate a short period of time. The shorter it is, the more follow-up will be.

(6) methods of a persuasion of American presidential candidates in my page “BBC Arabic” channel and Sky NEWS Arabia channel
The page of Sky news Arabia channel The page of BBC Arabic channel
Methods of persuasion
% F % F
16.66% 2 42.85% 3 Submit evidence and proofs
33.34% 4 42.85% 3 Relying on a personal point of view
16.66% 2 0.00 0 exchange of views
33.34% 4 14.30% 1 A poignant picture display
100% 12 100% 12 Total
The data of the table above show the following:
• The page of BBC Arabic channel, “relied primarily on the Submit evidence and proofs and of Relying on a personal point of view topics that of US presidential candidates talked about has a rate of (42.85%), followed by A poignant picture display has a rate of (14.30%), While a exchange of views at not get on any a rate of. This result is consistent with the findings of the study of Alaa Maher (2013), The Submit evidence and proofs has received attention, and it also received attention in the current study ( .(
• The page of Sky news Arabia channel, “relied primarily on the Relying on a personal point of view and of A poignant picture display topics that of US presidential candidates talked about has a rate of (33.34%), followed by a Submit evidence and proofs And exchange of views a rate of (16.66%), Previous results show: The page of BBC Arabic channel, Interested primarily on of Relying a personal point of view that US presidential candidates talked about, Where Biden spoke about numbers related to high rates of homicide and property, Pointing out that the presence of ‘Trump’ contributed to an increase in these rates, unlike what was in the era of the Obama administration, But President ‘Trump’ adhered to his point of view, saying that the economy during his term was the ‘greatest’ in the history of the United States, as it achieved a growth rate of 2.9 per cent, As for the Submit evidence and proofs related to controversial topics, The presidential candidate, ‘Biden’, launched an attack on his rival, ‘Trump’, in which he accused him of having a relationship with the Russians and described him as a ‘puppy of Putin’, In addition to his tax evasion by passing the US Supreme Court, Especially after the ‘New York Times’ report published a few days ago, which said that ‘Trump’ had paid only 750,000 dollars since he came to power, but Trump denied this, stressing that he had paid millions of dollars, As well as the allegations of killing American soldiers in Afghanistan, an end to respecting the constitution and the rules for the peaceful transfer of power in the event that he loses the elections, which is what Trump evaded from addressing to gain the support of the public.

(7) The statement of the position of the candidates during of media coverage of American elections In my pages “BBC Arabic” channel and Sky news Arabia channel
The page of Sky news Arabia channel The page of BBC Arabic channel
The statement of the position of the candidates
% F % F
20% 2 30.43% 7 Endorsement for Donald Trump
50% 5 34.78% 8 Opposition for Donald Trump
20% 2 26.09% 6 Endorsement for ‘Joe Biden’
10% 1 8.70% 2 Opposition for ‘Joe Biden’
100% 10 100% 23 Total
The data of the table above show the following:
• The statement of the position of the candidates in The page of BBC Arabic channel, The percentage for to The of Opposition for Donald Trump has reached the rate of (34.78%), Then the Endorsement for Donald Trump has reached the rate of (30.43%), And then Endorsement for ‘Joe Biden’ has reached the rate of (26.09%), Then the a Opposition for ‘Joe Biden’ to has Arrived a rate of (8.70%).
• The statement of the position of the candidates in The page of Sky news Arabia channel, The percentage of likes for to The of Opposition for Donald Trump has reached the rate of (50%),Then the Endorsement for Donald Trump And Endorsement for ‘Joe Biden’ has reached the rate of (20%), And then Opposition for ‘Joe Biden’ has reached the rate of (10%), Previous results show: The page of Sky NEWS Arabia channel, Interested primarily on Highlighting Opposition for Donald Trump US presidential candidate. This is due to his failure to manage the Corona virus crisis in the beginning, which led to the death of more than 200,000 American citizens, In addition to the economic repercussions it had in the United States, which led to an increase in the number of unemployed, with the loss of three million and 300 thousand people of their jobs. The page of BBC Arabic channel, focused on me the Endorsement for Donald Trump And in light of his decline in popularity in the very conservative rural areas, which were a main base for his support, Perhaps Biden’s pursuit of focusing on financial issues and making promises to restore political dignity in these areas will win the confidence of the rural voters, This is because a simple switch can be decisive in close race states.

(8) the media coverage sources of media coverage of American elections In my pages “BBC Arabic” channel and Sky news Arabia channel
The page of Sky news Arabia channel The page of BBC Arabic channel
The issues under study
% F % F
23.94% 17 25.60% 21 Newspapers and news agencies world on the Internet
0.00 0 42.69% 35 Reports of correspondents and delegates by The page of BBC Arabic channel
11.26% 8 7.32% 6 American Newspapers
40.84% 29 0.00 0 Reports of correspondents and delegates by The page of Sky NEWS Arabia channel
4.23% 3 6.09% 5 Official source on Donald Trump
1.42% 1 2.44% 2 Official source on ‘Joe Biden’
11.26% 8 8.54% 7 Meetings with guests in the studio
7.05% 5 7.32% 6 Party and judicial sources
0.00 0 0.00 0 General audience
100% 71 100% 82 Total
The data of the table above show the following:
• The page of BBC Arabic channel, relied primarily on the reports correspondents and delegates in obtaining news related to the of American elections with a rate of (42.69%), followed by newspapers and news agencies world on the Internet with a rate (25.60%), And then Meetings with guests in the studio has reached the rate of (8.54%) ,while American Newspapers, As well Party And judicial sources has reached the rate of (7.32%), followed by Official source on Donald Trump has a rate of (6.09%), And then Official source on ‘Joe Biden’ has reached the rate of (2.44%), While the a General audience did not get any percentage.
• The page of Sky news Arabia channel, relied primarily on the reports correspondents and delegates in obtaining news related to the of American elections with a rate of (40.84%), followed by newspapers and news agencies world on the Internet with a rate (23.94%), then American Newspapers And Meetings with guests in the studio has reached a rate of (11.26%), while Party And judicial sources has reached the rate of (7.05%), followed by Official source on Donald Trump has a rate of (4.23%), And then Official source on ‘Joe Biden’ has reached the rate of (1.42%), While the a General audience did not get any percentage.Previous results show: pages “BBC Arabic” channel and Sky NEWS Arabia channel, relied primarily on the reports correspondents and delegates in obtaining news related to the of media coverage of American elections, In addition to the diversity in the use of other, as well as the different of Official sources issued by the two candidates on both pages.

Table (9)The period in which the content It is published the media coverage of American elections in The page of BBC Arabic channel
The period in which content is published of media coverage of American elections
Total Evening period Evening interval Noon interval Morning interval
12: 6 6:12 12: 6 6:12
82 12 17 23 30
100% 14.64 % 20.74 % 28.04% 36.58%
The data of the table above show the following:
• The page of BBC Arabic channel, relied primarily on of Morning interval in of media coverage of American elections a rate of (36.58%), followed by of Noon interval with a rate (28.04%), And then of Evening interval has reached the rate of (20.74 %), and finally, then of Evening period has reached the rate of (14.64 %). This result goes in line with the findings of the study of Marwa Wael (2013), Where got The Morning interval received attention in the media coverage of current events, and also received attention in the current study.

Table (10)The period in which the content It is published the media coverage of American elections in The page of Sky news Arabia channel
The period in which content is published of media coverage of American elections
Total Evening period Evening interval Noon interval Morning interval
12: 6 6:12 12: 6 6:12
82 11 21 15 24
100% 15.49% 29.58% 21.13% 33.80%
The data of the table above show the following:
• The page of Sky news Arabia channel, relied primarily on of Morning interval in of media coverage of American elections a rate of (33.80%), followed by of Evening interval with a rate (29.58%), And then of Noon interval has reached the rate of (21.13%), and finally, then of Evening period has reached the rate of (15.49%).
Results of the hypotheses:
• The First Hypothesis: This hypothesis states that: There are statistically significant statistical differences between the pages of ” BBC Arabic” and “Sky NEWS Arabia” my channels in the levels of media coverage the American elections.
Table (11) The differences between the pages of BBC Arabic” and “Sky NEWS Arabia” my channels in the levels of media coverage the American elections
The pages of my ” BBC Arabic “and “Sky NEWS Arabia” channels Frequency X2 Observed X2 Expected Significance
Level
The page of BBC Arabic channel 59 1.60** 3.84 0.01
The page of Sky news Arabia channel 46
significant at the 0.05 level significant at the 0.01 level The data of the table above show that:
• by using the Ca2 chi-square test it turns out There are not statistically significant statistical differences between the pages of BBC Arabic” and “Sky NEWS Arabia” my channels in the levels of media coverage the American elections. the number of the observed frequencies reaches (59, 46),respectively for the pages of ” of BBC Arabic ” and ” Sky news Arabia” channels, the value is (1.60**), significant at the level of (0.01), This may indicate that interest in media coverage of the US elections was equal, and thus we accept the hypothesis which states that: There are statistically significant statistical differences between the pages of BBC Arabic” and “Sky NEWS Arabia” my channels in the levels of media coverage the American elections .
The second hypothesis: This hypothesis states that: There are statistically significant statistical differences between the pages of ” BBC Arabic” and “Sky NEWS Arabia” channels in The statement of the position of the candidates during of media coverage of American elections.
Table (12) the differences between the pages of ” BBC Arabic” and “Sky NEWS Arabia” my channels in The statement of the position of the candidates during of media coverage of American elections.
The pages of my ” BBC Arabic “and “Sky NEWS Arabia” channels Frequency X2 Observed X2 Expected Significance
Level
The page of BBC Arabic channel 23 5.12** 3.84 0.01
The page of Sky news Arabia channel 10
significant at the 0.05 level significant at the 0.01 level The data of the table above show that:
• by using the Ca2 chi-square test it turns out, There are statistically significant statistical differences between the pages of ” BBC Arabic” and “Sky NEWS Arabia” channels in The statement of the position of the candidates during of media coverage of American elections.the number of the observed frequencies reaches (23,10),respectively for the pages of ” BBC Arabic ” and ” Sky news Arabia” channels, the value is (5.12**), significant at the level of (0.01), The researcher attributes the conscious public’s interest in following up in The statement of the position of the candidates on the English page and interacting with it to the existence of a non- ideologized writer specialized in Usa Political affairs who has gained the followers’ confidence. This indicates the high rate of interaction with The statement of the position of the candidates during of media coverage of American elections, and thus we accept the hypothesis which states that: There are statistically significant statistical differences between the pages of ” BBC Arabic” and “Sky NEWS Arabia” channels in The statement of the position of the candidates during of media coverage of American elections.
• The third hypothesis: This hypothesis states that: There are statistically significant statistical differences between the pages of ” BBC Arabic” and “Sky NEWS Arabia” channels in Interact by like with the media coverage of American elections.

Table(13) The differences between the pages of ” BBC Arabic” and “Sky NEWS Arabia” channels in Interact by like with the media coverage of American elections.
The pages of my ” BBC Arabic “and “Sky NEWS Arabia” channels The page of BBC Arabic channel The page of Sky news Arabia channel X2 Observed X2 Expected Significance
Level
Of Interact by like with the media coverage of American elections
Frequency Frequency 58.1** 3.84 0.01
5830 6869
level significant at the 0.05 level significant at the 0.01
:The data of the table above show that
• by using the Ca2 chi-square test it turns out, There are statistically significant statistical differences between the pages of ” BBC Arabic” and “Sky NEWS Arabia” channels in Interact by like with the media coverage of American elections in favor of page of Sky news Arabia channel, the number of the observed frequencies reaches (5830, 6869),respectively for the pages of ” BBC Arabic ” and ” Sky news Arabia” channels, the value is (58.1**), significant at the level of (0.01), The researcher attributes the conscious public’s interest in following up of media coverage of American elections the UAE page and interacting with it to the existence of a non- ideologized writer specialized in Usa Political affairs who has gained the followers’ confidence. This indicates the high rate of interaction with of media coverage of American elections, and thus we accept the hypothesis which states that: There are statistically significant statistical differences between the pages of ” BBC Arabic” and “Sky NEWS Arabia” channels in Interact by like with the media coverage of American elections.
• The fourth hypothesis: This hypothesis states that: There are statistically significant statistical differences between the pages of ” BBC Arabic” and “Sky NEWS Arabia” channels in Interact by Comments with the media coverage of American elections.
Table (14) The differences between the pages of ” BBC Arabic” and “Sky NEWS Arabia” channels in Interact by Comments with the media coverage of American elections.
The pages of my ” BBC Arabic “and “Sky NEWS Arabia” channels The page of BBC Arabic channel The page of Sky news Arabia channel X2 Observed X2 Expected Significance
Level
Of Interact by Comments with the media coverage of American elections Frequency Frequency 2016.8** 3.84 0.01
2393 135
level significant at the 0.05 level significant at the 0.01
:The data of the table above show that
• by using the Ca2 chi-square test it turns out, There are statistically significant statistical differences between the pages of ” BBC Arabic” and “Sky NEWS Arabia” channels in Interact by Comments with the media coverage of American elections. in favor of page of BBC Arabic channel. the number of the observed frequencies reaches (2393, 135),respectively for the pages of ” BBC Arabic ” and ” Sky news Arabia” channels, the value is (2016.8**), significant at the level of (0.01), The researcher attributes the conscious public’s interest in following up of media coverage of American elections the UAE page and interacting with it to the existence of a non- ideologized writer specialized in Usa Political affairs who has gained the followers’ confidence. This indicates the high rate of interaction with of media coverage of American elections, and thus we accept the hypothesis which states that: There are statistically significant statistical differences between the pages of ” BBC Arabic” and “Sky NEWS Arabia” channels in Interact by Comments with the media coverage of American elections.
• The fifth hypothesis: This hypothesis states that: There are statistically significant statistical differences between the pages of ” BBC Arabic” and “Sky NEWS Arabia” channels in Interaction by Sharing with the media coverage of American elections.

Table (15) The differences between the pages of ” BBC Arabic” and “Sky NEWS Arabia” channels in Interaction by Sharing with the media coverage of American elections.
The pages of my ” BBC Arabic “and “Sky NEWS Arabia” channels The page of BBC Arabic channel The page of Sky news Arabia channel X2 Observed X2 Expected Significance
Level
Of Interact by Comments with the media coverage of American elections Frequency Frequency 1028.66** 3.84 0.01
1280 92
level significant at the 0.05 level significant at the 0.01 The data of the table above show that :
• by using the Ca2 chi-square test it turns out, There are statistically significant statistical differences between the pages of ” BBC Arabic” and “Sky NEWS Arabia” channels in Interaction by Sharing with the media coverage of American elections.in favor of page of BBC Arabic channel. the number of the observed frequencies reaches (1280, 92),respectively for the pages of ” BBC Arabic ” and ” Sky news Arabia” channels, the value is (1028.66**), significant at the level of (0.01),The researcher attributes the conscious public’s interest in following up of media coverage of American elections in the English page and interacting with it to the existence of a non- ideologized writer specialized in Usa Political affairs who has gained the followers’ confidence. This indicates the high rate of interaction with of media coverage of American elections. Given the importance of the topics dealt with by both candidates and the diversity of their audience from one site to another, And thus we accept the hypothesis which states that: There are statistically significant statistical differences between the pages of ” BBC Arabic” and “Sky NEWS Arabia” channels in Interaction by Sharing with the media coverage of American elections.
The results of the study in light of the hypotheses:
After conducting the analytical study, we reached a number of results, the most important of which are:
• The Confirmation of the first hypothesis validity: There are not statistically significant statistical differences between the pages of BBC Arabic” and “Sky NEWS Arabia” my channels in the levels of media coverage the American elections. the number of the observed frequencies reaches (59, 46),respectively for the pages of ” of BBC Arabic ” and ” Sky news Arabia” channels, the value is (1.60**), significant at the level of (0.01), This may indicate that interest in media coverage of the US elections was equal.
• The Confirmation of the second hypothesis validity: There are statistically significant statistical differences between the pages of ” BBC Arabic” and “Sky NEWS Arabia” channels in The statement of the position of the candidates during of media coverage of American elections.the number of the observed frequencies reaches (23,10),respectively for the pages of ” BBC Arabic ” and ” Sky news Arabia” channels, the value is (5.12**), significant at the level of (0.01), The researcher attributes the conscious public’s interest in following up in The statement of the position of the candidates on the English page and interacting with it to the existence of a non- ideologized writer specialized in Usa Political affairs who has gained the followers’ confidence. This indicates the high rate of interaction with The statement of the position of the candidates during of media coverage of American elections.
• The Confirmation of the third hypothesis validity: There are statistically significant statistical differences between the pages of ” BBC Arabic” and “Sky NEWS Arabia” channels in Interact by like with the media coverage of American elections in favor of page of Sky news Arabia channel, the number of the observed frequencies reaches (5830, 6869),respectively for the pages of ” BBC Arabic ” and ” Sky news Arabia” channels, the value is (58.1**), significant at the level of (0.01), The researcher attributes the conscious public’s interest in following up of media coverage of American elections the UAE page and interacting with it to the existence of a non- ideologized writer specialized in Usa Political affairs who has gained the followers’ confidence. This indicates the high rate of interaction with of media coverage of American elections.
• The Confirmation of the fourth hypothesis validity: There are statistically significant statistical differences between the pages of ” BBC Arabic” and “Sky NEWS Arabia” channels in Interact by Comments with the media coverage of American elections. in favor of page of BBC Arabic channel. the number of the observed frequencies reaches (2393, 135),respectively for the pages of ” BBC Arabic ” and ” Sky news Arabia” channels, the value is (2016.8**), significant at the level of (0.01), The researcher attributes the conscious public’s interest in following up of media coverage of American elections the UAE page and interacting with it to the existence of a non- ideologized writer specialized in Usa Political affairs who has gained the followers’ confidence. This indicates the high rate of interaction with of media coverage of American elections.
• The Confirmation of the fifth hypothesis validity:There are statistically significant statistical differences between the pages of ” BBC Arabic” and “Sky NEWS Arabia” channels in Interaction by Sharing with the media coverage of American elections.in favor of page of BBC Arabic channel. the number of the observed frequencies reaches (1280, 92),respectively for the pages of ” BBC Arabic ” and ” Sky news Arabia” channels, the value is (1028.66**), significant at the level of (0.01),The researcher attributes the conscious public’s interest in following up of media coverage of American elections in the English page and interacting with it to the existence of a non- ideologized writer specialized in Usa Political affairs who has gained the followers’ confidence. This indicates the high rate of interaction with of media coverage of American elections. Given the importance of the topics dealt with by both candidates and the diversity of their audience from one site to another.

CONCLUSION:
The researcher Identifying tried to find out the differences between the pages of ” BBC Arabic” and “Sky news Arabia” channels in levels of media coverage of topics that of US presidential candidates talked about, As an informational platform for presenting different opinions and ideas related to the topics that of US presidential candidates talked about And the supportive position of both candidates On both pages. This is because the interactive media has had a great influence in shaping the public’s attitudes towards the topics that of US presidential candidates talked about. The study also reached a set of recommendations, the most important of which are:
• Emphasizing the importance of social networking sites as a media used by newspapers and channels to publish news that interests the public.
• The necessity of training workers in media institutions to use communication and electronic publishing techniques in a manner that does not conflict with the customs, traditions and values of society.
• The need to work on enacting laws that regulate electronic publishing with the aim of giving greater credibility to the news provided by the media to their audience.
Research proposals:
• The role of social networking sites in spreading political awareness among university students.
• The role of social media in raising interest in public opinion issues.
Rreferences:

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