Research studies

The Future of Sino-Algerian Relationship on “O.B.O.R” (One. Belt. One. road)

 

Prepared by the researcher  :  Pr. FILALI Ferial

Democratic Arab Center

Journal of Afro-Asian Studies : Ninth Issue – May 2021

A Periodical International Journal published by the “Democratic Arab Center” Germany – Berlin. The journal deals with the field of Afro-Asian strategic, political and economic studies

Nationales ISSN-Zentrum für Deutschland
ISSN  2628-6475
Journal of Afro-Asian Studies

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Abstract

“China is a sleeping lion. Let her sleep, for when she wakes, she will shake the world” (Napoleon Bonaparte). This French Emperor’s warning, uttered more than 200 years ago, rang hollow for most of that time. Alain Peyrefitte chose this Napoleon’s Prophecy as a title of his best seller written in 1973: Quand la Chine s’eveillera le monde tremblra. The book was a premonitory tale, about most of the things that are happening now… So, Were Alain Peyrefitte and Napoleon right…? and “Will China become the nightmare of the world after its awakening”?! In fact, many specialists, mostly in the Western world, have a positive answer and doubt about China’s goal of a “westward” strategy.

In this study, we will try to analyse this point of view by taking Algeria as an example, being the biggest African, Mediterranean and Arabic country with a strategic geographical position, subsoil full of wealth and one of the countries concerned by the OBOR initiative.

Indeed, we will approach several aspects of Sino-Algerian relationship (diplomatic, politic, economic, cultural…), by focusing on the points which can develop bilateral cooperation, in the context of the “O.B.O.R” initiative, and on those which can increase all forms of prejudice and apprehension that could hinder these ties. Thereby, questions that impose themselves are: what is the appropriate way to reach sustainable cooperation: Cultural, economic, linguistic, strategic…? Would not the cultural dimension, with its various components, be the best way? How two great civilizations, that have marked the history of humanity and whose impact and influence remain strong until now, can contribute to the establishment of a new world order that would allow all humanity to live together in peace and the respect of differences…? These are what we will try to answer in this short research.

Introduction

We have chosen to start from the beginning, that is, the first Sino-Algerian contact at Bandung Conference in 1955, which led to a great cooperation in several fields, until the signature, in 2014, of the global strategic cooperation plan[1]. On the assumption that what does not move forward backs up, the most important thing is to know how to develop this achievement, in the context of the “O.B.O.R” initiative.

  • Sino-Algerian Relations through History:
    • Diplomatic Relations and Political Ties:

Algeria and China celebrated, in October 2018, the sixtieth anniversary of the establishment of their diplomatic relations. Indeed, these relations are not new and the Bandung Conference (24th April 1955), was not just a major turning point in the Algerian revolution but also the beginning of a direct contact with China, represented by its Prime Minister Zhou Enlai and representatives of the National Liberation Front (FLN) participating in the Conference. Since 1955, China has supported the struggle of the Algerian people against colonialism in international and local occasions. In addition, China was the first country, after the Arab world, which recognized the first interim Government of the Algerian Republic only three days after its formation on 19th September, 1958.

According to historical documents, China assisted Algerians financially and military, particularly after the emergence of the second Taiwan Straits Crisis in August 1958, which could have triggered a war again. However, she was cautious, especially when America introduced the Eisenhower doctrine[2]. The assistance provided by China to Algeria consisted in the formation of combatants in the field of manufacturing gunpowder, anti-tank grenades and other weapons, as well as arms repairs and other military issues. Chinese aid did not stop even after Algeria’s independence in July 1962. In August 1962, Mao Zedong sent 9,000 tons of imported wheat from Italy to Algeria, while at the same time providing 3,000 tons of building materials and medicines worth 500,000 yuan, sent 100 to 200 cotton tents to Algeria and donated £ 50,000. Chinese unions donated 93 tons of medicine and the Chinese Red Cross 27,000 yuan. From 1958 to the first half of 1965, China provided aid and military equipment to Algeria to use 200900 people, worth 109.4 million yuan. [3]

Therefore, it is wrong to say that China opened up to the world in 1971, after its entry into the United Nations and the restoration of its seat in the Security Council[4]. It should also be noted that, the views of the two countries have not diverged, mainly on regional and international issues, including situations of crisis and conflict, the fight against terrorism and organized crime, the reform of the Security Council and the institutions of international governance.

  • Economic cooperation:

Chinese economic policy is based on “the principle of equality” and “a win-win partnership”. In this spirit, the Algerian President and his counterpart President XI Jinping signed, in 2014, a Global Strategic Partnership. An assessment of the achievements made under the five-year plan 2014-2018 has been established and a new five-year plan 2019-2023 has been planned[5].

The trade exchange between the two countries exceeds 9 billion $ a year. Chinese companies are also involved in the implementation of Algeria’s vast development programs, with more than 10 billion $ a year. The best examples are the flagship projects: the port of El Hamdania, the Great Mosque of Algiers, the new terminal of the international airport Houari-Boumediene of Algiers and the project of the Phosphate exploitation and conversion into fertilizer through three complexes in the east of the country. It should be noted that on 16 October 2017, the Algerian Ministry of Industry and Mines confirmed the decision of the two countries to pay transactions between China and Algeria in Chinese currency, the Yuan[6].

In the scientific field, cooperation is in perpetual increase, for instance, as part of its 2006-2020 space program, Alcomsat-1, Algeria’s first communications satellite developed, built and launched by China, was put into service in April 2018. It is the first space cooperation project between China and Algeria. This scientific partnership has led to the training of 323 Algerian executives (167 engineers and 156 doctors) able to operate and maintain Alcomsat-1.

  • Algeria on “One Belt, One Road “(O.B.O.R) Initiative
    • The presentation of “One Belt, One Road “(O.B.O.R) Initiative:

The “One Belt One Road” initiative, put forward by Chinese President Xi Jinping during his visit to Central Asia and South East Asia in September and October 2013, has received high interest from the international community and sparked debate among researchers from different backgrounds and nationalities, about its strategic importance in all fields.

Wang Jic, the head of the Centre for International and Strategic Studies at Peking University, was the first who introduced the concept in an article published on October 17th, 2012 in the Chinese Communist Party newspaper, Global Times. He stressed that the policy of “going west” would increase the strategic influence of Beijing, which will allow her to face up Washington. However, achieving this goal requires a new supportive strategy, which lies in cooperation with many countries to ensure the intensification of diplomatic resources and the channels of external supply of oil, gas and other resources. He called for the establishment of a cooperative development fund with the countries of Western China, as well as the promotion of social and cultural exchanges, which would transform China’s economic growth into soft power.

It is worth mentioning that the main objective of Wang’s strategy towards the West is to bring about great development in Western China. In fact, at the beginning of the reform and opening up, China focused on four forces in its foreign trade (America, Europe, Japan, East Asia), which was clearly observed in its southeast costs. However, since 2000, China has been looking to correct the imbalance between its Western and Eastern parts. West China accounts for 71% of the total land, yet only 27% of the total population and 18.7% of the GDP.[7]

This massive undertaking, which will redefine the global geopolitical landscape, aims to reopen and to develop trade routes, some of which are the famous and ancient “Silk Roads” followed by caravanners from the 2nd century BC to the 15th century. China wants to mark its commitment to globalization without borders, by establishing land, sea, air and cyberspace connectivity between countries by launching road, motorway, port, airport, telecommunications, oil and gas pipeline projects. The key word of this initiative is “connectivity” (“Hu Lian Hu Tong”) which means “connecting the wires”.

As a reminder, more than 90 countries from different continents have joined this Chinese initiative, which will cover nearly a quarter of world trade, and will reach 63% of the world’s population.

  • Algeria’s involvement in the “O.B.O.R” Initiative:

Algeria and China have signed, on Tuesday in Beijing, on the side-lines of the 3rd Forum on China-Africa Cooperation[8], a memorandum of understanding on the accession of Algeria to the Chinese initiative of the “Belt and the Road”. This memorandum marks Algeria’s accession to the new Silk Road, contributing and strengthening the Algerian-Chinese cooperation, in the spirit of the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the African Union Agenda 2063. These include good governance, security, peace, complementarily of development strategies, and improvement of the productive capacities of African countries through Chinese technological innovations.

  • The Trumps of Algeria:

2-3-1- Geographical position and transport network:

 Algeria has 1.600 km of the trans-Saharan highway, a continent-wide infrastructure covering 4800 km and traversing six African countries: Algeria, Tunisia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, and Chad. In addition, to provide direct access to the major ports of the Mediterranean and to promote trade between Africa and the rest of the world, Algeria has started the direct connection of the Trans-Saharan Highway with the penetrating road linking the port of Djen- Djen to the East-West Highway. Thereby, her long coastline on the Mediterranean Sea, with almost two thousand Kms, ensures her a strategic geographical position.

Also, it should be noted that the installation in Algeria of fibreglass cable connected to the international network which will supply and open up this vast area of the continent in terms of ICT along the Algiers-Lagos axis, has been completed.[9]

2-3-2- Algeria’s Richness (Oil, Gas, Water, Sun, Sand, Metals…)

Algeria is the biggest country in Africa, eighty percent of its territory is the Sahara, whose the subsoil is full of wealth: hydrocarbons, Oil, Gas, Gold, marble[10], sand, granite, barite, gravel, the rare earth[11] (these minerals are essential for the manufacture of smart phones screens, permanent magnets for wind turbines and missile guidance systems…), hydraulic resources[12]…etc. Moreover, Algeria is one of the sunniest countries in the world, this added to her immense Sahara, which can make her a potential producer of clean energy. So, this country should be the pivot of the road and belt initiative in this region. Nevertheless, to reach this position, the favourable conditions have to be set up.

  • China on its way toward Algeria:

For a better and sustainable cooperation, Algeria and China must develop and diversify their exchanges and not limit them to the economic and commercial aspects. Indeed, the cultural dimension, with its various components, is essential for discovering and understanding the Other, in order to learn to live together serenely. For instance, it is a big mistake to consider Algeria as a merely Arabic Muslim or African country, which is not different from the others. In Fact, her demographic composition is a complex mix of human groups that inhabited this area, but the most important ones are the Arabs and the Berbers that the religion has gathered. Therefore, their most important common point is Islam; as the first referent on which the Algerian legislation is constituted and as a religion for some of them but also as a tradition for those who are not Muslims.

In the case of China, the diversity of its population, ethnically or religiously, is even more important, which constitutes real wealth. Today Chinese people practice Buddhism, Christianity, Taoism, Hinduism, Islam, a complex mix of Chinese folk religions[13], with a Communist anti-religious sentiment. However, even if officially the country is atheist, the Chinese society is deeply imbued with Confucianism, as a philosophy which influences not just the way of the ruling but also the Chinese communist ideology and Islam itself in China.

So, we have to apprehend Islam and Confucianism, not as religions, but as two great philosophies, cultures…, that have marked the history of humanity and whose impact and influence remain strong nowadays. In addition, we have to find in each other what brings us closer and unites us to build together a better future and contribute to the establishment of a new world order that would allow all humanity to live together in peace and respect of differences. In fact, what seems to separate us, gathers us more. Furthermore, we found in our brief contrastive study that Confucianism and Islam, even if they represent two very different worldviews, have similar characteristics:

Theme Islam Confucianism Observation
 

Beliefs

 

–                   Islam is a Divinely revealed religion that is based on the submission of oneself to the will of God, who is called Allah.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

–                     Allah chooses the prophets.

 

 

 

–                 Many Chinese consider Confucianism to be a religion on the pattern of other Divinely revealed religions of the world, and Heaven an active and conscious being, synonymous with the term God.[14]

 

–                 Heaven chooses sages according to certain criteria.

 

 

–                    The Chinese sages can be considered to be the equivalent of prophets mentioned in the Quran, i.e. men who are messengers of Allah in Islam or Heaven in Confucianism

 

 

 

 

 

Inner relation and Self-Examination

 

– The Muslim must undertake everything with sincere intention and examine himself. The prophet Mohamed (S) said: “Hold yourself accountable before you are held accountable”.[15]

 

–  Muslims need to admit their mistakes in front of Allah, everyday 5 times by prayer.

 

 

 

–                 The ideal person in Confucian thoughts is a person with the quality of Ren[16].

 

 

 

 

–                 Confucianism regards self-examination as the core value of harmony. Confucius said: “Every day, I examine myself three times. Did I try my best to work? Did I be faithful to friends? Did I teach people the truth?”[17]

 

 

–                    Confucianism emphasizes on self-cultivation and achieving the status of gentleman. Likewise, Islam insists on its adherents to be sincere and examine themselves.

 

 

Relation with other living beings

 

–                   The Prophet Muhammad always repeated: “Human beings must treat all other living creatures with love and kindness.”[18]

 

 

 

 

 

 

–                   Qur’an also

mentions how to use nature: “O Children of Adam! wear your beautiful apparel at

every time and place of prayer: eat and drink: But

waste not by excess, for Allah loveth not the wasters.”[19]

 

 

–                   Confucius never completely prohibited people from hunting or killing animals; but they should choose the appropriate time and appropriate way to preserve and protect the nature and the environment.

 

–                    Confucius said: “it is not Xiao (filial piety) if a man fell one tree or hunt one animal at an inappropriate time.”[20]

 

 

-Both Islam and Confucianism have noticed the

importance of nature and the necessity to maintain the balance between the human being needs and the obligation to protect Nature.

 

 

Human being’s Relationship

 

–                   The core of human being’s relationship is love and respect. Prophet Muhammad said: “To love the others just like loving yourself, then it could be possible for you to be a real believer.”[21]

 

 

–                 “The one with Ren will have love, with good manner will have respect; the one who loves people will always be loved by others; and who respects others will always be respected by others.”[22]

 

-Both Islam and Confucianism have noticed the importance of love and respect in human being’s relationship.

 

 

Filial Piety

 

–                   The Prophet Mohamed said: “Every one of you is a guardian and accountable for his charge. A ruler is a custodian of the people and he is responsible for them. A man is a guardian of his family and he is accountable for them; a wife is a guardian of her husband’s house and she is accountable for it; a servant is a guardian of his master’s property and he is accountable for it. All of you are responsible and are accountable”[23]

 

 

 

–                   Confucius said: “Etiquette is nothing more than respect. Therefore, respect the father and the sons are happy; respect the older brother and the younger brothers are happy; respect the lord and the subjects are happy. Respect one person and thousands of people are happy. Respect the few and the many are happy, that is why it is called a crucial doctrine.”[24]

 

 

–                    Filial piety is the core of all the ties in a society from the base to the top in both philosophies.

 

 

Family

 

–                   The teachings of Islam give a very clear way for the respect of parents and looking after children.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

–                   For Islam, if the foundation of the family is not strong then the foundation of the nation will also not be strong.

 

–                   In Confucianism, the importance of the family is expressed in the concept of Filial Piety represented by the Chinese word (孝) Xiao. The top portion of the character for Xiao shows an old man and underneath, a young man supporting the old one, but this must be reciprocal.

 

–                   Confucianism emphasizes much on love and respect

inside the family which would keep the family in order. And

when the families are disciplined, the state would be in harmony

and peace.

 

 

–                    Both have the same concept of family as it is a place where

the old are respected, the children are raised and the young are

treated with kindness. It is the field where the tradition and

teachings, both religious and ethical, are implemented.

Every member has some duties. If all fulfil their duties, there would be order in the family. Thus, the family is the central unit of the society in both systems.

 

 

Marriage

 

–                   Marriage is a sacred contract between husband and wife. Thus, the agreement for marriage of both male and female is necessary. In Islam, Husband and wife are said to be “screens” or a dress for one another, as mentioned in the Holy Quran. “They are libas (i.e. body cover) for you and you are the same for them.”[25]

 

 

– The relation between husband and wife is unique. Each partner has many rights and responsibilities:

“Happy union with wife and children is like the music of lutes and harps. When there is concord among brethren, the harmony is delightful and enduring. Thus, may you regulate your family and enjoy the pleasure of your wife and children”[26]

 

 

– Both insist on the strong relation and mutual

understanding of husband and wife, which is the source of unity

inside the family.

 

 

Parents

 

–                   Parents should be treated with kindness. If one or both of them attain old age, they should not be left alone, as it is mentioned in the Holy Quran: “Your Lord has commanded that you must not worship none but Him alone and do well to your (both) parents. If either of both of them reach old age in your life time say not even UFF (Fie) to them say not to them a word of disrespect nor shout at them but address them in terms of honour.”[27]

 

–                   Islam instructs children to do good with parents even after their death.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

–                   Great respect for parents is required but if they urge us to be against Allah and His Prophets, then their obedience is not necessary. As mentioned,

in the Holy Quran: “And if they strive to make you associate with me of which

you have no knowledge, then obey them not. To me is your return, then I will inform you, what you used to do?”[28]

 

 

 

–                   The immediate duty of the son is fully performed by his grief, by proper burial, and the prescribed period of

retirement and mourning; as it is said: “The services of love and reverence to parents when alive, and those of grief and sorrow for them when dead, these completely discharge the duty of living men.”[29]

 

 

– The period of mourning for a father had been fixed at three years. The following is the statement of Confucius about it and the reason for it: “It is not till a child is three years old that it is allowed to leave the arms of its parents. And three years’ mourning is universally observed throughout the empire.”[30]

 

–                   If the parents are doing something wrong the son is allowed to argue and disagree with them but, the disagreement should be in a gentle way. Confucius said:

“In serving his parents, a son may remonstrate with them, but gently; when he sees that they are not disposed to acquiesce, he should show increased reverence but not give up; and, should they punish him, he ought not to murmur.”[31]

 

 

– Both Confucianism and Islam are patriarchal systems.

 

 

Children

 

–                   There are some children rights mentioned in the holy Quran and Hadiths of the Prophet. Some of these rights are due even before birth. The first right of the child over the father is to choose a righteous wife in order to be a righteous mother. After the child’s birth, he should be given a good name; the third right is to be suckled naturally by the mother who should take care of the baby.

 

–                   The prophet (S) said: “The best of you is one who gives a good education to his children. Children have three rights over their father: that he gives them a good name, teach them how to read and write, and marry them off when they mature.”[32]

 

–                   Confucius compelled the parents and elders to be kind and respectful towards the young.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

–                   Confucius said: “A youth is to be regarded with respect. How do we know that his future will not be equal to our present? If he reaches the age

of forty or fifty, and has not made himself heard of, then indeed he will not be worth being regarded with respect.”[33]

 

 

– In both, parents are

advised to educate their children, cultivate in them moral

values, and raise them carefully.

 

Governance

 

–                   The Qur’an states: “Their affairs are decided by consultations between them”.[34] Even if the Prophet (S) was the recipient of direct guidance, he ordered to consult his followers: “Consult them in affairs”[35]

 

 

–                 Confucius said: “If conquer people by supremacy and use the way of suppressing to control people. The appearance of harmony will not be real. People will hide their indecent ideas just because of fear. If the governor uses morality to influence people to gain morality, people will be shame of being immoral. The management of state will become easier.”[36]

 

 

– Even if the both cultures diverge in their vision of governing, they share the same principle of justice which, according to them, is the safest way to maintain harmony within the society.

 

Justice

 

–                   In Islam there is no difference between nations, ethnics, classes or religions. Human beings are equal in front of Allah in right and obligation, to set up an equitable social order.

 

–                   The Qur’an says: “O mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that ye may know each other (not that ye may despise (each other). Verily the most honoured of you in the sight of Allah is (he who is) the most righteous of you. And Allah has full knowledge and is well acquainted (with all things)”[37].

 

–                 In Confucianism the concept of Ren is the core idea of his ideological system.

 

 

 

 

–                  Confucius told people to always judge people by putting themselves into other people’s situation; otherwise he should try to be tolerant of the mistakes.

Confucius said: “the work you dislike to do, do not give it to the others.”[38]

 

 

– Maybe in the aspect of social justice, there is a difference between Confucianism and Islam.

While the Confucianism focuses on   the top of social class to establish the social order,

Islam considers the social class base as the pedestal of any strong social construction. But either from the upper

class or from the bottom of the society, they both

believe that justice is the key to a harmonious society.

 

 

Muhammad and Confucius

 

–                   Muhammad leads his followers and fights for his ideal society.

 

 

 

–                   Muhammad said “Practice archery as your father was a great archer”[39]

 

–                   Confucius and his pupils wondered in countries all over China to seek his political ideal.

 

–                   Archery was one of “Six arts” (六藝) which Confucian had to learn.

 

–                    Joining in real politics & war, Muhammad and Confucius are also politicians.

 

–                    They both encourage martial arts.

We can note that both Texts in Confucianism and Islam contain not only religious rites but also laws, morals, manners and rules in daily life.

Conclusion:

What has caught our interest, in this research, is the similarities existing between both civilizations in values, ideals, and the rapport they have with the world. However, China’s knowledge of the Western region is very superficial compared to her understanding of America, Europe, East Asia and Russia. China suffers from a lack of cadres that speak Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Kazakh, Hindi, Urdu, Bengali, and other languages. Consequently, in order to reach a world leadership position, she needs to spread her culture, and language, after having successfully conquered the global economy. For that, she has to organize more bilateral and multilateral seminars, programs and cooperation to promote research with these countries, develop a long-term plan and provide substantial financial support in cultural, educational and academic resources. Then she could promote, softly, her “westward” strategy, and the “O.B.O.R” initiative would become the Chinese dream instead of the Chinese nightmare, confirming the words of President Xi Jinping: “Today, the lion has woken up. But it is peaceful, pleasant and civilised”.[40]

References:

  • Confucius, Legge James (Tr.), The Great Learning, New York: Hurd and Houghton, 1870.
  • Confucius’ Family Sayings. Disciple Tour,《家家家谟杀.德家行《,《於仁稷树记,杀仁稷兽,仁使德兽时火,非家仁《《《
  • Legge James, (Tr), Yi Su. (Ed), Lun-Yu (The Analects of Confucius), New York: Dover publication, 1963.
  • Legge James, Confucian Analects, The Great Learning, and the Doctrine of the Mean. With critical and exegetical notes, prolegomena, copious indexes, and dictionary of all characters, NY: Dover, 1971. [reprinted from The Chinese Classics]
  • Legge James, The Sacred Books of China: The Texts of Confucianism. Sacred Books of the East; v. 3, 16, 27, 28. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1968-70.
  • Lynn Richard John, The Classic of Changes: A New Translation of the I Ching., New York:  Columbia University Press, 1994.
  • Mangzi, Legge James (Tr), The Doctrine of Mean, New York: Hurd and Houghton, 1870.
  • The Analects: Xue Er.《记谟杀仁解巍􀁧家耻第仁稷:《和时德仁荀省第和身:仁仁谟耻仁怨威仁?仁行杀友仁耻仁 俾家仁?使仁仁仁?《《
  • The Qur’an
  • The Sahih Bukhari.
  • Zi Zeng (505-436 BCE), (Feng Xin-ming,Tr). Xiao-Jing (The book of Filial Piety). (www.tsoidug.org 2008).

[1] The first of its kind that China concludes with a country in the MENA (Middle East and North Africa) region.

[2] Under the Eisenhower Doctrine (1957), a country could request American economic assistance and/or aid from U.S. military forces if it was being threatened by armed aggression from another state. This decision was motivated in part by growing Soviet influence in Egypt and Syria following the Suez Crisis of 1956, which had encouraged pan-Arab sentiment. US feared that nationalism would combine with international communism in the region and threaten Western interests.

[3] People’s Daily Online, Said Kab Faiza, Sinologist, 11/09/2015

[4] Algeria supported China in regaining its place within the United Nations in 1971. This was supervised by the former Algerian President Abdelaziz Bouteflika from his position, at the time, as Minister of Foreign Affairs of Algeria through his chairmanship of the General Assembly of the United Nations.

[5] Ministry of Commerce website of the People’s Republic of China

[6] In fact, at the end of 2015, the Bank of Algeria issued a note stating that the transactions between Algeria and China will be settled in Chinese currency, after having been paid in US dollars for a long time.

[7] People’s Daily Online, Faiza Said Kab, Sinologist, 11/09/2015

[8] The 3rd Summit of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (ASCF) held on 3-4 September in Beijing on the theme “China and Africa: Community of Destiny and Mutually Beneficial Partnership”.

[9] According to the Secretary General of the Trans-Saharan Road Liaison Committee (CLRT), Mr. Ayadi during the work of its 68th session (AP 23 April 2018).

[10] The Eiffel Tower and various American monuments are made thanks to Algerian iron and marbles

[11] Algeria holds 20% of the world’s “rare earth” reserves in its subsoil

[12] No less than two-thirds of the water contained in the Mediterranean

[13] For instance, filial piety was a primal Confucian virtue but all the death rites and ancestral worshipping rituals, complimentary to filial piety, were the expertise of Taoist priests.

[14] The followers of Taoism, Shintoism and Buddhism equally believe in Confucianism as a philosophy compatible with their own.

[15] Bihar-al-Anwar.

[16] Variously translated into modern English such as: kindness, love, amazed, unselfishness, kindness, charity, compassion, nobility, perfect virtue, goodness, human heartedness, humanity, …

[17] The Analects: Xue Er. 《记谟杀仁解巍􀁧家耻第仁稷:《和时德仁荀省第和身:仁仁谟耻仁怨威仁?仁行杀友仁耻仁 俾家仁?使仁仁仁?《《

[18] The Sahih Bukhari.

[19] The Qur’an:7.31

[20] Confucius’ Family Sayings. Disciple Tour, 《家家家谟杀.德家行《,《於仁稷树记,杀仁稷兽,仁使德兽时,非家仁《《《

[21] Sahih El Bukhari

[22] Mencius Jin Xin Shang,《仁耻物仁,杀荀社耻於仁,物仁耻,仁怨 物仁,於仁耻,仁怨於仁《《

[23] The Sahih Bukhari.

[24] Zeng Zi (505-436 BCE), (Feng Xin-ming,Tr).Xiao-Jing (The book of Filial Piety). (www.tsoidug.org 2008).

[25] (2:187) The Holy Quran.

[26] Mangzi, Legge James (Tr), The Doctrine of Mean., New York: Hurd and Houghton (15:2), 1870.

[27] The Holy Quran (15:23)

[28] The Holy Quran (29:8)

[29] Zi Zeng (505-436 BCE), (Feng Xin-ming,Tr). Xiao-Jing (The book of Filial Piety) (18). (www.tsoidug.org 2008)

[30] Legge James, (Tr), Yi Su. (Ed), Lun-Yu (The Analects of Confucius), New York: Dover Publication, 1963.

[31] Legge James, (Tr), Yi Su. (Ed), Lun-Yu (The Analects of Confucius), New York: Dover Publication, 1963.

[32] Makarim al-Akhlaq, p.220.

[33] Legge James, (Tr), Yi Su. (Ed), Lun-Yu (The Analects of Confucius), New York: Dover Publication (9.22), 1963.

[34] The Holy Quran (42:38)

[35] The Holy Quran (03:159)

[36] The Analects; Wei Zheng II. 《记谟杀·仁於第仁《,《道仁使德於,齐仁使德功记,民记 兽耻时威耻􀀞􀀃道仁使德德,齐仁使德社,杀荀耻仁身树《《《

[37] The Qur’an: 49:13

[38] The Analects: Yan Yuan:《记谟杀􀁧颜渊董《,《废正戒仁正,友社於仁仁《坏道时威怨,坏家《《《

[39] http://www.tuba-archery.com/article/archery-hadith.html

[40] President Xi Jinping, in France, at the 50th anniversary of Sino-French diplomatic relations (2015)

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