Prepared by the researcher
Dr. Ali Aboudi Nehme, Imam Al-Kadhum College (IKC), Iraq
Dr. Rabab Nazim Khazam Al-Akili, Ministry of Oil/Petroleum Products Distribution Company/Wasit Branch, Iraq
Democratic Arab Center
Journal of Afro-Asian Studies : Eleventh Issue – November 2021
A Periodical International Journal published by the “Democratic Arab Center” Germany – Berlin. The journal deals with the field of Afro-Asian strategic, political and economic studies
This study presents the legal and financial aspects of ensuring food security as part of the transition to the Islamic economy and ways to improve current legislation in Iraq and the Arab world. The problem is with regard to the main scientific and practical problems by working within the new political path of the established State from noticing the 10 global challenges of the 21st century. One of them is the threat to global food security, awareness of the need to ensure food security has not come as immediately as it did in Iraq’s early years, so current economic reforms are concerned with questions about eliminating state monopolies. As well as creating favorable conditions for the establishment of new forms of ownership and management in the agricultural sector. This was to put it into practice during the transition to a market economy. The Islamic Economy Initiative is adopted as a tool for sustainable development, and the movement towards an Islamic economy in Iraq and the Arab world must be achieved through the current environmental management system and is in turn based on a combination of ideological concepts (environmental protection and rational use of natural resources) The main objective of this study is to provide a profile of the general framework of the Islamic economy in order to show its importance to the current economic system, so we will present in this study the problem that is to study the economic, agricultural and commercial situation for the years confined between (2004-2014) and present a full and in-depth analysis of a set of government data obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture and Trade and propose a set of recommendations in this regard, One of the most important conclusions was the revelations revealed by the relevant departments’ reports on the deterioration of agriculture for a variety of reasons, and one of the most important recommendations is our proposal to the Land Act in Iraq and to publish brief reports on the Government Land Fund every year in the official media.
In past years, the world has been completely depleted by commodity markets, food scarcity and agricultural land depletion, and it is the Islamic economy that provides economic opportunities and improves human well-being in line with the sustainable management of natural resources. Moving to the Islamic economy is to improve the lives and livelihoods of individuals, to balance the use of natural resources with the preservation of income, and to trade the risks of making a difference with the opportunities that change will bring. Promoting the transition to the Islamic economy was an important priority theme in the world, based on the support of thematic collective action.
The Islamic economic model represents a new state of change in terms of food security, therefore because current trends in food security with the momentum of global economies aimed at transforming the economy in the long term to mitigate the total expansion of markets and increase the efficiency of resource use as well as social inclusiveness, while sustainability in food security has been widely discussed in the past few decades, Studies are increasingly focusing on food security, climate change and the transition to the Islamic economy, so the aim of this study is to develop a food security framework for the transition to the Islamic economy at the financial and legal level. Strategic planning stems from traditional management theory and can be referred to as the development of a coherent set of analyses, concepts, policies, arguments and actions that respond to high-risk challenges (Rumelt, 2012, p.6).
For many economic destinations, this great challenge for the world’s economies and strategies has become based on a vision to become more sustainable. Various schools of thought have emerged on the Islamic economy as organizations are scattered across the spectrum of international views. This has resulted in a policy discourse that has become intertwined in interrelated but different terms, using terms such as sustainable development, green growth, low-carbon development and self-exchanged sustainable economy.
First: The Islamic Economy
One of the main requirements of the Islamic economy is to study the Holy Quran and the Prophet’s Sunnah, as well as the culture, attitudes and practices of Muslims so that we can put everything in the context of the modern, and potential future. Therefore, the basic things of this economy are the concept of uniformity, which encompasses all aspects of life, as there is a general sense of general unity, interdependence, inclusiveness, integration, interaction and development, and the need to establish a coherent basis taking into account a wide range of studies rather than a narrow legal approach. So, there are a set of special requirements for the Islamic economy: (Harahap, 2016, 143.)
- Provide free markets through large-scale private ownership of private capital to individuals that deploy productive capacity to all individuals so that they produce independently of whether they also have a traditional function or not.
- Create effective wealth including balancing supply and demand through economic and social justice.
- Properly encourage small businesses and start participating and participatory structures in all aspects of the system.
- Ending riba and economic colonialism, i.e., ending economic or new colonialism and developing public and environmental capital projects through the direct relationship between money and the real economy.
- The desire to increase political freedoms and deepen democracy, the policy of unifying people with different linguistic, religious, geographical, ethnic and environmental backgrounds.
Islamic economic theory is based as an alternative system to the current economy, and the book is guided by the Qur’an and Sunnis, two major sources of knowledge of Islam. Islam does not favour wasting and exploiting factors of production. One cannot find any attempt in Islamic literature that seriously discusses waste and exploitation of resources. To solve this problem, Islam gives us an alternative based on its moral and social foundations. (Raja,2016,53) this demonstrates the need to use traditional economic tools to take advantage of advances in theoretical, mathematical and statistical models in the traditional economy to obtain a more integrated formulation of the Islamic economic model. It therefore affects savings, investment and the gap in domestic resources. (Adela, 2018,4) We believe that this conceptual study is not intended to replicate the outstanding features mentioned by participating academics on the philosophical foundations, executive principles, mechanism and objectives of the Islamic economic system.
- Macroeconomic perspectives of the Islamic economic system
The main objective of the Islamic economic system is to achieve balanced growth and development in the light of the lofty foundations, one of the pillars of society is to promote the laws of God on earth. In order to achieve this goal, the fundamental principles must be seen. These principles, in turn, support the critical macroeconomic instruments of the Islamic economic system. The basic principles of the Islamic economic system are: Rahman, 2018,61)
The principle of unity and fraternity.
The principle of work and productivity.
The principle of equity in distribution.
The three principles are interlinked in the sense that they help to generate a certain series of relationships within the framework of the general balance. Rationalizing and developing this set of general balance relations in the Islamic macroeconomic system is our goal in this article. In order to carry out this task, we will first explain, briefly, the above principles and the macroeconomic instruments underlying these principles.
In the Islamic economic context, the principle of unity and brotherhood is at the heart of all relations in this economic system, in that it teaches man how to bond and deal with other men in light of his relationship with God. Social justice thus becomes the main objective of all economic transactions. In Islam, the ability to understand and dispense with this goal of social justice stems from knowledge and practice from the principles of the Holy Quran.
The principle of employment and productivity stipulates that an individual’s wages must be proportionate to the amount and category of work he or she performs. The important point worth noting in this principle is that when an individual earns more income than he or she deserves because of his or her work and resources, he commits a surplus. Access to this surplus is prohibitive in Islam, as it negates the principle of unity and fraternity.
The principle of fairness in distribution stipulates that the Islamic State has the right to redistribute private property. The just necessity of distributing income and wealth is binding on both the State and the individual. Capitalist economists of the 20th century began to consciously address the threat of Marxism by including an extensive analysis of issues such as social welfare function, interrelated utility functions, inter-benefit jobs, distribution equity, unemployment insurance, economic development, trade unions and full employment of economic employment. It seems self-evident that the use of sustainable resources is unsustainable, while a regenerative resource is an influx, not a recoverable stock that can be used sustainably if the harvest does not exceed growth or regeneration. (Lazzat etal), (2014).
But the shift away from leverageable resources simply because they are scalable is not necessarily consistent with sustainable growth and hasnelly suggested that the resources of the green food industry have a significant impact on its values and customer satisfaction. The second group relates not only to agriculture but also to other sectors of the economy. This includes (water pollution, forest destruction and air pollution). The third group relates to the direct threats to the life and health of the public as consumers of agricultural products, as well as persons directly engaged in agricultural production. The elements of the formulation and implementation of the mechanism (Green Revolution) in agriculture, which states: (Rosenberg etal,2018)
- Introducing new high-yield varieties of domestic and foreign crops to increase yields, and the use of agrochemicals.
- Draining and irrigating land.
- Restore the fertility of degraded soil.
- Environmental revitalization and new agricultural economic systems.
Policy changes should aim primarily at reducing harmful environmental subsidies that create an inaccurate impression of the real costs of unsustainable agricultural production. Policies should aim at pricing and regulation reform, thereby including the costs associated with environmental degradation in the prices of food and commodities. (Buseth,2017)
The main part of the state is to solve the problems of environmental protection and the rational use of natural resources in the production of competitive agricultural products, and there is an interest in meeting environmental requirements and this requires the development of legal instruments to protect the environment in agricultural production. Failure to comply with the standards and requirements of environmental legislation in the implementation of agricultural production can result in heavy losses in agriculture itself, as well as damage to the environment, human health and life.
We propose that the text of the Land Act should be as follows: (Agricultural land means land allocated on the basis of permanent agriculture or other agricultural needs, and this definition is useful in that it clearly states that the use of such land for agricultural production is a priority. Secondly, the permanent feature of its use is for agricultural needs. Thirdly, the secondary use of such land to meet other agricultural needs is the absorption of agricultural buildings and structures. In this regard, we also propose that the Land Act be used as the basic principle of land legislation within the country. The introduction of private ownership of agricultural land has not had the desired effect on the development of the land market in the agricultural sector and, although legal restrictions on the circulation of agricultural land are necessary, in particular, we propose restrictions on the transfer of irrigated land or pastures, to ensure that they meet the grazing and semi-pastoral needs of private property.
We propose a special bill (on soil protection). Secondly, in the purposes of ensuring public access to land information, we have proposed to the Land Act of Iraq that summary reports on the Government Land Fund be published every year in the official media. This will be an effective mechanism for monitoring government and governance activities. Thirdly, we need to prepare amendments to Iraq’s land law and the Iraqi Environmental Code. This will ensure that the law is understood accurately. Preparations for this important document should therefore be carried out by qualified cooperatives comprising specialists in various fields of knowledge.
2- The reality of the economic and agricultural sectors in Iraq for the period (2004 -2014
The agricultural sector is an important engine of the Iraqi economy, in order to provide food commodities to the population as well as the provision of raw materials to the industrial sector, as well as to include a large segment of the farmers and farmers of the Iraqi population, which is one of the main sectors generating jobs, as the proportion of agricultural labor in Iraq is estimated at about 20% of the total labor sector, there are agricultural energies and possibilities in Iraq if it is fully exploited to transform Iraq from an importing country of food to a source of food, and to achieve food security. It encourages the advancement of the agricultural sector and is represented by means of production from large land, whether it is dimi or rain. (Waeli and Abd, 2016). Therefore, most indicators in the agricultural sector in Iraq can be clarified through table 1, despite attempts in Iraq to introduce technology to this sector, but they remain modest, particularly in the field of statistical techniques, improved seeds and chemical fertilizers.
Some indicators of the agricultural sector in Iraq
At current prices
1 million dinars
|The value of output in the agricultural sector
|Agriculture’s contribution to GDP
Sources: Ministry of Planning, Central Bureau of Statistics, National Accounts, for different years.
The Ministry of Agriculture, the Planning and Follow-up Department, The Agricultural Statistics Department, annual statistical data on agricultural activity for different years.
Agricultural production is therefore one of the most important sources of human food and plays an important role in achieving food security, so the reality of its production can be detailed as follows:
- Plant production
Production of plant crops in Iraq for duration (2004-2014) (1000 tons)
|The year||Grain crops
|Tubers and doors
|Feed crops||Industrial crops
Source: Ministry of Planning, Central Bureau of Statistics, Directorate of Agricultural Statistics, for various years.
- Animal production
Iraq’s production of red and white meat, table eggs and fish for the duration (2004-2014)
|The year||Red meat (1000 tons)
(1 million eggs)
Source: Ministry of Planning, Central Bureau of Statistics, Directorate of Agricultural Statistics, for various years.
Table 3 shows that Iraq is still below the level of self-sufficiency for strategic crops (wheat, rice), legumes and fruits, as well as for animal production (red meat, white meat, fish and table eggs), and that the decline in agricultural production in both plant and animal sectors has clearly reflected the inability of the agricultural sector to meet the needs of the population.
From food, which requires the application of sound economic policies and the provision of more modern agricultural production requirements and adapting scientific progress to serve the development and improvement of production, and raising the level of self-sufficiency, and obtaining self-sufficiency at least in agricultural products is very important, it helps to achieve food security, which is necessary to avoid any change, whether external or internal (Waeli and Abd, 2016)
Second: Food security
The problem of food security is the ultimate priority of any country’s economic policy strategy, and the effectiveness of this solution affects social, political and ethnic stability in society. Food security, as an integral part of national security, relies heavily on public resources to prevent market disruption, production and the country’s social environment.
The formation of public resources for all types of food, general grain resources and other agricultural products is strategically important in the right quantities, depending on the needs of the population, and is capable of providing food security. The global financial crisis that has affected the agricultural sector and the economy has created a real threat to global food security, which in turn requires the reform of existing mechanisms and the development of new mechanisms to ensure international and national food security.
Economic, political and social security in the modern world is based on three aspects of security, food, energy and finance (Shulanbekova, 2013) To provide the basic needs of its citizens without prejudice to national and state interests. In this case, food security is not limited to economic security, because it is closely linked to other aspects of national security. Food security also requires in-depth research in agriculture.
Coordinated efforts are being made in the field of biotechnology to improve crops, develop innovative processing and production strategies in agriculture, promote new technologies in the food industry, and invest in research and development projects in this field as a guarantor of food security for the Iraqi Republic. The arrival of imported low-cost and high-quality food in the domestic market will weaken Iraqi agricultural producers, thereby leading to higher food prices, affecting the income of both urban and rural populations and exacerbating economic access to food. In accordance with this threat, the law should identify strict barriers to dangerous and low-level food products from entering our markets, both in the form of raw materials for their production and in the form of ready-to-eat products. This problem is very important. The Codex, or food law, has become a global reference point for consumers, producers and food processors, national food authorities and international food trade. (Mubarak, 2015)
1-Dimensions of food security
One of the most important influences in the issue of food security is the economic, social, environmental and political considerations, so the economic, political and social environment in Iraq or any other country is primarily responsible for providing food security in it, and in order to highlight things more clearly and as Iraq represents the spatial framework of our study we will take the different dimensions of the problem of food security, and in order to understand the real dimensions of the issue of food security we mention here in detail. Four dimensions build the food security framework: (availability, access, use, exploitation, stability). The dimensions describing the flow of food from availability and access to use as well as sustainability are shown in the chart below. (Mohammadi, 2016) Availability
Referring to the physical presence of food at the national level, the availability of food is a combination of local food production, commercial food imports and exports, food aid, local food stocks, and at the family level food can be from private production or purchased from local markets. With regard to food production, water resources are required for crop production due to population growth and climate change, and pressure on existing natural resources, i.e., land and water, increases and the effects of climate change often lead to land degradation and lack of irrigation, reduced soil moisture and thus the loss of economic livelihoods. Along with increased conflicts over the use of water resources (growing crops for active use versus growing crops for food use, and using them from other sectors such as drinking water, industry and the environment), this may be a long-term food threat. Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI) confirms
The increasing importance of green water, i.e. water hidden in the ground such as soil moisture (while blue water refers to water available in lakes, rivers and aquifers). (CFS,2011) We believe that with appropriate soil adaptation measures, such as irrigation systems, improving water efficiency through farming methods and technologies, developing marginal quality water harvesting and reuse infrastructure and treated sewage, or improving soil water management in rain systems, for example, agricultural systems flexibility and risk reduction for guaranteed livelihoods can help support local water user groups and enhance their planning and management skills in reducing the risk of scarce resources and reducing the risk of scarce resources. of conflicts.
to food when all families have sufficient resources to obtain food in sufficient quantity, quality and diversity for a nutritious diet. This depends mainly on the amount of household resources and prices. In addition, accessibility is also a matter of the physical, social and political environment and radical changes in these dimensions may seriously hamper production strategies and threaten the access of affected families to food. As an example, developing countries may be increasingly affected by severe droughts or floods consistently, reducing harvest volume and increasing food prices (IUCN,2005)
C- Use and stability
The use describes the social and economic aspects of family food security, defined by knowledge and customs by assuming that nutritious food is available and available, and the family must decide what foods to buy and how to prepare them as well as how to consume and customize them within the family. Another aspect is biological use related to the human body’s ability to eat and convert food. This acquired energy is very important when it comes to daily physical activities, for example working in agriculture. (UNICE, 1998) So we believe that besides that use requires a healthy physical environment and adequate health facilities, as well as an understanding and awareness of appropriate health care, food preparation and storage processes. In this context, safe drinking water plays an important role, particularly in preparing food and creating a healthy environment for the population. Safe drinking water is associated with groundwater, which is often contaminated through human, industrial or agricultural sewage in combination with other factors.
2-Challenges to iraq’s food security problem
The challenges and problems that have become emerging from the food security problem in Iraq are multiple and can be identified to develop appropriate frameworks and answers, including: (Al-Baghdadi, 2013)
A- Natural factors: they can be divided into three sections:
- Climate factors: Occasional climate changes such as the warming climate that has had a real impact on temperature rise and others.
- Soil: The phenomenon of desertification in Iraq and its significant spread have a significant impact on the decline in the productivity of iraq’s agricultural sector.
- Water shortages and inadequate needs for agricultural land.
- Population growth:
The population growth is constant and has a clear impact on the growing demand for food, in which it has exceeded an increase in demand and insufficient supply in filling the individual’s production needs.
To develop appropriate frameworks for improving food production, work is required to achieve sustainable agricultural development, and FAO has defined sustainable development as managing and maintaining the natural resource base and guiding technical and institutional change in such a way as to ensure that the human needs of present and future generations are realized and sustained, which means that sustainable development will safeguard land, water and plant and animal genetic resources and do not lead to environmental degradation and therefore sustainable food security can be achieved in any country by ensuring three p. And the main hope is 🙁 Ibrahim, 2013)
- Sustainability of natural resources (land and water)
- Sustainability of biodiversity (plant, animal and microorganisms)
- Appropriate population increase
Third: Investing in agriculture in Iraq is the path towards the Islamic economy
In Iraq, scientific practice has shown that agricultural producers often do not pass environmental permit procedures, and many individuals do not know the obligation to complete these procedures. Non-compliance with the specific social production of environmental legislation has its causes. So we’ll mention a range of these reasons: (Daryl,2011(
- Agricultural producers are often farmers and farmers who are not legal entities, the Ministry of Environment, agricultural producers and shareholders, business partnerships and cooperatives, and also often do not receive environmental permits.
- There are also legal reasons, namely the lack of unique legislation determined by environmental and legal mechanisms in agricultural production.
- There is no principle in the current legislation (production of environmentally friendly agricultural production).
Above all, legal study must be carried out and the necessary measures implemented and it is in the state’s interest to solve environmental problems in the context of the production of competitive agricultural products to meet environmental requirements. This demonstrates the need for legal instruments to protect the environment in agricultural production. Failure to comply with the standards and requirements of environmental legislation on agricultural production can result in heavy losses in agriculture itself and, moreover, can cause such damage to the environment, human health and life. Within the framework of the Islamic economy, we understand that many sectors of the economy and institutional arrangements exist to improve the environment. There is a need to protect the quality of environmental life on a cost-effective long-term basis, including indirect economic efficiency, poverty reduction, widespread public access, food, water and sustainable land resources. (Al-Baghdadi, 2013) Indirect efficiency technologies for the Islamic economy can be accompanied by lower environmental and energy costs in production costs, reduced health costs for individuals and livestock, and increased workload and productivity.
1-The problem of study
Based on the above, the problem of the study crystallized in the following question: What are the financial and legal aspects of ensuring the food security of the Republic of Iraq? In the context of simplifying the problem on the one hand and trying to get to know the subject on the other, we will try to answer the following questions:
What is the Islamic economy?
What does food security represent from the perspective of the Islamic economy?
What is the reality of the Islamic economy in the Arab oil countries?
What policies are likely to be more effective for the transition to the Islamic economy in the Arab oil countries, including Iraq?
Can the transition to the Islamic economy provide an opportunity to respond to the challenges faced by Arab oil?
2- The importance of the study
This study derives its importance from the central role of food security as it is the first engine of the global economy and a key element of development, in addition to the importance that the Islamic economy has become as the ideal strategic development alternative that all countries seek to achieve its goals and meet its challenges, especially the Arab oil countries, because of the environmental and depletion challenges faced by oil resources.
Through this study, we aim to:
Provide a theoretical framework that defines the concept of the Islamic economy, the background of its development and its relationship to food security.
The Islamic economy is a recent concept.
Clarify the environmental and legal aspects and tools that can support the transition to the Islamic economy.
Monitoring iraq’s economic landscape and clarifying its economic, social and environmental implications.
Knowing the level of the relationship between variables is an important element in data analysis, because it determines any deviation that may affect the relationship between variables, and thus reflects on the analysis of linear regression of variables, that the linear relationship between variables can be estimated through person analysis if data with a normal parameter distribution, as demonstrated in the natural distribution test, or through scatter plot schemes, and the bonding factors range in value from (1) to (1), i.e., The value (r) should be within the limits of the next relationship (-1 ≤ r ≤ +1), if its value is positive, it means that the correlation is positive (expelled), and if its value is equal to (1+) it is called a total correlation
Table 5: Pearson’s correlation matrix for all key study variables and dimensions
Source: SPSS.v22 outputs after reorganization.
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed
Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed.
From the results of the previous table, it became clear that the correlation values of the study variables showed positive and moral linear relationships between all the variables of the study and its dimensions, all of which were strong, by relying on table (5) in which the strength levels of the arbitrary relationships. As it turns out that there is a very strong correlation between the main variables and their dimensions, the values of the correlation of dimensions with their main variables are evidence that they represent and belong to variables, and moreover we note that there is a correlation (linear relationship) between the independent variable (food security) and its dimensions (availability, access, use, stability) with the dependent variable (Islamic economy) one-dimensional, and this relationship is a positive and moral relationship if its values (strong), because all the values of the Armats are positive, because all the values of the Armat are positive.
The results of the association of independent variables and the absence of a phenomenon of linear multiplicity between them have been shown, as the arbitrary relationships between them did not exceed (0.80) or (0.90, as all values ranged to link the dimensions of the independent variable with each other Between (0.220-0.313), values for the correlation of the dimensions of the variable adopted ranged from (0.263-0.252) as the intermediate variable as a palliative variable.
Impact relationship test (structural equation modeling)
Structural equation modelling is a general statistical modelling technique, used in behavioral research, and is an appropriate framework that can be used in statistical analysis, and includes multiple methods, such as working analysis, the most powerful statistical analysis technique, which is used in multi-variable analysis, and can depict structural equation modelling in a path graph, consisting of a set of equation matrixs used to represent the statistical model. The most important advantage of SEM is that it is able to test many of the descending equations at the same time, i.e. testing a causal model consisting of latent variables, observable indicators, and through which a model containing interactive or intermediate variables can be tested as necessary, meaning that through SEM the hypothetical model can be statistically tested through simultaneous analysis, (Maccoby), 2001) And that in order to conduct a more accurate analysis, this requires that more than one matching indicator be taken They include comparative match quality indicators such as the Comparative Match Index (CFI), the Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI), the Normed chi-square standard box (φ2), absolute match quality indicators such as chi-square (chi2) and one of the economic indicators (mis-conformity) as the RMSEA quadrant root index, as well as the probability value (p). After testing the form if the match quality value is sufficient, this indicates the reasonableness of the model for the supposed relationships between variables, but if they are insufficient, these relationships are rejected. Test the first main hypothesis (H1), the results of which are shown by the following:
|Chi-square||Bigger or equal to 3||1621.19|
|degree of freedom (df)||–||344|
|χ2 = (Chi-square /degree of freedom)||The closer you get to 5 better.||344/ 1621.19= 4.713|
|p-value||0.05 or older||0.352|
|TLI||Bigger or equal to 0.90||0.961|
|CFI||Bigger or equal to 0.90||0.968|
|RMSRA||If it is valued at 0.05, the least indicative is that the model corresponds perfectly to the sample data, and if the value is limited between 0.05-0.08, this indicates that the model corresponds significantly to the sample data.||0.0534|
Table (6): Results of the H1 hypothesis test compared to standard match quality indicators
Source: Prepare the researcher by relying on the outputs of the AMOS.v.22 program.
Table 7: Results of the First Main Hypothesis Test (H1)
Standardized Regression Weight
It is clear that the model shown in the above figure has achieved quality indicators of conformity within the required criteria, through what appeared in the table above, and the matching comes through the value (p), reaching (0.352) which is not morally indicative, i.e. there are no differences between the theoretical model that was assumed and the field data collected from the study sample in the ministries concerned.
This confirms the validity of the theory assumed by the researcher in the hypothesis. The results of the hypothesis were also positive through the impact of food security on the transition to the Islamic economy by (0.46 β=), C.R=3.95, and by meaning (p<0.05), which indicates the acceptance of the first major hypothesis (H1) that becomes (there is a positive and moral impact on food security and the possibility of moving to the Islamic economy). Although the result of this hypothesis was positive, moral and acceptable, but with a low level of impact, this amount of impact confirms the low level of concentration and concern for food security from the department of the ministries concerned, which corresponds to the results of the descriptive statistics that showed insufficient attention to the management of the ministries concerned with the Islamic economy,Despite having her employees. Therefore, the management of the ministries concerned should study the attention and support required by emerging technology within the framework of the possibility of benefiting and attracting attention, and the ability to communicate using techniques to understand and support individuals in changing themselves in the light of the reform of his thinking, because this support and interest would help to increase the positive impact of food security and the possibility of moving to the Islamic economy by strengthening the ability of the ministries concerned to use technological techniques, and work to share, learn and transmit them to others.
Table (8): H1a results compared to standard match quality indicators
|Chi-square||Bigger or equal to 3||1694.93|
|degree of freedom (df)||–||344|
|χ2 = (Chi-square /degree of freedom)||The closer you get to 5 better.||344/ 1694.93= 4.927|
|p-value||0.05 or older||0.271|
|TLI||Bigger or equal to 0.90||0.956|
|CFI||Bigger or equal to 0.90||0.967|
|RMSRA||If it is valued at 0.05, the least indicative is that the model corresponds perfectly to the sample data, and if the value is limited between 0.05-0.08, this indicates that the model corresponds significantly to the sample data.||0.0610|
It is clear that the model shown in the above figure has achieved quality indicators of conformity within the required criteria, through what appeared in the table above, as the match comes through the value (p), reaching (0.271) which is not a moral function, i.e., there are no differences between the theoretical model assumed and the field data collected from the study sample, this confirms the validity of the theory assumed by the researcher in the hypothesis. The results of the hypothesis were also positive through the impact of availability in the Islamic economy of (0.31 β=), C. R=3.01) and in a sense (p<0.05), and this result indicates the acceptance of the first sub-hypothesis (H1a) that becomes (there is an impact of availability in the Islamic economy).
Table (10): Results of the H1b test compared to standard matching quality skins
|Chi-square||Bigger or equal to 3||1598.18|
|Degree of freedom (df)||–||344|
|χ2 = (Chi-square /degree of freedom)||The closer you get to 5 better.||344/ 1598.18= 4.646|
|p-value||0.05 or older||0.362|
|TLI||Bigger or equal to 0.90||0.961|
|CFI||Bigger or equal to 0.90||0.953|
|RMSRA||If it is valued at 0.05, the least indicative is that the model corresponds perfectly to the sample data, and if the value is limited between 0.05-0.08, this indicates that the model corresponds significantly to the sample data.||0.0620|
It is clear that the model shown in the above figure achieved quality indicators of conformity within the required criteria, through what appeared in the table above, as the match comes through the value (p), reaching (0.362) which is not a moral function, i.e. there are no differences between the theoretical model that was assumed and the field data collected from the study sample. This confirms the validity of the theory assumed by the researcher in the hypothesis, and the results of the hypothesis were positive through the impact of access in the Islamic economy by (0.34 β=), (C.R=3.11), and in a sense (p<0.05), and this result indicates the acceptance of the second sub-hypothesis (H1b) that becomes (there is a positive and moral impact of access in the Islamic economy).
Table (12): Results of the Hypothesis Test (H1c) compared to standard match quality indicators
|Chi-square||Bigger or equal to 3||1625.70|
|degree of freedom (df)||–||344|
|χ2 = (Chi-square /degree of freedom)||The closer he gets to 5 best.||344/ 1625.70= 4.726|
|p-value||0.05 or older||0.338|
|TLI||Bigger or equal to 0.90||0.941|
|CFI||Bigger or equal to 0.90||0.967|
It is clear that the model shown in the figure above has achieved quality indicators of conformity within the required criteria, through what appeared in the table above, as the match comes through the value (p), reaching (0.338) which is not a moral function, i.e. there are no differences between the theoretical model that was assumed and the field data collected from the study sample. This confirms the validity of the theory assumed by the researcher in the hypothesis. The results of the hypothesis were also positive through the impact of the results of use in the Islamic economy (0.37 β=), (C.R=3.21), and in a sense (p<0.05), and this result indicates the acceptance of the third sub-hypothesis (H1c) which becomes (there is a positive and moral impact of the results of use in the Islamic economy).
It is clear that the model shown in the above figure has achieved quality indicators of conformity within the required criteria, through what appeared in the table above, as the match comes through the value (p), reaching (0.429) which is not a moral function, i.e., there are no differences between the theoretical model assumed and the field data collected from the study sample, this confirms the validity of the theory assumed by the researcher in the hypothesis. The results of the hypothesis were also positive through the impact of food security on the transition to the Islamic economy by (0.45 β=), (C. R=3.90), and by the means (p<0.05), and this result indicates the acceptance of the second main hypothesis (H2) that becomes (the impact of food security in the transition to the Islamic economy).
Although the result of this hypothesis was positive, moral and acceptable, but with a low level of impact, this amount of impact confirms the low level of concentration and interest in the Islamic economy by the department of the ministries concerned, which corresponds to the results of the descriptive statistics that showed insufficient attention by the department of the ministries concerned, despite its presence among the employees
The refore, the department of the relevant ministries should study the attention and support required by the knowledge and organizational capabilities of the workers, which enable them to produce new ideas or develop old ideas that allow the organization to expand its market share, maximize its strengths and contribute to achieving the organization’s objectives more efficiently, and achieve a competitive advantage, because such support and interest would help to increase the positive impact of environmental and legal aspects to ensure food security in the transition to the Islamic economy by enhancing the capacity of the Manage the relevant ministries to use technological technologies, work to share, learn and transfer them to others, and work on agricultural cover who contribute to supporting productive processes in these ministries.
Conclusion and recommendations
The country’s agricultural production index reflects the volume of food production (food trade, agriculture) and therefore we find the deficit and the extent to which imports are based to cover agricultural and food needs, and the reliance on foreign trade in importing all needs to cover its food deficit. Therefore, we must move to the Islamic economy in order to reach the food security of individuals and Iraq is now in a state of decline or interruption of supplies for political, climatic or economic reasons, which is a direct threat to Iraq’s overall food security at all levels, so the study came up with a set of recommendations:
- Food security is directly and closely linked to the Islamic economy, because people who do not grow and eat what is grown remain a penetrating entity of the people, so the leadership, whatever its location, must work hard to stop the hack.
- Raising awareness among researchers to intensify the effort to encourage agricultural scientific research and benefit from the fruits of scientific progress, and to work to increase modern agricultural technological and technical awareness in order to increase productivity and reduce the reliance on foreign markets.
- Increase the care of agricultural land and work to reclaim what can be reclaimed, possess technology to maximize the use of agricultural resources, and stimulate Iraqi food trade.
- Support Iraqi farmers by providing financial resources, reducing taxes, raising their agricultural awareness, and providing modern means of agriculture.
- We propose that the Land Act be used as the basic principle of land legislation within the country. The introduction of private ownership of agricultural land has not had the desired effect on the development of the land market in the agricultural sector and, although legal restrictions on the circulation of agricultural land are necessary, in particular, we propose restrictions on the transfer of irrigated land or pastures, to ensure that they meet the grazing and semi-pastoral needs of private property. These restrictions exist in other countries, the current land law contains only general provisions relating to the protection of land, environmental law does not contain a direct description or mechanisms for the rehabilitation of degraded land, and the Land Act does not have legal mechanisms provided for the sustainable use of land in the principles of land law.
- A legal study must be carried out and the necessary measures implemented and the state’s interest is to solve environmental problems in the context of the production of competitive agricultural products to meet environmental requirements. This indicates the need for legal instruments to protect the environment in agricultural production.
- To establish green agriculture requires the state to provide material assets, invest money, research and efficiency in a variety of areas: (managing soil fertility, using water more efficiently and sustaining crops and livestock, effective management of plant and livestock health, farm machinery.)
- The development of the Agricultural Land Act, which means allocated land on the basis of permanent agriculture or other agricultural needs, is useful in that it clearly states that the use of such land for agricultural production is a priority first. Secondly, the permanent feature of their use is agricultural needs. Thirdly, the secondary use of these lands to meet other agricultural needs is the absorption of agricultural buildings and structures. It requires a principle (special protection of agricultural land), and in this regard, we also propose that the Land Act be used as the basic principle of land legislation within the country
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