Research studies

An Introduction to Capitalism

 

Prepared by the researcher 

DR. Abdelhamid NFISSI:–  Professor specialized in culture, media, and literature

AFAF EL MAHDI– A PhD candidate specialized in culture, media and literature studies – University of Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdallah. Faculty of Arts and Human Sciences, Sais-Fes ,Morocco

Democratic Arab Center

Journal of Afro-Asian Studies : Eleventh Issue – November 2021

A Periodical International Journal published by the “Democratic Arab Center” Germany – Berlin. The journal deals with the field of Afro-Asian strategic, political and economic studies

Nationales ISSN-Zentrum für Deutschland
ISSN 2628-6475
Journal of Afro-Asian Studies
:To download the pdf version of the research papers, please visit the following link

Abstract

The following chapter is a study and an analysis of data about the economic, social, and political aspects of capitalism. It is an article that shed light on an important issue which takes much more importance from the scholars throughout the world and it creates a great advancement in the economic and the industrial spheres; also, the following chapter discusses major points of capitalism which are divided into nine sections which are: the definition of capitalism, the factors behind the appearance of capitalism, the feudal system, capitalism and the spread of industrialization, the acceleration of capitalism, socio-political agencies of capitalism, social strata, and the economic production.

Introduction

After the industrial revolution, the economic global system of the world had been under many changes and experiments to reach an economic system that would take the countries to a very high level of wealth and welfare. The appearance of big companies and the organizations that were primary factors accelerated the countries’ financial development. They won huge wealth, which is now sustaining the world economic development. Throughout this chapter, I would talk about the meaning of capitalism, the history, the features and characteristics of this system in addition to stating the effects and the negative effects of capitalism on the life process of people ( social status).

            Capitalism is a term that would seem to us self-explanatory but it is a polysemous term that needs to be elucidated. It seems from the first reading of the word that capitalism is made up of two syllables; capital which means the general dominating thing, an amount of money, or a property, meanwhile ism stands for a set of political, social, cultural beliefs.  Capitalism is a political and economic system that overthrew the old proletarian system to replace it with a system that focuses on forces of production and the needs of the greatest number of people (supply and demand).    Capitalism has measurements that first made for local countries and with time turn to be international, capitalism has a gold standard which stands for the domestic institution, meaning linking a country’s money supply to its gold reserves and the gold standard becomes international only when other countries independently had decided to adopt the gold standard as well. The establishment of global capitalism as an international economic system required that the institutions of capitalism be open to the economies of global participants and also to be interactive with other economics to be learned from the experiences of others. So, a global capitalist system requires both the domestic capitalist institutions and the international interactions.  The domestic capitalist institutions have two roles; deepening and widening. For instance, deepening means the development of capitalist institutions within the countries themselves like the development of railroad, telegraph and the increasing of markets. On the other hand, widening means the addition of other countries to the capitalist system club-like Japan, Mexico, and Asia.[1]

The factors behind the appearance of capitalism

The aftermath of the industrial revolution gives birth to capitalism. The historical events are like a chain attaching, so after the industrial revolution, all the backgrounds are changed and mainly the economic sector since it is the basic ground of the development of a country. The consequences of the industrial revolution are the following, there was a great divergence in income between the rich capitalist community and poor communities which enabled the United Kingdom to imperialism either formal or informal and to dominate large areas of the world; as a consequence, imperialism helped the spread of capitalist systems. Besides, the industrial revolution contributed to the welfare of capitalism by international trading particularly in food and raw material, also the new industrial agricultural machines and technologies were in all Europe and the United State of America. Thanks to transportation technologies and the telegraphs were so effective in the transportation of global market commodities[2]. So these are some of the first invasions of capitalism.

Some things happened that accelerated from the appearance of capitalism. Before the capitalist system, there was something that changed the economic system of the European countries as well as the United States and other countries in the world, this new thing that could transform the whole economic system is trading. For instance, the European countries removed the mercantilist policies, lowering the tariffs and with time removing it. Besides, the trading enables the countries to use one unifying currency to avoid risk, also thanks to technology people were able to do trading in a short time and to break all the barriers since all the civil wars and the first world  war were relinquished and living in peace[3]. Hopefully, all these new faces of Europe are the offshoots of the industrial revolution.

Mass migration contributes also to making capitalism the first global century. Before the capitalist system, Europe underwent a migration that was restricted since the European countries did not encourage the outflows of people to other nations, they could migrate in one condition which is by contract or coercion and they moved by families. Whereas later, they can migrate with free will, they migrate individually and they were poorer thereafter. After 1846, European emigrants were 300.000, later the number got bigger and double and after the end of the century rose over a million of emigrants. The emigration was first among the European countries such as the British Isles and Germany and later on from Europe and other parts of the world. The first kind of emigration was inside Europe; for instance, the Irish migration to Britain between 1781 and 1851 was so high and remarkable; hence,  the Irish population constituted tenth of the British population. Besides, half of the Italian people emigrated to France and Germany[4]. This migration was a cross-border one, people from inside Europe migrated to or exchanged countries but after years people from other continents like Africa and South or North America migrated to Europe because of certain reasons. During the end of the nineteenth century, Britain was at the time the core of international capital markets which contributed to the high demand for exporting goods and services. So, this kind of capital marketing returned to the booming investment demand on the frontiers and the United Kingdom geographical position[5].

            The pre-era of capitalism had known events that were marking the period and lanched for the coming of capitalism. The close era of capitalism was so famous for the spread of manufacturing, there was a huge organization of factors that constituted the whole economic system of a whole country. The first invading of goods was of China and India where manufacturing took place, the shipping of goods among continents was so expensive this is why all the countries consumed what they produce because of the low budget. The traditional manufacturing projects fell in the nineteenth century and others raised to join the industrial city Britain, also, the United State produced half of the world manufactures in the 1950s[6].

The Feudal system.

            The thinking of privacy ownership began with the agricultural domain since things get changed by the nineteenth century.  Agriculture paved the way toward the encouragement of the economist belief which stands for the superiority of private property rights over traditional ones. The idea of property varied from one place to another; for instance, the right of owning land was only in Western Europe and some areas in Asia; on the other hand, in Eastern Europe and other parts of India, the property of land is owned by the feudal lords or powerful people who take a part of the product or worker labour time. The feudal system would not exist anymore after the first half of the nineteenth century, the land profit was divided between the peasants and the landlords[7].

            The term capitalist was first initiated in the field of agriculture and employed to be one of the sources of capitalism. The term was first introduced in the field of agriculture as a capitalist farm which means ” a large farm cultivated by wage workers and managed by the landlord or by tenants,”[8] , the period did not only know the diffusion of factors but it also knew the development of agriculture, the term capitalist called to a farm that its wage workers account for most of its permanent labour force. These kinds of lands were widespread in the southeast of England and later they spread in the rest of the country, but in the rest of Europe were rare and they were in very known areas like Italy, east of the river Elbe in Germany, and some parts in French like Bordeaux[9].

Capitalism and the spread of industrialization.

            The spread of capitalism has not come by coincidence, there were important factors that helped spread the capitalist system. The first is the rise of industrialization which was characterized by the large scale of production, the employ of highly developed technologies within large enterprises. The second key factor behind the development of capitalism is the transformation of innovation itself; for instance, the appearance of a well-structured approach to innovation within capitalism, based on the creation of knowledge and involving the growth of specialized institutions in education and science and which focused on the creation of new methods and techniques. The third, innovation assisted the global diffusion of capitalism, a development that contained the globalization of industry, trade, and the varying skills of a nation to use international flows of capital, knowledge and technology to reach sustained economic growth[10].

            Capitalism is an economic and political system that first appeared to make changes in the global system. Capitalism emerged in Europe and it was spreading thanks to the technological change that was acquired, technology and innovation were integral parts of production and the sustained productivity growth that were the most important economic achievement of capitalism. There is a link between capitalism and innovation; for instance, the first theme is about how technological change in the nineteenth century transformed the structure of capitalism and gave rise to new forms. The second theme is that these new forms paved the way toward the transformation of the innovation sector to industry, university, and government. The third theme is technological innovation had a strong influence on the structure of capitalism, introducing the role of government and changing relations among states[11]. Finally , Finally,  technology and innovation are if I can say the motor of capitalism.

The acceleration of capitalism

            Innovation and technology seem at first glance both simple things but they both influence the spread of capitalism. Technology is the mixture of knowledge, organization, and techniques used toward material transformation. Innovation is the way through which almost all the technological elements are changed[12]. Innovation started to get more attention and importance in Britain in the late of 18 century and it accelerated in iron manufacture, cotton spinning and steam power, and some other industries like Watt steam engine had little impact until the 19 century, so, innovation increased productivity and maintained the further reorganization of work. The technological development that changed the structure of developed industrial capitalism existed in the period between 1870 and 1914 and it was popular by the second industrial revolution. While the pre era of the 1870s, the new development in transportation and communication technologies gave closer integration among national economies and commodities markets in the whole economy, also, the development in transportation and communications benefitted from the appearance of groups of new technologies and industries[13].

            The period after World War I underwent a high point of economic globalization in the development of capitalism. Innovation in transportation and communication technologies was fundamental to the advancement of domestic and international commerce while the period between 1870 and A914. For instance, the raising of the rail network had positively affected the economic and technological growth, also the rapid development of the telegraph network helped rapid communication and created new important economic opportunities for process innovation in manufacturing and distribution. Besides, the railway also contributed to the development of new techniques of management, innovation, and coordination[14].

            Later with time, industrial capitalism controlled the process of innovation. The increasing development of innovation during the industrial revolution led the capitalist to interfere in the creation of scientific and technological capabilities of the innovation. Therefore, the institutionalization of innovation reinforced the links between scientific knowledge and technological innovation and benefited from this strong link. The business historians mentioned a culture that is a managerial enterprise which was featured by the separation of ownership and control, and economies of scale production and distribution[15].

            Capitalism is the real cause behind all the development that occurred in the past years. Innovation is a creation that encouraged the growth of capitalism and also technology had a great effect on the development of capitalism too. For instance, the great part of innovation in the field of the military like guns, shipping, and communications helped the expansion of European colonial empires, the profiteering of offshore natural sources and the great invasion of trade agriculture during the nineteenth century; hence, the growth of military weapons of Europe gave it more power throughout the nineteenth century and expansion throughout Europe. The nineteenth century was known for the international spread of the industrial revolution of technology and the high demand for technological innovation[16]. Later, it was a true believer of the European communities that advanced industrial technologies alone were not sufficient to actuate; yet, there must be other institutions like mass education, technical training, scientific societies, and intellectual property societies. Besides, European industrialization advanced also in small regional economies; for instance, The Nordic area, Switzerland, Benelux and regions such as Alsace  which was doing industry in the fields of metalworking machines and textile equipment which The Nordic area get success and moved from a poor region to a rich one[17].

Business and Capitalism

            The establishment of business enterprises leads to the diffusion of capitalism since 1848. During the middle of the nineteenth century, the major form of institutions that were doing business are firms; they were the strongest companies to operate across national borders. National or multinational firms are defined as companies or institutions that own and control people in more than one country, and they were the main tools of the trade flow that featured globalizations waves, also meanwhile the second half of the nineteenth century, these firms were the fundamental agents behind the discovery and the manipulation of natural resources around the world. Besides, the integrated cooperation that took place among firms set up a high level of intra-firm trade or trade flows across borders; yet, between affiliates of the same group. The intra-firm trade consisted 48 % of the United State of America manufactured goods imports in 2009, and about 30% of the United State of America manufactured goods exports. [18].

            Multinational firms were more than the first inventor of trade flows but they had an important role in impacting the diffusion of capitalism. They have the first step toward the transfer of capital across borders; even though this function has not been so important as it is in reality since the firms have always raised from the capital local and plough back the profits into sponsoring the projects themselves. The new happening thing is that this manufacturing is infecting the cultures of nations; for instance, Coca Cola soda is not only a consumer product but is a symbol of American value[19].

World foreign direct investment as a percentage of world output 1913-2010.

 

1913

 

1960

 

1980

 

1990

 

2010

 

9.0

 

 

4.4

 

4.8

 

9.6

 

30.3

Source: UNCTAD 1994, 1997, 1999, 2011.

            During the middle of the nineteenth century, millions of European firms established others projects in foreign countries. These projects raised from the flow of trading such as Latin America and Aisa overwhelmed the trading operation, they were especially important as urging half of the total world stock of investment. The high of competition among firms and businessmen insisted on the high speed of the monopoly of some companies; for instance, the demand for petroleum products increased especially at the end of the nineteenth century, for fuel oil started to be used as a replacement for coal and other things[20]. The less powerful firms that were also building international businesses caused globalization to be more seeing when they created trade flows, constructed marketing channels, built infrastructure and established markets all these investments were controlled by the USA and European businessmen. In addition, multinational firms had an effective role in the development of many things; for instance, they built transport for a global economy and they also paved the way toward trading across the nations in an easy route. They even facilitated the trading between developed and developing countries[21].

            The follwing chart shows a ranking of world countires that constituted the largest host economies over time.

 

1914

 

1929

 

1980

 

2010

 

United States

Russia

Canada

Argentina

Brazil

South Africa

Austria-Hungary

India/China

 

Egypt, Mexico, United Kingdom.

 

Canada

United States

Inida

Cuba

Argentina

Chile

United Kingdom

Malaya

Venezuela

 

United States

United Kingdom

Canada

Germany

Netherlands

Brazil

Australia

Indonesia

Italy

 

 

United States

Hong Kong

United Kingdom

France

Belguim

Spain

Netherlands

China

Canada

 

Source: THE CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF CAPITALISM VOLUME II the Spread of Capitalism: From 1848 to the Present by NEAL, LARRY, and JEFFREY G. WILLIAMSON

            After the major results of the second world war, multinational firms benefited from the collective experiences in the reconstruction of a global economy. The services like; management, consultants, advertising agencies, hotels, and cinema industry were important factors toward the international diffusion of American management practices, values, and lifestyles. Also, one of the negative results of the second world war is that the European firms lost their business and they built and invested in other ones; for instance, Jardine Matheson and Swire lost their investment in China but they invested in other countries like Hong Kong airlines and ports. Shipping companies were raised by the end of the second world war since they were important in trading across the earth like they carried substantial raw material, food, and fuel. Multinational banking also was a result that contributed to the development of capitalism; for example,  the banks of London and South America and the US banks took the expert from the Bank of England’s liberal policies to have a foreign exchange market[22].

            When the whole world becomes extremely under the conditions of globalization since 1980 that is under the supremacy of capitalism policies in general. Many things were changed for example the government agendas, exchange controls, and other instruments of intervention policies were rejected and replaced by others. The newly adopted views were; for instance, every country suggested incentives proposals for global firms to invest, in some systems like the United State of America, investors created an atmosphere of challenge among investors to attract foreign investors. Besides, foreign multinational companies constituted a fundamental element of the economic growth that sustained the government relaxed controls and liberalized markets. China adopted the Foreign Direct Investment while 1980 s as an indigenous private entrepreneur, the same thing happened in India and Russia[23].

The following table shows the Foreign direct investment inward stock of percentage of Gross Domestic Product between 1990/2010.

Region/ Country 1990 2010
World

All Developed

US

UK

All Developing

Brazil

Russia

China

India

9,6

8,7

9,3

20,1

13,4

9,2

0,0

5,1

0,5

30,3

30,8

23,5

48,4

29,1

22,9

28,7

9,9

12,0

Source: UNCTAD 2011.

            Globalization highlights that business enterprises were drivers of economic integration and this main act of firms was so important in global capitalism which was because of factors. Multinational firms were growing very fast than any other economic means like export or world output, also, international production developed with firms whose institutions existed all over the world. During the end of the twenty-first century, there were large cross-border merger waves especially in medicines, food, tobacco, and moto car. The major factors behind global capitalism are; first, small firms were sometimes piggyback on the strongest firms like the European and Chinese; second, the insistence on the education of marketing and globalization, as well as the increasing number of international students, provided firms with well-qualified students and future managers and experts; finally, the fashion of state-owned or partly owned firms which, as a new way of investing, was enabling to invest in building global businesses without the conditions of having to give the shareholder returns[24].

Socio-political agencies of capitalism

            Capitalism as a system carries from meanings and policies a lot, it is a new system that worldly engaged the people in a system that seems normal but it is threatening the individuals’ lifestyle and survival dignity. Global capitalism is a system that controlled societies economically, ideologically, and politically, it is a system that camouflages the mindsets of people and becomes followers; for instance, every social formation is explained by its moods of production like the needs of society and how it reproduces itself from one day to the next. People become dependent on this system, capitalism encourages economists to settle down a life consisting of manufacturing, new cultures, and empowering military forces. Capitalism has been exploiting people’s lives, it transformed human labour and the natural world into the profit of the capitalist system and a few people owns the biggest part and the rest are just workers for the superstructure[25].

            Capitalism enforces a social class over another one to collapse social equality. The social high class who grasps power weakens the lowest class, it uses physical tools such as controlling our basic needs of food, shelter, and social structure ( destroying the nuclear family). Capitalism pushes us into false solutions such as elections and activism for its purposes, they employed media and culture to hide the outrage over secondary issues so that we fail to ask for the real problems. Capitalism would like to treat people as robots since it causes much harm to people like lying and letting people live in an unreal world. Besides, capitalism damages all social relations; for instance, it pulls everyone in a direction that is not his or her favourite, it forces workers to compete against one another which raises from sexism, racism, nativism and nationalism among workers[26].

            Capitalism is designed not to reform but to accept the general system that the world is using.  Capitalism is under the control of one category called the capitalist class or the bourgeoisie; the capitalist possesses the tools of production whereas the working class or the proletariat are forced to purchase their labour power to survive. The proletariat makes everything in the society; they are the labour force that fabricated things for the welfare of the capitalist class. Capitalism brings the new system of economic class division in cooperation with agriculture and the social formations to accumulate the needed wealth. In brief, capitalism is a kind of production that not just produces new use-value, but also produces surplus value[27]. At the time of capitalism, there was an economic base which was known by the Surplus value; it is the residue of the exploitation of workers, it consists of a part of the exchange value of a commodity that exists as labour-power crystallized in it. The capitalist pays labour less than the value of what they produce, so what is left after paying their wages and after paying the machines costs and inputs ones, is surplus-value[28].

Classes are according to capitalism not determined in one class but it classifies classes into a major class and other subservient ones . the classes is used to separate between the workers and the owners of a capitalist society, it is a term that signifies a group of people which does not show the number but it is a mass of persons. A class either rich or poor is determined by the income; rich, middle or poor class. This sociological theory of class is encouraged by capitalists since it hides the relationship of domination that exists inside the societies. The concept of the middle class is an offensive act of aggression by the bourgeoisie to hide the polarization that existed in capitalism, the purpose is to empower the capitalist class dominance. Classes are distinguished by the relationship to production[29].

Social strata

            The classes during capitalism were different and they were divided into four classes, this classification is still running today and still the societies adopting this stratification. The first main overwhelming class is the capitalist class or the bourgeoisie; these are the people who possess the heads of production and distribution, they also dominate the development through which capitalism grow. This is the exploitative class, they use and collect the surplus value which is created through resource extraction and labour exploitation. The kinds of people who are categorized as the capitalist class are: major shareholders of large companies, larger property owners, bankers, investors and financiers, high-level managers, high-level politicians, and high-level mainstream media functionaries[30].

            The second category in the social stratification is the working class or the proletariat. This category of people is the responsibility of surplus value in the process of production. They use labour-power to raw materials to supply commodities, that are sought by the capitalists. The exchanging of commodities for money and surplus value is considered as profit, and then re-splurged as a new capital. The working class is all the interested people in working under the supervision of a boss and whose income is primarily little. The proletariat are; industrial workers, either skilled or unskilled, construction workers, agriculture workers, miners, and loggers[31].

            The third social class is the little bourgeoisie, it is a class that has its features. This class consists of people who may own some form of capital on a small or individual level, and it is not enough to collect more capital, just enough to keep themselves surviving. The little bourgeoisie is also composed of the service employees which refers to the labourers or working people, it has no access to any tools of production, and they are occupied by the exchange of the services for wages. The little bourgeoisie includes; small entrepreneurs, business owners, skilled professionals like doctors, lawyers, engineers, intellectuals such as artists, writers, and teachers[32]. . Although the little bourgeoisie class is somehow away from the capitalist class, it has relations with the capitalist class; for the whole system is like a chain and they are controlled by the agendas of the richest class.

            Finally, the lumpen are named into two classes, the lumpen bourgeoisie and the lumpen proletariat. The lumpenproletariat are the people who are not productive and have no access to the social productive process in addition to they do not have any independent means of subsistence. For the term, lumpenproletariat is concerning the people who have access to capitalism and the welfare of capitalism but they are not working on that; they are only consumers like the children of these capitalists. These people may also gain their money from embezzlement, corruption and other forms of stealing. Besides, the lumpenproletariat are dependent on another source of survival such as petty theft, panhandling, dumpster-diving, couch-surfing or they depend on family members or charity [33]. So, these are the four names of social classes with the definitions and the differences, each one is an essential element of the process production and the manufacturing of the goods and services. The capitalist class works in a strategy to commodify the labour class and sell it at very low prices which are witnessed in the low wages.

The economic production

            Capitalism is the linen cover of the economic cycle which represents the circulation and accumulation of money, commodities and more money. Capitalism is a social association of domination, it is more an economic process and it is an endless process of making money and getting more money. The features of capitalism are the exploitation of labour in the conversation of natural materials into commodities that contain the surplus-value.  Capitalism is a system that tries not to take responsibility for something rather it throws it on the shoulders of the middle class or the poor; for instance, the pollution and the rubbish of the production process is discharged into the environment which the capitalists do not pay for the cleaning up and it is paid by the society[34].

            The main aim of capitalism is recruiting many employers with very low wages. Competition is a major economic goal and driving force of capitalism, the capitalists enter a competition to compete against each other for the sale and the low wages. Wages are considered the most variable cost in most businesses; hence, the capitalists are getting more pressure to even reduce more their salaries; furthermore, some capitalists moved their factories to other countries because workers work with very low wages and the governments are so tolerant with the capitalists such as they work long days and they broaden the production so that workers produce more surplus-value[35].

            The surplus value and the expolitation of wroker are a scale that gives rise to the surplus value. For the realization of much more profit, capitalism uses an exploitation means to pay the workers less than  the value of the commodities that they produce. Therefore, there will be more commodities in the market than the income of popultation, when the markets get plenty of  goods and services , it causes what is known by the crisis of over-porduction due to the very low wages of the workers. The aims of capitalism grows bigger since during the years the capitalists come up with an idea that they must take much more raw material, exploit more labor, manufacture more products, produce more waste, and make more profit. Extended growth is not easily done, there are economists and politicians on the news all the time working on the strategies of economic growth and how to keep it carrying on. These economic experts find ways through which the economic growth would raise up is by the privatization and evaluating monetary value[36].

            The capitalist system works in a form of commodities and it gets many benefits from the surplus-value. Capitalism works with means of production which are factories, machinery, materials through cycles of expropriation, dispossession, extraction, unequal trading and exploitation. Capitalism first form was called mercantilism which is a method of collecting money, profit through unequal trades, and it was a start-up to capitalism[37]. The worker, who possesses or controls no means of production, have to sell her or his labour-power to the capitalist. This labour-power, which will be used to produce commodities for the capitalists, is itself sold as a commodity. The price of the labour is not based on the value of the commodities it will be used to produce, yet on the cost of its production, meaning the worker’s subsistence and reproduction. The heaviness of capitalism on the street enforced workers to accept sub-survival wages. During the working days, the worker produces more value than the number of wages they get. The labour-power that produces that extra value that is not paid for, is called surplus-value[38]. The overwhelming of the capitalists encourage the ritual that all the means of production are of capitalism which justifies that the workers do not have the legal right to own something. A retailer is a person who drives the market although capitalism has already mentioned the prices the retailer adds extra price to the original one because of the market power, so it is a circle of pressure and the most hurtful one is that small worker.

            Capitalism in general has disadvantages that menace the subsistence of human beings. The people of capitalism are greed capitalists since they would like to get all the things at less cost, the capitalist, the servants and the workers of capitalism, are recruited to gain more surplus value using whatever means. Capitalism faces some crises; the overproduction, financial instability, and ecological catastrophe; besides, the industrial expansion is causing global, terminal ecological problems such as global warming, runaway wildfires, rising seas, pollution water shortages, and nuclear radiation, all these could destroy human’s life on earth[39].

Capitalism is a system that has within many small fields, the major ones are the political and the ideological field. People are obliged to put up with the new lifestyle because of the new superstructure, the ideas and political institutions that we can portray as a shell around the economic structure, both supported and shaped by its needs. The superstructure is consisting of two fields; the political and ideological fields. The first one is targeting that the state aims to keep the flow of capital running smoothly, it administers and regulates the process with its government and legal system, it regulates both the relations within a single class, and between different classes, it enforces the dominance of the capitalist class with its servants such as military, technology, and industry[40]. Secondly, the ideological field stands for the existing and widespread ideology of any society that serves the interests of its dominant class, the only ideas permitted to participate in the capitalist marketplace are principles of capitalism. The overwhelming culture imposes on people to think and behave via the ideologies of media, entertainment, and globalization. These authorities indoctrinate people into subservience to authority, class division, destroying the nuclear family[41].

Source:Mcmillan, Sthaphanie. CAPITALISM MUST DIE! A Basic Introduction to Capitalism: What It Is, Why It Stucks, and How to Crush It.

Conclusion

This chapter is a summary of the most important points of capitalism, I state almost all the historical points about capitalism and the causes that contribute to the development of the capitalist system, also I give a general definition of capitalism from an economic, political, and social perspective. Capitalism is a political, social, and economic strategy that designs the whole system of the world, it is a technique that today is manipulated by developing countries like North Africa and other places because of the inequality that is perceived in real life and social media. Capitalism is a form that gives birth to many other creative ideas which also elaborate in the weakening of the middle and poor classes and keep the control, the power and the money to the high capitalist class. Capitalism is a system that is used in almost all fields to keep that unbalance and inequality around the world and one of the many targeted majors is art.

Bibliography

  1. Schumpeter, Joseph. Capitalism , Socialism, and Democracy. Sixth, vol. One,

London and New York, Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2003.

Mcmillan, Sthaphanie. CAPITALISM MUST DIE! A Basic Introduction to Capitalism: What It Is, Why It Stucks, and How to Crush It. One, vol. One, The United State of America, Idées Nouvelles , Idées Prolétariennes, 2014.

NEAL, LARRY, and JEFFREY G. WILLIAMSON, editors. THE CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF CAPITALISM VOLUME II the Spread of Capitalism: From 1848 to the Present. First, vol. VOLUME II, The United State of America, CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 2014

The School of Life. “HISTOIRE DES IDÉES – Capitalisme.” You Tube, uploaded by AFAF EL MAHDI, 24 July 2015, www.youtube.com/watch?v=dIuaW9YWqEU.

[1] – NEAL, LARRY, and JEFFREY G. WILLIAMSON, editors. THE CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF CAPITALISM VOLUME II the Spread of Capitalism: From 1848 to the Present. First, vol. VOLUME II, The United State of America, CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 2014. P, 3.

[2] – NEAL, LARRY, and JEFFREY G. WILLIAMSON, editors. THE CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF CAPITALISM VOLUME II the Spread of Capitalism: From 1848 to the Present. First, vol. VOLUME II, The United State of America, CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 2014. P, 5.

[3]–  Ibid. P, 5.

[4] –  NEAL, LARRY, and JEFFREY G. WILLIAMSON, editors. THE CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF CAPITALISM VOLUME II the Spread of Capitalism: From 1848 to the Present. First, vol. VOLUME II, The United State of America, CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 2014. P,9.

[5] – Ibid. P, 9.

[6] – Ibid . P, 24.

[7] – Ibid . P, 61.

[8] – NEAL, LARRY, and JEFFREY G. WILLIAMSON, editors. THE CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF CAPITALISM VOLUME II the Spread of Capitalism: From 1848 to the Present. First, vol. VOLUME II, The United State of America, CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 2014. P, 64.

[9] – NEAL, LARRY, and JEFFREY G. WILLIAMSON, editors. THE CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF CAPITALISM VOLUME II the Spread of Capitalism: From 1848 to the Present. First, vol. VOLUME II, The United State of America, CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 2014. P, 65.

[10] – Ibid. P, 82.

[11] – NEAL, LARRY, and JEFFREY G. WILLIAMSON, editors. THE CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF CAPITALISM VOLUME II the Spread of Capitalism: From 1848 to the Present. First, vol. VOLUME II, The United State of America, CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 2014. P, 83.

[12] – NEAL, LARRY, and JEFFREY G. WILLIAMSON, editors. THE CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF CAPITALISM VOLUME II the Spread of Capitalism: From 1848 to the Present. First, vol. VOLUME II, The United State of America, CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 2014. P,84.

[13] – Ibid. P, 86.

[14] – Ibid. P, 87.

[15] –  NEAL, LARRY, and JEFFREY G. WILLIAMSON, editors. THE CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF CAPITALISM VOLUME II the Spread of Capitalism: From 1848 to the Present. First, vol. VOLUME II, The United State of America, CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 2014. P, 93.

[16] – NEAL, LARRY, and JEFFREY G. WILLIAMSON, editors. THE CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF CAPITALISM VOLUME II the Spread of Capitalism: From 1848 to the Present. First, vol. VOLUME II, The United State of America, CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 2014. P, 108.

[17] – Ibid. P, 111.

[18] – NEAL, LARRY, and JEFFREY G. WILLIAMSON, editors. THE CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF CAPITALISM VOLUME II the Spread of Capitalism: From 1848 to the Present. First, vol. VOLUME II, The United State of America, CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 2014. P, 169.

[19] – NEAL, LARRY, and JEFFREY G. WILLIAMSON, editors. THE CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF CAPITALISM VOLUME II the Spread of Capitalism: From 1848 to the Present. First, vol. VOLUME II, The United State of America, CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 2014. P,170.

[20] – Ibid. P, 171.

[21] – NEAL, LARRY, and JEFFREY G. WILLIAMSON, editors. THE CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF CAPITALISM VOLUME II the Spread of Capitalism: From 1848 to the Present. First, vol. VOLUME II, The United State of America, CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 2014. P, 172.

[22] – NEAL, LARRY, and JEFFREY G. WILLIAMSON, editors. THE CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF CAPITALISM VOLUME II the Spread of Capitalism: From 1848 to the Present. First, vol. VOLUME II, The United State of America, CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 2014. P, 184.

[23] – NEAL, LARRY, and JEFFREY G. WILLIAMSON, editors. THE CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF CAPITALISM VOLUME II the Spread of Capitalism: From 1848 to the Present. First, vol. VOLUME II, The United State of America, CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 2014. P, 189.

[24] –  NEAL, LARRY, and JEFFREY G. WILLIAMSON, editors. THE CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF CAPITALISM VOLUME II the Spread of Capitalism: From 1848 to the Present. First, vol. VOLUME II, The United State of America, CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 2014. P,190.

[25] – Mcmillan, Sthaphanie. CAPITALISM MUST DIE! A Basic Introduction to Capitalism: What It Is, Why It Stucks, and How to Crush It. One, vol. One, The United State of America, Idées Nouvelles , Idées Prolétariennes, 2014. P, 18.

[26] – Mcmillan, Sthaphanie. CAPITALISM MUST DIE! A Basic Introduction to Capitalism: What It Is, Why It Stucks, and How to Crush It. One, vol. One, The United State of America, Idées Nouvelles , Idées Prolétariennes, 2014. P, 21.

[27] – Ibid. P, 24.

[28] – Mcmillan, Sthaphanie. CAPITALISM MUST DIE! A Basic Introduction to Capitalism: What It Is, Why It Stucks, and How to Crush It. One, vol. One, The United State of America, Idées Nouvelles , Idées Prolétariennes, 2014. P, 24/237

[29] – Mcmillan, Sthaphanie. CAPITALISM MUST DIE! A Basic Introduction to Capitalism: What It Is, Why It Stucks, and How to Crush It. One, vol. One, The United State of America, Idées Nouvelles , Idées Prolétariennes, 2014. P,30.

[30] – Mcmillan, Sthaphanie. CAPITALISM MUST DIE! A Basic Introduction to Capitalism: What It Is, Why It Stucks, and How to Crush It. One, vol. One, The United State of America, Idées Nouvelles , Idées Prolétariennes, 2014.P, 34/35

[31] – Mcmillan, Sthaphanie. CAPITALISM MUST DIE! A Basic Introduction to Capitalism: What It Is, Why It Stucks, and How to Crush It. One, vol. One, The United State of America, Idées Nouvelles , Idées Prolétariennes, 2014. P,35/36.

[32] – Mcmillan, Sthaphanie. CAPITALISM MUST DIE! A Basic Introduction to Capitalism: What It Is, Why It Stucks, and How to Crush It. One, vol. One, The United State of America, Idées Nouvelles , Idées Prolétariennes, 2014. P, 36/37.

[33] – Mcmillan, Sthaphanie. CAPITALISM MUST DIE! A Basic Introduction to Capitalism: What It Is, Why It Stucks, and How to Crush It. One, vol. One, The United State of America, Idées Nouvelles , Idées Prolétariennes, 2014. P,

[34] – Mcmillan, Sthaphanie. CAPITALISM MUST DIE! A Basic Introduction to Capitalism: What It Is, Why It Stucks, and How to Crush It. One, vol. One, The United State of America, Idées Nouvelles , Idées Prolétariennes, 2014. P, 53.

[35] – Ibid . P, 55.

[36] – Mcmillan, Sthaphanie. CAPITALISM MUST DIE! A Basic Introduction to Capitalism: What It Is, Why It Stucks, and How to Crush It. One, vol. One, The United State of America, Idées Nouvelles , Idées Prolétariennes, 2014. P, 60/69

[37] – Ibid .P , 72.

[38] –  Mcmillan, Sthaphanie. CAPITALISM MUST DIE! A Basic Introduction to Capitalism: What It Is, Why It Stucks, and How to Crush It. One, vol. One, The United State of America, Idées Nouvelles , Idées Prolétariennes, 2014. P, 77.

[39] – Mcmillan, Sthaphanie. CAPITALISM MUST DIE! A Basic Introduction to Capitalism: What It Is, Why It Stucks, and How to Crush It. One, vol. One, The United State of America, Idées Nouvelles , Idées Prolétariennes, 2014. P, 86.

[40] – Mcmillan, Sthaphanie. CAPITALISM MUST DIE! A Basic Introduction to Capitalism: What It Is, Why It Stucks, and How to Crush It. One, vol. One, The United State of America, Idées Nouvelles , Idées Prolétariennes, 2014. P, 121.

[41] – Ibid . P, 122.

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