Research studies

The Impact of Racial Segregation and Migration on African Society in Alan Paton’s Novel -Cry the Beloved Country

 

Prepared by the researcher

  • Dr. Malka Elsadig Yagop  – Assistanct professor – University of Elimam Elmahadi, Sudan
  • Dr. Amel Yasin Seralkhtem Ahmed, Sudan Kosti
  • Dr. Abdelrahman Mohammedain Abdelrahman – Associate professor – White Nile University, Kosti Sudan

Democratic Arab Center

Journal of Afro-Asian Studies : Fifteenth Issue – November 2022

A Periodical International Journal published by the “Democratic Arab Center” Germany – Berlin.

Nationales ISSN-Zentrum für Deutschland
ISSN  2628-6475
Journal of Afro-Asian Studies

:To download the pdf version of the research papers, please visit the following link

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Abstract

This study aims to investigate the impact of racial segregation and migration on South African society. The descriptive analytical method was adopted.. The data have been collected via the authentic material  which is Alan Paton’s  novel” Cry, the beloved country” as well as other materials and information which were taken from different books encyclopedias and researches. The techniques  adopted in analyzing the data was  coding to obtain the  relation between racial segregation and migration as depicted by Alan Paton in his novel” Cry the Beloved Country The following  results were found: There is strong relation between racial segregation and migration . ” It means that the practice and its strict result in social and economic problems lead to migration from rural to urban areas.   

The author succeeds to defend his issue during the time of racial segregation. Alan Paton portraits the struggles of racial segregation and their impact on migration in South Africa society.  The writer depicts also  the way that society in the South Africa deals with stigma especially the virtues which exist in society. The behaviors of Stephen Camalo represent the phenomenon and how the people deal with in a Christian society.

Introduction

The concern of this study is to investigate the impact of racial segregation and migration on African society in Alan Paton literary production specially his most known novels, Cry, the Beloved Country.

 It was regarded by many writers as the revolutionary in the ideological atmosphere of the country in 1948, because of its main point which deals with the oppression of the white from the black. It depicts the suffering of elderly black cleric when his son murders a white man and his sister became a prostitute. (I METOUR I 2012-2013.P2)

South Africa has a rich and divers literary works dominating fiction and nonfiction. Fiction has been written in all of the South Africa‘s official language with language body of work in African and English. The oral tradition stories passed down verbally from one generation to another is common to all of African people.

The decisive aim of this research is to study the way in which the writer portraits racial segregation. Also it aims to clarify the impact of racial segregation and migration on African’s society in the novel cry beloved country was written. And both themes have played an importuned role in the society in Johunsbirg. The racial segregation inflected in all aspect of life as behavior, economic and social. In The social racial is corrosive the behavior as the fire in the bushes and that cause animosity, and diaspora among the society as Denis Husch Steffen 2021.P.1. Said: race can be regarded an independent factor that impacts on anomie. In other side the segregation has great influence on economic, the black people employ and work in shameful employment and also they take little salary than the white people that cause defected in economic and lead to the migration  As Ananat, Elizabeth Oltman 2020.P:2 said: Instrumental variables estimates demonstrate that segregation increases metropolitan rates of black poverty and overall black-white income disparities while decreasing rates of white poverty and inequality within the white population.

The segregation is main element which lead to the native population suffering in South Africa, It is a phenomena which is spread in all the society neither civilized or uncivilized society.

The racial segregation is considered a distractive  weapon in the society which is crashes structure of the society, therefore the war, poverty, non-security and migration are the result of racial segregation. The distinction or partied is forbidden in all religious specifically Islam which is mentioned in Suna our prophet Mohamed is blessed be upon him said: let the distinction because it’s horrible and mentioned in Holly Quran P.1593. ‘O mankind we created you from a single (pair) of a male you into Nations and tribes that you may know each other not that you may despise each other .Verity the most honored of you. In the sight of All is (he who is) the most righteous of you. And all has full knowledge and is well acquainted with all things).  In simply definition that racial segregation means against humanitarian made most black people are poor and oppressed for these enduring might be happened migration.

The researcher clear that Alan Paton discussed different themes in his novel cry the beloved country which as result of racial segregation and main theme of that is migration it is simply definition movement from place to place .There are varied reasons for migration such as, economic and social but, Alan Paton shows the reasons in fascination description from rural area to urban and focuses on the reasons which related to incapacitate and discrimination. In this side Alan explicates the reflection of civil and racial segregation on the migrants and native population that reveals in the killing on the novel.

 Alan takes the prostitution a main result of migration which is clear in the novel when his sister became prostituted in spite of deploying of virtue among the society.

The white people has the dogma of segregation which tissue the racist ideologies of the majority of the white population. It is obvious in their behavior and treatment in all aspects of life for black people.

Segregation and migration would become the lived experience of all South Africans such as normal activates. That caused different problems. Segregation became essential as it fundamentally did not bridge much of the gap between the white people and black. Alan Paton in his novel, Cry, the beloved country showed how racial segregation deep rooted in land of South Africa. The suffering of segregationist on black people was committed into the lived understanding of all those who suffered under such dictatorship and tyranny as the same.

Cry, the Beloved Country is a novel that gives wealthy knowledge of racial segregation with humanity dimension.

 In Cry, the Beloved Country Paton’s goal seems to show that apartheid, or racial segregation, is a moral and social injustice. This novel is meant to make people think about this racial segregation and do something to processors. Thus, Paton’s purpose seems to make people aware of the troubles of apartheid. The racial segregation in South Africa is depicted in the novel It shows the great injustice done by the whites to the blacks. South Africa is a wealthy and attractive land. Its nation can live there very gladly. But the practice of racial segregation made despondently.

Statement of the problem

The issues of racial segregation and its impact on migration   has been treated by a lot of researchers but the impact of  factors such as, economic, psychological, and educational and other factors on the life of African society are ignored to be tackled .

The researchers believe that  this phenomenon should be studied because it tackles an issue related to humanities which is the practice of racial segregation on the black people. This kind of segregation is not clear to everyone unless he or she reads the novel with critical eyes.

Concerning the intensive reading of the novel which was written by Alan Paton, Cry, The Beloved Country, the researchers discovers that it rereads a very serious issue that the racial segregation and its disastrous consequences on the life of African people. It  a very serious issue that needs careful investigation    The literary works can be good indicators for studying the different situations that society come across.

Objectives  of the Study

  1. To identify the relation between racial segregation and migration.
  2. To illustrate how racial segregation abuses peoples’ manner.
  3. To show the conception of racialism that dominated all aspects of life in South Africa during the apartheid system.

Questions  of the study

  1. What is the relation between racial segregation and migration as depicted by Alan Paton in his novel, “Cry the Beloved Country”
  2. To what extent did the author portrait all the struggles of racial segregation and their impact on migration?
  3. To what extent does racial discrimination caused family disintegration.

Method of the study

The researcher has adopted the analytical descriptive method to conduct the study.  The data  is collected via  adopting the authentic material which is Cry, The Beloved Country as well as some materials relate to the are od the study. The data will be analyzed adopting the coding technique. Some quotations will be taken from the novel to verify the objects of the study or to answer the questions of the study.

Literature Review  and Pervious Studies

Previous studies

A considerable number of researches have been conducted in different part of the world concerning the impact of racial segregation and migration on the African society.

This study was conducted b Ahmed,R. (2016) . The study aimed to find out the major themes in Paton’s novel Cry, the Beloved Country. It also aimed to discuss these themes in the novel and see how they are related to each other. The analytical, critical literary method was used to conduct the study. The major themes in the novel were analyzed and discussed. The study has found out the following findings: political, social and religious themes are connected; Alan Paton was influenced by political conditions in South Africa in writing Cry, the Beloved Country. Political conditions in South Africa are the main factors that contribute to changing the people’s life and stability. The political conflict expresses itself in a violent destructive manner. Racial discrimination between the whites and the native population in South Africa is considered as one of the main elements which, lead to the native population suffering. Most of the problems in the society could be solved by religious faith, and lack of religious faith could be the vital element in society corruption. The study recommends that departments of English language both at secondary schools and universities should encourage students to read and research into African literature especially Alan Paton’s novels. Students at both secondary and university levels should read more about African writers and African writer’s works should be available in University libraries. University students are to be encouraged to research into African cultures, Politics, religion and beliefs to know more about their own continent. Sudanese readers are recommended to read different works by writers of South Africa since they are part of this culture. This study is related to the recent one in term of both  of them deal with one novel which is Cry, the Beloved Country and one theme that is the phenomenon of racial segregation. Whereas, this study focuses greatly on the impact of racial segregation and migration in society and the late one describes the theme on racial and migration on African society. In my view the title of first   study is baggy then focuses on one theme political and ignores other.

This study was conducted by Metouri,I. (2012). It was entitled as ‘Social Class and Race in Alan Patonꞌ s Cry, the Beloved Country’. It was MA study in English literature. The main concern of this study is investigate   how  race has played an important role in South African society especially in the period of the apartheid, when there was a separation between the races. The black race was oppressed politically, socially, and economically. In our attempt to find the relationship between race and social class, first we have defined the concept of race and social class by reference to Marxist, Weberian, and Post colonialist theories. Next we devoted our study to analyze the history and the literature of South Africa. Then we shed light on the biography of Alan Paton and its relation to his writing. Finally we have studied the relation between the race and the class in Alan Patonꞌ s Cry, the Beloved Country. This investigation about South African society leads to the conclusion that in Cry, the Beloved Country, which was published at the time of apartheid, by a white writer, most white people are wealthy and powerful people, while most of the black people are poor and oppressed. And since the literature is the mirror of social reality, and as Marxist literary theory argued that, the write is affected by the ramifications of his age, we conclude that in South African community the race could determine the social class. I think this study took supersensitive topic due to human life; social class and race are phenomenon which is caused great problems on any society that needs more studies to decrease the risk of this phenomenon.

This study was conducted by Plessis, M. (2019) it was entitled as ‘ How Beloved Is Alan Paton’s Beloved Country?’ The main concern of the study is to   focus on Alan Paton’s 1948 novel Cry the Beloved Country. The researcher   use  both secondary and primary source material. Besides published books, it also uses both journal and webpage articles. However, at the core of the study are primary sources in the form of contemporary newspaper articles published in the three different countries.

These are analyzed to gauge the reception of Cry, the Beloved Country in different contextual spaces: segregated South Africa; post-Great Depression United States of America (USA); and the post-War environment in the United Kingdom (UK). Here the historian’s methodological tools of critical analysis and comparison are adopted. As one of South Africa’s most renowned writers, Paton had the courage to write a novel about the plight of South Africans during a critical period of the country’s history on the eve of Apartheid. Through the tale of the two main protagonists, Stephen Kumalo and James Jarvis, the reader is drawn into a mid-twentieth century South Africa in which Paton illustrates (albeit through a paternalistic perspective) the racial tensions, ethnic conflicts and socio-economic situations that impacted both white and black people on the eve of Apartheid.

When Cry, the Beloved Country was originally published in 1948 there was an immediate hype surrounding the novel in the United States of America, Britain and South Africa, as seen in international and local newspapers. This study therefore aims to analyze the various receptions of the book in each country. It will also provide evidence that Paton can be described as a literary activist, despite being a fictional novelist. His novel formed part of the arsenal of the ‘war of words’ against South Africa’s segregationist policies. Both studies focus on the idea of racial segregation. This study concerns with ‘how Alan Paton loves his country whereas the recent one concerns with the impact of racial segregation and migration on society. As I see this study is clarify the influence of racial segregation in black and white character that means the study reveals great impacting of parthied on society.

2- This study was conducted by Risi,E (1999). It was entitled as” The Politics of Repentance in Alan Paton’s Cry, The Beloved Country.

 The main concern of the    project examines the way in which Alan Paton’s Cry, the Beloved Country addresses the crisis within South African society in relation to its so called Native Policy, in the years 1940 – 1948. The problems of housing, crime, land depletion, the break-down of tribal institutions etc. were all being debated within the context of various ideological positions. In his novel, Paton makes his own voice felt within the context of a Christian Liberal paradigm. In this regard I have explored the characteristics of Christian Liberalism, its strengths and weaknesses, and its relation to the competing discourses of the period, in particular those of the government’s policy of segregation on the right, and the growing strength of the ANC and the Labour Movement on the left.

The novel positions itself both in terms of protest and containment, and in terms of what I have called the politics of repentance calls on whites to embrace a more equitable model of society based on Christian and Liberal principles in a spirit of conversion and brotherly love, while eschewing a more radical approach to the dismantling of an order rooted in British colonialism, largely because of the imputed violent implications of such change. Paton’s visionary appeal is thus limited by both his own political leanings as well as by the pastoral ideal within which he expresses his inspiration.

 It can be seen from this section  that racial segregation has great impact on the                                 life of African people specially the black ones.  It  reviewed literature on the racial segregation and migration the life and the works of Alan Paton and his philosophy and vision in life.

The influence of Alan Paton on the African literature

The researchers  thinks the African literature concerns with different themes such as identity, colonization and racial segregation. It also distinguished with different languages either oral or written and those emphases the Africa production wealthy literature. In addition to that the speed of changing and improvement in all the decades in Africa which is give the deep reflect on the literal production in quality and quantity that contributed in created a great authors are writing creatively in their works. As Alan’s writing was modern and objective.

 Segregation and perturbation of society in Johunsbirg which is pretend in condones and mercifulness between the character of Steven Comulo and Jamis Jarfe this is establish to strong structure of society which is a assisted the raise of a weariness  of forgiveness conception in the society such as nelson Mandila when get out off the prison in spite he exposure of debase but he was tolerate this lead to peaceful coexistence in his society .I think humanity pioneered experiment  tackled a lot of problems  in all the societies specifically the societies  are suffer from partied.

Paton’s influence on other writers is chiefly indirect: Cry, The Beloved Country is not a novel that could have been imitated directly. But every South African novelist after Paton has had to take account of it. Writers such as Nadine Gordimer and J. M. Coetzee have commented on Paton’s work in their critical writing, but their fiction has mainly responded to him by indirect reaction. Gordimer, in July’s People, ran Paton’s plot in reverse: where his black protagonist is bewildered by contact with the white city, her white protagonists are forced into intimate contact with black rural culture, and they both suffer and learn from the exchange. Coetzee, recent winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature, plays the same plot-reversals, more subtly and variously, in such novels as Life and Times of Michael K and Disgrace. (OPRAH.COM 2021)

In city of Johannesburg a father seeks his delinquent son. His search takes him through a labyrinth of murder, prostitution, racial hatred and ultimately, reconciliation. First published in 1948, Cry the beloved country  addresses the problem of race relation in south Africa with the scrupulousness of the historian, the sensitivity of the poet, and stand as the single most important novel in twentieth –century South Africa literature.( new York Times.1981 .P 273).

A beautiful novel, rich firm and moving —its writing is so fresh, its projection of character so immediate and full, its events so compelling and understanding so compassion ate, that to read the book is to share intimately, even to the point of catharsis’, in the grave human experience treated.(new York Times.1981 .P 273).

Cry the beloved country …was the great raiser popular awareness of South Africa novel even written. (Nadine Gordimer, Observer.1981.P.273)

Alan Potan as novelist, his style and themes and writer’s experience on the impact of racial segregation on African society

Experience:

The researcher view Alan Paton is one of the African authors impressed with verity components such as innately which is refer to his  father who was written the poetry ,the environment which surround him full of different topics and himself he is from emigrant father  all this factors affected in his literal production.

Style:-

Paton’s style distinct with elegance, gravity and equanimity vocabulary also used rhetorical language and very clear ideas that render his style beautiful and sequential.  Paton’s use in cry the beloved country creates deeper meaning for the reader to fully grasp and understanding what Paton try to say , Paton explore the struggles of society in South Africa .

 Use style to show that men became separated from others are prone to conflict and corruption. Paton’s style uses symbols of separation between an independent man versus one that brings together. (11.2021.By Essay writer)

Theme:-

 The writer has multi themes in his novel due to high sense and ability of writing. Cry the beloved country is written with honesty and true gravity. It is many themes arise from exploitation, division, humility which draws on the action, the relationships between the characters, and historical context of the novel and show the themes are realized in each area.( 2021. By Essay writer)

The Concept  of the racial segregation.

As defined by Encyclopedia Britannic segregation to distinguish between human being according to the following factors; background, color, religious, standard of living and other. Racial segregation is the practice of restricting people to certain circumscribed areas of residence or to separate institution.(e.g. Schools, churches, parks, playgrounds, restrooms) on the basis of race or alleged race. Racial segregation provides a means of maintaining the economic advantages and superior social status of the politically dominant group, and in recent times it has been employed primarily by white population to maintain their ascendancy over other group by means social color bars. Historically, however various conquerors –among them Asian Mongols, African Bantus, and American Aztecs practiced discrimination in involving the segregation of subject races.

Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary defines racial segregation the act or policy of separating people from different groups, for example people of different races, religions or sexes, and treating them in a different way.

The conception of racial segregation in all religion

Through  the history of all religions the racial segregation is forbidden for different reasons as created the hatefulness, loathing and divided the one nation to variety people and tribes that against to the meaning of humanity.

In Islam The God said (we have honored the sons of Adam: provided them with transport on land and sea ;given them sustenance things good and pure ;and conferred on them special favours above a great part of our creation ).(the Holy Gran sourh    Alesra Eh 70 .P.799)

Islam has combated racism and proposed solution and plans to treat this dangerous scourge on Islamic society in particular and humanity in general .It was not satisfied with its proposal, but rather applied it in practice to be an example of humanity and reference for those who sing about equality and justice, but rather worked to build a loving and cooperative society .the following are some solutions:-

The Influence of Racial Segregation in the Society

The researcher believes the racial segregation has great reflection on society which is tangible in all the aspects of life of black people such as principle and law behaviors, attitudes, educational, economic, public transports, restaurant and every place where the black human founded.

 Also the researcher thinks that racial segregation is the psychological abnormality. Like inferiority complex we can name racial segregation a superiority complex this humanistic attitude, segregation, doesn’t conform to normal human behavior. So this always raises it is fact to say that segregation is an abnormal behavior and thus called a superiority conflict.

One of the most visible manifestations of racist policies in southern Africa is the large number of arrests and convictions under the numerous laws and regulations restricting the free movement of the African population. In 1963 there were 384/497 convictions per thousand per day. Department of information Affairs of the United Nation .P:20

 A key feature of the apartheid policy is the retention of high-paid professional occupations by whites and short-paid workers. The Republic has ensured its white housing by implementing this policy at a level considered to be one of the highest standards of living in the world, while non-whites do not earn more than whites. Department of information Affairs of the United Nation .P:11

 According Noaido,K 2014 .P:2   during the 20th century, South Africa’s economy became increasingly ordered and controlled along racial lines. Since the official demise of apartheid in 1994, the State has implemented various policies aimed at redress. In this paper we use three sets of household surveys (1994, 2001 and 2011) to provide a picture of wage discrimination in post-apartheid South Africa, after almost twenty years of democratic rule. Evidence suggests that discrimination in the labor market has decreased since 1994 but unsurprisingly remains a determinant of differential earnings between race groups.

 We also use a Re-centered Influence Function (RIF) approach to decompose the impact of discrimination across the wage distribution, and we track this over time. This allows us to make observations about the relationship between discrimination and wage levels: Discrimination appears to decrease with higher wages, and some of the largest decreases in measured discrimination are evident at higher wage levels. (Noaido,K 2014 .P:2 )

 The South African education system has never fully recovered from the damage done by apartheid, which lasted from 1948 into the early 1990s. The apartheid regime passed the Bantu Education Act in 1953, which created separate and unequal schools for each of South Africa’s racially classified groups. (The Population Registration Act of 1950 had divided South Africans into four racial groups: white, black, colored (mixed race), and Indian). By  Zeichner, N. 2018.

 As the child population becomes “majority-minority,” racial segregation remains high, income segregation among families with children increases, and the political and policy landscape undergoes momentous change, it is a particularly crucial time to consider the consequences of segregation for children’s opportunity and wellbeing. Not only is residential segregation more extreme for children than for adults, but the close links between residential and school segregation mean that children are often isolated from opportunity across multiple environments during the developmental period when neighborhood and school resources critically impact their wellbeing, opportunities, and life chances. (Nancy el al 2017:P1)

The Reasons, Factors and the   Effects of the Migration

The researcher views the presence of migration since the dawn of human history and people were left their homes and their land over century. In ancient time, primary humanity search for food or fishing from place to place also search for fertilize land and build  new civilizations

The reasons for migration are a seat of reasons that lead to migration:-

The migration had influence in the individual and society as a negative and positively the positive impact is improving the standard of living.  Search for better work than the previous work which is often the goal main reason for migration from mother tag to other countries. Escape the wars cases in countries that are suffering wars or political asylum. Suffering Of a violent, religion or social persecution Escape natural disasters, such as diseases, bars, earthquakes and glasses. (Ahmed.Sh P.1.2 2018)

Factors of the Migration

According to Lee (2021:50-52) the factors which enter into the decision to migrate and the process of migration may be summarized under four headings, as follows:

  1. Factors associated with the area of origin.
  2. Factors associated with the area of destination.
  3. Intervening obstacles.
  4. Personal factors.

Analysis of how the writer depiction  of the racial segregation and Migration in the novel.

There is a lovely road that runs from Ixopo

into the hills. These hills are grass-covered

and rolling, and they are lovely beyond any

singing of it. The road climbs seven miles

into them, to Carisbrooke; and from there,

if there is no mist; you look down on one of

the fairest valleys of Africa.

 The author is beginning his novel with magic scenery which is created the thinking of migration and that lead to the conception of migration.

They are valleys of old men and old women,

of mothers and children. The men are away,

the young men and the girls are away.

The author described the people who live in this valley were migrated from their home without tell us why they migrated? But we know the answer of this question.

           I bring a letter, umfundisi. — A letter, eh?

Where did you get it, my child? —

                                             From the store , umfundisi.

       The white man asked me to bring it to you.

The writer wanted to indict that implicitly the racial segregation in their behavior so normal to treat with it.

           His brother John, who was a carpenter,

                                         had gone there, and had a business of his own

                                         in Sophiatown, Johannesburg.

His sister Gertrude,

 

twenty-five years younger than he,

and the child of his parents’ age,

had gone there with her small son

to look for the husband who had

never come back from the mines.

    His only child Absalom had gone there,

to look for his aunt Gertrude, and

he had never re- turned. And indeed

many other relatives were there,

though none so near as these.

 In this text the author filmed the migration with variety reasons and yearning and longing to their family.

When people go to Johannesburg

, they do not come back.

 This quotation explains the type of migration from rural to urban and how the people refused return back to their home. They never come back because of social, psychological emotional, economical reasons. It has been approved that people prefer to live in a where that is comfortable to them.  They need to guarantee better live that includes basic requirements of life.

His voice rose into loud and angry words.

Go up and ask the white man, he said.

 Alan Paton clarifies the different between people with their colors that means racial segregation.

Then she sat down at his table,

      and put her head on it, and was silent

          , with the patient suffering of black women,

                                       with the suffering of oxen, with

the suffering of any that are mute.

 The writer Alan Paton narrated high pain of racial segregation and subtracted the puzzled and suffering in human drawing board.

The small toy train climbs up on its narrow

gauge from the Umzimkulu valley into the hills.

It climbs up to Carisbrooke, and when it

Stops there, you may get out for a moment

And look down on the great valley from

Which you have  come. It is not likely

The train will leave you, for there are

Few people here and everyone will know

Who you are. And even if it did leave you,

It would not much matter; for unless you

Are a cripple, or very old, you could

Run after it and catch it for yourself.

Alan Paton depicted the journey with details of stunning views that mean migrated

From his location  to another place.

He put the paper into his wallet, and

together they watched the train. As all

                                country trains in South Africa are, it

                             Was full  of black travelers. On this train

                             Indeed there were not many others, for

                             The Europeans of this district all have

Their cars, and hardly travel by train any more.

The author innovated in his description and continued to explain the racial segregation and how it inherent and deep in their behavior, the people are not equal in public life, there is distinguish between native residence and non native people .

Kumalo climbed into the carriage for

           Non-Europeans, al- ready full of the humbler

People of his race, some with strange

                                  Assortments of European garments,

and some with blankets over their strange

Assortment, some with blankets over the

Semi nudity of their primitive dress,

though these were all women.

Men travelled no longer in primitive dress.(p.13)

 The narrator expresses strong emotion when he described their appearance they were humbler people dressing primitive dress contrast with non native that is reflect of racial segregation created unbalance among the society.

The journey had begun. And now the fear

back again, the fear of the unknown,

the fear of the great city where boys

were killed crossing the street, the fear

of Gertrude’s sickness. Deep down the

fear for his son. Deep down the fear

of a man who lives in a world not

made for him, whose own world is slipping

away, dying, being destroyed, beyond any recall.(p.14).

The writer Alan Paton in this text showed the migration with the sentience of unknown fear which is accompanying the migration.

                             

We go down and dig it out, umfundisi.

And when it is hard to dig, we go away,

and the white men blow it out with the

fire-sticks. Then we come back and clear it

away; we load it on to the trucks, and it

goes up in a cage, up a long chimney

so long that I cannot say it for.(p,16)

 The author explains the method and practice of racial segregation.

And another black priest cried out—

I am also from Ixopo. My father and mother

are still alive there, in the valley of the

Lufafa. How is it there?(p.21)

The writer narrated the high pain of migration and racial segregation although he is priest which is prevented him to thinking on distinguish between black or white man.

                               They talked of young criminal children

                             , and older and more dangerous criminals,

                       of how white Johannesburg was afraid of black crime.(p.22).

The author described the perspective and approach of human white to the black human that means deeply racial segregation caused afraid and hateness.

One of them went and got him a newspaper,

                                the Johannesburg Mail, and showed

 him in bold black letters, OLD COUPLE

ROBBED AND BEATEN IN LONELY

HOUSE. FOUR NATIVES ARRESTED.

That happens nearly every day, he said.

And it is not only the Europeans who are

afraid. We are also afraid, right here in

Sophiatown. It was not long ago that a

gang of these youths attacked one of our

own African girls; they took her bag,

and her money, and would have raped her too

but that people came running out of the houses.(p.22).

The narrator wanted to pinpoint of the reflected of racial segregation on the society such as non security and spared of criminal among all the society either white or black people.  The bad consequences of racial segregation can led to society destruction on so many ways. Stealing, mudding, cheating raping and other crimes that is against society regulations.

                    1 have a brother also, here in Johannesburg.

He too does not write any more. John Kumalo, a carpenter.

       Msimangu smiled. I know him, he said. He is too busy to write.

                    He is one of our great politicians.(p.25)

Alan Paton explained the  positive impact of migration which is raise the standard of living, awareness, skills and receive different knowledge and cultures that developed and improved the ability –carpenter to  great politician

This is a bitter journey.(p.25)

The narrator showed the high satisfaction of migration because there are different benefits in migration as earn financial, new cultures, habits, new friend and found solution for the problems that means positive side for migration.

 

                                    My friend, I am a Christian

. It is not in my heart to hate a white man.(p.25)

Here the writer emphasized the racial segregation is forbidden in the religions notably in Christian which is considered contrast of nature of the human.

  White man has broken the tribe.

                                          And it is my belief—and again

                                         I ask your pardon

                                  —that it cannot be mended again.

                                      But the house that is broken,

                                   and the man that falls apart

                                    when the house is broken,

                                       these are the tragic things.

 That is why children break the law,

 and old white people are robbed and beaten. (p.26)

  One of the negative sides of racial segregation is caused separation in one notion that created a lot of problems which is destroyed the social fabric.

It suited the white man to break the tribe,

 he continued gravely. But it has not suited

 him to build something in the place

of what is broken.(P.26)

The author wanted to say one fact that racial segregation never builds countries.

                                    That is a pity, says Msimangu

.I am not a man for segregation, but

 it is a pity that we are not apart (p.28)

The text proved there is no religion man became for segregation due to controvert the ideology of religions consequently against humanity.

                                 So they walked till they came to

Claremont and Kumalo was shocked by

                              its shabbiness and dirtiness, and the

      closeness of the houses, and the filth in the streets.

                       — Do you see that woman, my friend?

                      — I see her. — She is one of the queens,

                            the liquor sellers. They say she is one of

the richest of our people in Johannesburg.(P.28).

Sometimes the migration necessitate lived in any situation no options thus accepted any condition either unsavory or enhance housing. The author depicted the situation using the real factors that led people to migrate leaving their own country. Getting mach is mentioned as one of reason that pushes people to migrate according to any situation.

Conclusion

The researcher finds out a lot of results after the analysis of the data which is the authentic material i.e. Cry, The Beloved Country. Also the results are obtained from the discussion of the writer’s biography, some theories and concepts of racial segregation and migration , and some previous studies which related to the area of the study. The following are the results of the study. There is strong relation between racial segregation and migration as depicted by Alan Paton in his novel, Cry the Beloved Country’. It means that the practice and its strict result in social and economic problems such migration from rural to urban areas. The author succeeds to defend his issue during the time of racial segregation. A lot of examples and details convey this ideas and facts.  Alan Paton portraits the struggles of racial segregation and their impact on migration in South Africa society. There are a lots quotation that proved that in chapter four which, the data analysis. The writer depicts the way that society in the South Africa deals with stigma especially the virtues which exist in society. The behaviors of Steven Camalo represent the phenomenon and how the people deal with in a Christian society.  There is strong connection between Alan Paton way of depicting the situation of black people and his own experience in life.  Racial discrimination caused family disintegration. This idea could be seen clearly thought the novel, Cry, The Beloved Country.

References

Ahmed,R. (2016) Themes Embodied in Alan Paton’s Novel “Cry, the Beloved Country, MA in ELT

Specialization in Literature , Department of English Language Faculty of Education – Hantoub University of Gezira.

British  Dictionary 2014

Ahmed,S.(2018) .Definition of Migration . 

Everett S. Lee (2021) A Theory of Migration ,University of

Pennsylvania ,Downloaded frhttp://read.dukeupress.edu/demography/article-pdf/3/1/47/908149/47lee.pdf by guest on 20 December 2021

 Metouri,I. (2012) Social Class and Race in Alan Patonꞌ s Cry, the Beloved Country, Dissertation ACADEMIC MASTER Domain: Letters and Foreign Languages Field: English Language, Literature and Civilization Specialty: Anglo-Saxon Literature, Kasdi Merbah Ouargla University Faculty of Letters and Languages Department of Foreign Languages English Section

PLESSIS,M(2019) How Beloved Is Alan Paton’s Beloved Country? A Historical Appraisal Submitted as requirement for the degree MAGISTER HEREDITATIS CULTURAEQUE SCIENTIAE (HISTORY) in the Department of Historical and Heritage Studies Faculty of Humanities University of Pretoria Pretoria

Mahone,C (2012) Cry, the Beloved Contradiction: Paton’s Colonial Legacy

Northern Michigan University In partial fulfillment of the requirements for AM

Risi, E (1999) .THE POLITICS OF REPENTANCE IN ALAN PATON’S CRY, THE BELOVED COUNTRY research report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Master of Arts degree in the Department of African literature, University of the Witwatersrand.

Ndlov, V (1997) TRANSFERRING CULTURE: ALAN PATON’S CRY, THE BELOVED COUNTRY IN ZULU submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of 1\’IASTER OF ARTS.

Prepared By: 1.Khawla Abd Elgadir Hassan Abd Elgadir. 2.Eyman Alsideeg Awad

Alkareem Ali. 3.Mohamed Zain Abd Elkareem Musa Abd Elkareem. 4. Mohamed Yahya Al-rih Yahya. The impact of white man in the Destruction of the people of Ndotcheni. Sudan University of Science and Technology College of Education Department of English language A study Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for Bachelor degree.

 MARÍA MARTÍNEZ LIROLA (University of Alicante, Spain) UDK: 821.111(680).09 Paton, A. S. Pregledni rad Primljen: 5. 4. 2007. Prihvaćen: 5. 7. 2007. Exploring the Relationship Between Paton’s Ideology and His Context

Tijani Hassan Ahmedyagoob .   Elements of Realism in Alan Paton’s Cry, the Beloved Country and Thomas Hardy’s The Mayor of Casterbridge AL- University of Gezira, Deanship of Graduate Studies and Scientific Research, Sudan. International Journal of Contemporary Applied Researches Vol. 6, No. 2, February 2019 (ISSN: 2308-1365) www.ijcar.net

Maria Martinez LIROLA (University of Alicante, Spain) Bradley SMITH (Macquarie University) CRY, THE BELOVED COUNTR

Redicated Themes As Textual Resource: An Analysis Of Alan Paton’s.

Challenges to Black African Immigrants’ Ethnicity in Johannesburg as Depicted in Alan Paton’s Cry, the Beloved Country  .

Taj Assir Haj Ibrahim. 1 Mahmoud Ali Ahmad, 2 and Hillary Marino Pitia Laki3 1&2 Department of English, College of  languages, Sudan University of Science and Technology 3 The International College of Science and Technology, English Language Programme

Black Women And Scandal: Representation And Recognition In Crooked Spaces By Leigh-Anne Kathryn Goins A DISSERTATION Submitted to Michigan State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Sociology—Doctor of Philosophy 2015.

 From Social Servitude To Self – Certitude: The Social Organization Of Resistance Of Racialized Diasporic Women Negar Pour Ebrahim Alamdar A Dissertation Submitted To The Faculty Of Graduate Studies In Partial Fulfilment Of The Requirements For The Degree Of Doctor Of Philosophy Graduate Program In Social And Political Thought York University Toronto, Ontario July 2018 ©Negar Pour Ebrahim Alamdar, 2018

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