Research studies

The Study of the Translation Analysis of English-Arabic Military Texts: Abbreviation Forms as a Model

 

Prepared by the researcher

  •   Assistant Professor – Ibrahim Talaat Ibrahim  –Al -Iraqia University/ College of Arts Republic of Iraq
  • Researcher – Fatima Abdul Wahhab Thamer – Al-Iraqia University/ College of Arts

Democratic Arab Center

Journal of cultural linguistic and artistic studies : Twenty-sixth Issue – December 2022

A Periodical International Journal published by the “Democratic Arab Center” Germany – Berlin.

Nationales ISSN-Zentrum für Deutschland
 ISSN  2625-8943

Journal of cultural linguistic and artistic studies

:To download the pdf version of the research papers, please visit the following link

 https://democraticac.de/wp-content/uploads/2022/12/%D9%85%D8%AC%D9%84%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AF%D8%B1%D8%A7%D8%B3%D8%A7%D8%AA-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AB%D9%82%D8%A7%D9%81%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%84%D8%BA%D9%88%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%81%D9%86%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D8%AF%D8%AF-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B3%D8%A7%D8%AF%D8%B3-%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D8%B4%D8%B1%D9%88%D9%86-%D9%83%D8%A7%D9%86%D9%88%D9%86-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A3%D9%88%D9%84-%E2%80%93-%D8%AF%D9%8A%D8%B3%D9%85%D8%A8%D8%B1.pdf

Abstract

This paper is concerned with military abbreviations translation analysis from English into Arabic. The paper hypothesized military abbreviation is likely to be difficult for students.  The paper aims to analyzing the Arabic translation of English military abbreviations. The researcher selected a number of important samples taken from fourth and third grade students concerning translation of military abbreviations from English into Arabic. The Researcher adopted eclectic model of analysis so as to carry out the Process of assessment of the translated texts in the body of the practical part. It’s concluded that the results verified the hypothesis above.

1. Introduction

Military is defined as an important and powerful institutions established by the state for the purpose of defending and serving our nations by sea, land and air from external threats and internal conflicts. has many important branches including, air forces, navy, border guard, and army (no name: P2) while military language is a unique language because it has a strong influence on the general language, its jargon is “a group of slang words taken from military personnel (Georgieva, P. 71). besides military translation is   the process of conveying military terms and expressions form one language to another (Sakarneh , 2015). and it is type of technical translation that requires translator to choose close equivalent in the TL text (Al-Imian ,2014). moreover, in this paper the researcher discusses translation analysis of military abbreviations from English into Arabic. Moreover, Abbreviations are new words formed from shortening forms of the words or phrases, as in FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation) DoD (Department of Defense) NATO (North Atlantic treaty) (Yule, P.58).

2.1 Military Language

The military language, the army language and the war, is one of the oldest forms of LSP, which has evolved rapidly along with the progress of military and defense techniques, restructuring of military forces, and design of new weapons.  along with the process of evolution, the use of military terms became the hallmark of both military and military texts. Furthermore, military jargon and slang are usually used as a necessary part of informal communications that related to the military. In general, the military language exhibits attribute of heterogeneity and hybridization, because the national types of the military language have adopted many international languages, i.e. lexical elements of Latin, French or German origin adapted phonetically, morphologically and semantically to the receiver languages   used to indicate the same notion (cf. Ivere, 1989 , p. 139). while nowadays, English become the major language of international communication in military, thus many items used in the national military languages are directly or indirectly taken from English.

2.2 Features of English Military Language

At the beginning of the twenty-first century, under the global instability due to military interventions carried out by the alliances of Western countries, the most important countries that participated are the United States, the United Kingdom and other English-speaking countries in the British Commonwealth, so the entire attention was directed to the language of these countries, especially the English military terms (Dovhopolyi :p1). Besides the military terms in the English language have been borrowed from other world languages   and fields of science as well, as the vocabulary of this field is the most variable and its terminology is numerous and this is one of the most important problems that need studies and research.

2.3 Features of Arabic Military Language

The Arabic military language was the dominant language among the Arab armies, and the language was free of impurities in the Arab countries until Baghdad fell to the Tatars. After that, Arabs socialized with non-Arabs and were influenced by foreign languages, especially Turkish, as the Ottomans ruled the Arab countries for a long time, and the system of education and training of soldiers was in Turkish, therefore the military Arabic language became colored with Turkish vocabulary, After that, France, Italy and America occupied the Arab countries, and the soldiers also began circulating the terms and phrases of these countries, especially the military terms.(khattab,p:25,26).

2.4 Word Formation

The word Formation Process which includes Shortening, Blending, Borrowing, Conversion, Affixation (Prefixes and Suffixes), etc. It is the process by which new words are produced either by modifying words or creating an entirely new word which in turn becomes part of the language (no name :p1).besides the English linguist Algeo highlights the formation of English words that words change faster compared to grammar and their uses change more than sounds and grammatical structures (Algeo,55.4,264).  While the formation of military terms created according to the basic of English language word structure: morphological, with affixation (gunner), word formation (spearhead), and abbreviation (United States Navy – USN).

2.5 Abbreviations English Military Texts

Military texts are a special and important type of texts that are translated with high accuracy by specialists, as they carry important matters in terms of military operations and international and national security     (Smirnovab:p1 ) besides Abbreviations are an essential part of the military language that aims to reduce speech (cf. Liepiņa, 2011, p. 244)moreover military abbreviations are considered a great challenge for the military translator, as there is an ocean of abbreviations and this may cause ambiguity. For example, these examples have several meanings in dictionaries,

 1-AOC: Army Operations Center.

2-NMAS: NATO military authorities.

3-AFM: Armed Forces Management. (No name: p11, 76, 7)

Therefore, the translation of abbreviations in military texts depends on the context and may differ from one army to another as well.

2.6 Types of Abbreviations of English Military Texts

An abbreviation is a shortened form of words or phrases. It can be used to save time during wars and military operations and to avoid repeating long words and phrases. Besides There are two main types of abbreviations in military language: the first one is acronyms: which is formed from the first letters of a group of words and we pronounce as one word for example: NATO-North American Treaty Organization. The second type is initials: is formed from the first letters of a group of words and we pronounce each letter individually. For example, FBI -Federal Bureau of Investigation.

2.7 Translation of English Military Texts into Arabic

Translation is the process of translating words from SL to TL (Al-Harahsheh: p, 9). Besides It is not only conveying meanings and information, but a great art and profession, it seeks to fill the gaps between different cultures and languages (Al Ali, 2017). While military translation is an attempt to transfer various military terms from one language to another. In this sense, it is more concerned with giving the exact equivalent in military TL given in the SL Military Text. For this, the translator of military texts must be well-versed in military terms and expressions with sufficient military experience to provide a high-grade military translation, as this is the core of this type of translation (Skarna, 2015).whilst  The interest in military translation appeared in the Arab countries as a result of the colonization of most of the Arab country by Western countries, and these colonial countries were the main provider of the arms of Arab soldiers, so it was necessary to train Arab soldiers and officers by the soldiers of Western countries, and so it was necessary to establish a link between them, thus the Arab soldiers began to get acquainted on military translation skills (Jalabneh,1991).in the view of the foregoing, There are many challenges in military translation from English to Arabic, so the Military translator must be proficient and competent in choosing The right terms. In addition, he must be familiar with military equipment and how it works and comprehensive information on politics, information and economics to be able to reach accurate translation and keep pace with the current situation of global issues and military operations around the world, otherwise he will face many challenges and problems (Kočote & Smirnova ، 2016).

3.1 Methodology

The population of the study was made up of ten students from the fourth and third graders. The translation questionnaire was conducted with a group of ten translation students.

3.2 Discussion

The following is a description of the results of the study according to the study questions and the results of the electronic questionnaire (Google form) that we sent to the students of the fourth and third stages at Al-Iraqia university translation department morning study to translate the underlined abbreviations of military in the following texts.

3.3 The first sample is:

NATO’s Heads of State announced today the establishment of a (NTM-A). This mission will-1 further support the development of capable and self-sustaining (ANSF). It will comprise. (senior-level mentoring of the (ANA) and an expanded role in developing professional (ANP).

3.3.1The following analysis will be based on ten models taken from the translation of students.

  1. The first student followed literal translation strategy.
  2. The second student resorted to optimal translation strategy.
  3. The third student used optimal translation strategy.
  4. The fourth student deepened on literal translation strategy.
  5. The fifth student employed literal translation strategy.
  6. The sixth student followed optimal translation strategy.
  7. The seventh student resorted to literal translation strategy.
  8. The eighth student relied on transliteration strategy.
  9. The ninth student depended on optimal translation strategy.
  10. The tenth student followed literal translation strategy.

The following translation is the perfect translation for the underlined abbreviations of military in the first sample:

أعلن رؤساء دول وحكومات منظفة جلف الشمال الأطلسي (الناتو ) اليوم عن تشكيل بعثة منظمة حلف الشمال الأطلسي للتدريب في أفغانستان . إذ تتواصل هذه البعثة دعم وتعزيز القدرات والاكتفاء الذاتي لقوات الأمن الوطنية الأفغانية . وتشمل مهام البعثة توجيها رفيع المستوى للجيش الوطني الافغاني ودورة موسعة في تأهيل الشرطة الوطنية الأفغانية.

3.4 The second sample is:

 The (MRTC) is to assess and select personnel for assignment to (MARSOC)MRTC IS-2 TASKED TO: 1-SOF skills training in accordance with MOS requirements.2-(PERRES). 3- Coordinate, via the component HQTRS, with (JSOU) and (TECOM) for higher level *. SOCOM/Joint.

3.4.1 The following analysis will be based on ten models taken from the translation of students.

  1. The first student relied on literal translation strategy.
  2. The second student resorted to literal translation strategy.
  3. The third student used literal translation strategy.
  4. The fourth student followed incomplete translation strategy.
  5. The fifth student depended on incomplete translation and literal translation strategies.
  6. The sixth student relied on optimal translation strategy.
  7. The seventh student employed literal translation.
  8. The eighth student followed transliteration strategy.
  9. The ninth student depended on incomplete translation and transliteration strategies.
  10. The tenth student used literal translation strategy.

The following translation is the perfect translation for the underlined abbreviations of military in the second sample

تتمثل بعثة مركز تدريب مشاة البحرية في تقييم وانتقاء الجنود وتجنيدهم في صفوف قيادة العمليات الخاصة للقوات البحرية الأميركية . وبعثة مركز تدريب مشاة البحرية مكلفة بما يلي : 1- التدريب على مهارات قوات العمليات الخاصة بما يتفق ومتطلبات التخصص الوظيفي السكري . 2- برنامج الأداء والقدرة على التحمل . 3- التنسيق من خلال القسم المختص في مقر القيادة مع جامعة العمليات الخاصة المشتركة وقيادة التعليم والتدريب ، وصولا لمستوى أعلى يتمثل بقيادة العمليات الخاصة الأميركية / المشتركة.

3.5 The third sample is:

NATO Organization – Command Structure (ACO) (SACEUR), is responsible for the -3 planning and execution of all NATO military operations, as directed by the NAC. ACO consists of a strategic-level headquarters, (SHAPE) located in Mons (Belgium), along with *. three (JFC) and a (JSEC) in Ulm.

3.5.1The following analysis will be based on ten models taken from the translation of students

  1. The first student followed literal translation strategy.
  2. The second student resorted to literal translation strategy.
  3. The third student depended on optimal translation strategy.
  4. The fourth student relied on optimal translation strategy.
  5. The fifth student employed literal translation strategy.
  6. The sixth student used transliteration strategy.
  7. The seventh student depended on optimal translation strategy.
  8. The eighth student followed literal translation strategy.
  9. The ninth student resorted to literal translation strategy.
  10. The tenth student used optimal translation strategy.

The following translation is the perfect translation for the underlined abbreviations of military in the third sample

في منطقة حلف الشمال الأطلسي ( الناتو ) – يتمثل هيكل القيادة في قيادة عمليات الحلفاء بالقائد الأعلى للحلفاء في أوروبا ، حيث يتولى مسؤولية تخطيط وتنفيذ جميع العمليات العسكرية للحلف ، وفقا لتوجيهات مجلس شمال الأطلسي ، وتتألف قيادة عمليات الحلفاء من مقر على المستوى الاستراتيجي يقع في مدينة ” مونس ” في بلجيكا ، إلى جانب ثلاثة مقرات لقيادة القوات المشتركة والقيادة التمكينية للدعم المشترك في مدينة أولم.

3.6The fourth sample is:

The DoD and the OMC will allocate seats for news media aboard a military-chartered-4 aircraft for travel from J (JBA) in Maryland to (NSGB) Cuba to cover military commission *. pre-trial proceedings scheduled for United States v. Abd al-Rahim al-Nashiri.

3.6.1The following analysis will be based on ten models taken from the translation of students

  1. The first student followed literal translation strategy.
  2. The second student used literal translation strategy.
  3. The third student depended on optimal translation and incomplete translation strategies.
  4. The fourth student resorted to optimal translation and incomplete translation strategies.
  5. The fifth student employed literal translation strategy.
  6. The sixth student depended on transliteration strategy.
  7. The seventh student resorted to literal translation strategy.
  8. The eighth student employed optimal translation strategy.
  9. The ninth student used literal translation strategy.
  10. The tenth student resorted to literal translation and optimal translation strategies.

The following translation is the perfect translation for the underlined abbreviations of military in the fourth sample

ستخصص وزارة الدفاع الأميركية ومكتب اللجان العسكرية  مقاعد  لوسائل الانباء الإخبارية على متن طائرة عسكرية مستأجرة للسفر من قاعدة آندروس المشتركة في ولاية ماريلاند إلى قاعدة خليج غوانتانامو البحرية في كوبا إنقل الإجراءات التمهيدية للجنة العسكرية بحق ( عبد الرحمن النشيري ) المزمع عقدها في الولايات المتحدة.

3.7 The fifth sample is:

(A&AS) to support the Deputy Assistant (SAF/MG) of Business Transformation (SAF/MG))-5 and(DCMO) in managing and improving Strategic Transformation Initiatives at the * .enterprise level.

3.7.1The following analysis will be based on ten models taken from the translation of students

  1. The first student followed literal translation strategy.
  2. The second student resorted to literal translation strategy.
  3. The third student used incomplete translation strategy.
  4. The fourth student depended on literal translation strategy.
  5. The fifth student employed literal translation strategy.
  6. The sixth student followed transliteration strategy.
  7. The seventh student relied on optimal translation.
  8. The eighth student followed literal translation strategy.
  9. The ninth student used incomplete translation strategy.
  10. The tenth student employed literal translation strategy.

The following translation is the perfect translation for the underlined abbreviations of military in the fifth sample

تعتزم الخدمات الاستشارية والمساعدة دعم وكيل نائب وزارة القوة الجوية بالإدارة  لتحويل الاعمال  ونائب رئيس الإدارة في إدارة مبادرات التحول الاستراتيجي وتحسينها على مستوى المؤسسة.

3.8 The sixth sample is:

CJTF-OIR MAG enables ISF, KSF war fighting independence UNION III, Baghdad – As-6 CJTF-OIR transitions away from troops with a combat role, the (MAG) is key, working hand- in-hand with Iraqi forces to advise, assist, and enable their capabilities in the enduring defeat of Daesh.

3.8.1 The following analysis will be based on ten models taken from the translation of students

  1. The first student depended on literal translation strategy.
  2. The second student followed literal translation strategy.
  3. The third student used optimal translation and incomplete translation strategies.
  4. The fourth student resorted to optimal translation and incomplete translation strategies.
  5. The fifth student employed literal translation strategy.
  6. The sixth student followed literal translation strategy.
  7. The seventh student depended on incomplete translation strategy.
  8. The eighth student used optimal translation and incomplete translation strategies.
  9. The ninth student resorted to literal translation.

10-The tenth student followed literal translation strategy.

The following translation is the perfect translation for the underlined abbreviations of military in the sixth sample

قاعدو الاتحاد ، بغداد ، تعمل مجموعة المستشارين العسكريين التابعة الى قوة المهام المشتركة عملية العزم الصلب  على تمكين قوات الأمن العراقية (القوات الإتحادية وقوات البيشمركة) للقيام بعمليات مستقلة دون دعم خارجي،في الوقت الذي تتحول فيه مهمة قوة المهام المشتركة – عملية العزم الصلب بعيدًا عن الدور القتالي ، تقوم مجموعة المستشارين العسكريين بدور مهم ، حيث تعمل جنبًا إلى جنب مع القوات العراقية لتمكين قدراتها من خلال تقديم المشورة والمساعدة والتمكين في المعركة من أجل تحقيق الهزيمة الدائمة لداعش.

3.9 The seventh sample is:

The 353rd SOG trained side-by-side with (RTAF) counterparts throughout the exercise, -7 and (MFF) operations, (RAMZ) airdrops, an overwater search and rescue contingency and the staging of a (FARP) for (CAS) and assault aircraft.

3.9.1The following analysis will be based on ten models taken from the translation of the students

  1. The first student followed literal translation strategy.
  2. The second student depended on optimal translation strategy ..wrong..
  3. The third student followed literal translation strategy.
  4. The fourth student used literal translation strategy.
  5. The fifth student employed perfect translation and literal translation strategies.
  6. The sixth student resorted to optimal translation strategy.
  7. The seventh student used optimal translation and literal translation strategies.
  8. The eighth student followed literal translation strategy.
  9. The ninth student depended on literal translation strategy.

10.the tenth student used literal translation strategy.

The following translation is the perfect translation for the underlined abbreviations of military in the seventh sample

تعمل قوة الغارة البحرية في إطار وحدة الاستطلاع البحرية، وتعد أصغر قوة عمل في مشاة البحرية الأميركية. َوتعمل وحدة الاستطلاع البحرية كقوة رد فعل سريع للرد على أي أزمة أو تهديد

3.10 The eighth sample is:

The MRF operates under the MEU, the smallest task force in the Marines. The MEU operates as a quick reaction force to respond to any crisis or threat.

3.10.1The following analysis will be based on ten models taken from the translation of students

  1. The first student followed literal translation strategy.
  2. The second student used transliteration strategy.
  3. The third student depended on literal translation strategy.
  4. The fourth student resorted to optimal translation strategy.
  5. The fifth student employed literal translation strategy.
  6. The sixth student depended on perfect translation strategy.
  7. The seventh student employed incomplete translation strategy.
  8. The eighth student used literal translation strategy.
  9. The eighth student depended on literal translation strategy.
  10. The tenth student used literal translation strategy.

The following translation is the perfect translation for the underlined abbreviations of military in the eighth sample

تعمل قوة الغارة البحرية في اطار وحدة الاستطلاع البحرية, وتعد اصغر قوة تعمل في مشاة البحرية الامريكية. وتعمل وحدة الاستطلاع البحرية كقوة رد فعل سريع للرد على اي ازمة او تهديد.

3.11 The ninth sample is:

NATO Organization – Command Structure

overall responsibility for COEs and is in charge of the establishment, accreditation, preparation of candidates for approval, and periodic. assessments of the COEs. ACT has coordination authority with the COEs.

3.11.1The following analysis will be based on ten models taken from the translation of students

  1. The first student followed literal translation strategy.
  2. The second student depended on perfect translation strategy.
  3. The third student used literal translation strategy.
  4. The fourth student resorted to optimal translation and linguistic equivalent strategies.
  5. The fifth student depended on perfect translation strategy.
  6. The sixth student followed literal translation and optimal translation strategies.
  7. The seventh student used literal translation strategy.
  8. The eighth student depended on literal translation strategy.
  9. The ninth student resorted to literal translation strategy.
  10. The tenth student followed literal translation strategy.

The following translation is the perfect translation for the underlined abbreviations of military in the ninth sample

منظة حلف الشمال الأطلسي ( الناتو ) – تضطلع مراكز الامتياز في تحويل قيادة الحلفاء بالمسؤولية الشاملة عن إنشاء واعتماد وإعداد المرشحين للموافقة عليهم والتقييمات الدورية لمراكز الامتياز ، ولتحويل قيادة الحلفاء السلطة في التنسيق مع مراكز الامتياز.

3.12the tenth sample is:

NATO organization – Force Structure (NRF) consists of a highly capable joint multinational force able to react in a very short time NATO Allies decided to enhance the NRF in 2014 by creating a “spearhead force” within it, known as the (VJTF). The decision to. Deploy the NRF is taken by the (NAC) at the political level, not military.

3.12.1The following analysis will be based on ten models taken from the translation of students

  1. The first student followed literal translation strategy.
  2. The second student depended on incomplete translation strategy.
  3. The third student resorted to optimal translation strategy.
  4. The fourth student employed literal translation strategy.
  5. The fifth student followed incomplete translation and perfect translation strategies.
  6. The sixth student used linguistic equivalent and perfect translation strategies.
  7. The seventh student followed literal translation strategy.
  8. The eighth student employed literal translation strategy.
  9. The ninth student resorted to literal translation strategy.

10-The tenth student depended on literal translation strategy.

The following translation is the perfect translation for the underlined abbreviations of military in the tenth sample

منظمة حلف الشمال الأطلسي ( الناتو ) – يتألف هيكل القوة ( قوة رد حلف الشمال الأطلسي) من قوة مشتركة متعددة الجنسيات ذات قدرة عالية وقادرة على الرد في وقت قصير جدا ، إذ قرر حلفاء الناتو تعزيز قوة الرد السريع في عام 2014 من خلال إنشاء ” قوة رأس الحربة ” داخلها ، والمعروفة باسم ( فرقة العمل المشتركة ذات الجاهزية العالية جدا ) . ويتخذ ( مجلس شمال الأطلسي) قرار نشر قوة الرد التابعة لحلف شمال الأطلسي على المستوى السياسي وليس العسكري.

3.13 Results

The results of the study can be summarized as follows:

  1. Military abbreviations are considered as a great challenge for the military translator.
  2. The translation of military abbreviations depends on the context.
  3. Some military abbreviations may have multiple translations, so some participants weren’t sure which one was correct.
  4. A number of participants are unfamiliar with military abbreviations since they are don’t have enough background about the military texts.
  5. Most of the participants could not find the correct translation of the military abbreviations, so they relied on the literal translation.

Conclusion

It’s concluded that the translators whose translations selected for analysis most of them failed in translating the military abbreviations. This confirms that most of these translators lack military information and abbreviations in particular, and that most of them resorted to literal translation, and a very small percentage translated these abbreviations correctly.

List of Military Abbreviations

NAC مجلس الشمال الاطلسي
NTM-A بعثة تدريب الناتو في افغانستان
ANA الجيش الوطني الافغاني
ANP الشرطة الوطنية الافغانية
ANFS قوات الامن الوطنية الافغانية
MRTC بعثة مركز تدريب مشاة البحرية
MARSCO قوات العمليات الخاصة للقوات البحرية الامريكية
SOF قوات العمليات الخاصة
MOS التخصص الوظيفي العسكري
PERRES برنامج الاداء والقدرة على التحمل
JSOU جامعة العمليات الخاصة المشتركة
TECOM قيادة التعليم والتدريب
SCOCOM قيادة العمليات الخاصة الامريكية
A&AS الخدمات الاستشارية والمساعدة
SAF/MG وكيل نائب القوة الجوية بالادارة
DCMO نائب رئيس الادارة
ACO قيادة عمليات الحلفاء
SACEUR القائد الاعلى للحلفاء في اوربا
JFC قيادة العمليات المشتركة
JSEC القيادة التمكينية للدعم المشترك
MEU وحدة الاستطلاع البحرية
MRF قوة الغارة البحرية
COES مراكز الامتياز
ACT تحويل قيادة لحلفاء
NRF قوة رد حلف الشمال الاطلسي
VJTF فرقة العمل المشتركة ذات الجاهزية العالية
MAG مجموعة المستشارين العسكريين
SOG مجموعة العمليات الخاصة
RAMZ طريقة الانزال الجوي البديلة
MFF السقوط الحر العسكري
RTAF سلاح الجو الملكي التايلاندي
FARR نقطة التزود بالوقود
CAS الدعم الجوي القريب
CJTF-OIR قوة المهام المشتركة –عملية العزم الصلب
ISF قوات الامن العراقية
KSF قوات البيشمركة
OMC مكتب اللجان العسكرية
DOD وزارة الدفاع
JBA قاعدة اندروس المشتركة
NGBS قاعدة خليج غوانتانامو البحرية

References

Al Ali, F. (2017). The translatability of military expressions and texts from English into Arabic and vice versa by translation students at Jadara University in Jordan. Unpublished M.A thesis, Jadara University, Irbid.

Al-Harahsheh, Sabah Mohammad S. (2019). The Challenges of Translating Military Terms from English into Arabic . Diss. Middle East University

Al-Imian, T. (2014). Problems and strategies of translating English military texts into Arabic. Unpublished M.A. Thesis, The University of Jordan, Amman.

Bryden, Alan, Boubacar N’Diaye, and Funmi Olonisakin. (2005). Security sector governance in West Africa: turning principles to practice. Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces

Ivir, V. (1989). Internationalisms: Marked or unmarked. In O. M. Tomic (Ed.), Markedness in synchrony and diachrony (pp. 139–150). Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton

Jalabneh, M. (1991). A study in the issues of military translation. Amman, Dar-Al Khawajah.

Kočote, Inese, and Tatjana Smirnova. (2016). Aspects of military-related text translation from English into Latvian. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences

Liepiņa, D. (2011). Transfer of US military procurement-related terminology into Latvian. Vārds un tā pētīšanas aspekti, 15(2), 243–247. Liepāja: Liepājas Universitāte.

Khattab, Mahmoud Sheet. Presented by Omar Obaid Hasna. (1985). The Arab Islamic Military.

Mammadzade, A. F. (2013). Lexical features of English military discourse. 139-142.

Regulation, Army. (2014). Abbreviations, Brevity Codes, and Acronyms.

Sakarneh, A. (2015). The use and micro and macro strategies and the challenges of translating American and British military texts into Arabic: Military discourse. Journal of Ain Shams University, 43: 297- 314.

Weaver, John Michael. Allied Command Operations/Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (ACO/SHAPE).” NATO in Contemporary Times. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham, 2021. 35-52.

Yule, George. (2020). The study of language. UK: Cambridge university press.

Websites

https://www.centcom.mil/MEDIA/NEWS-ARTICLES/News-Article-View/Article/2851726/cjtf-oir-military-advisor-group-enables-isf-ksf-warfighting-independence/ accessed on Friday 3-6-2022

https://www.defense.gov/News/Advisories/Advisory/Article/2860499/military-commissions-media-invitation-announced-for-united-states-v-abd-al-rahi/ accessed on Wednesday 15-6-2022

https://www.marsoc.marines.mil/Units/Marine-Raider-Training-Center/ accessed on Friday 3-6-2022

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/news_52802.htm accessed on Wednesday 6-7-2022

https://www.military.com/special-operations/maritime-raid-force.html accessed on Thursday 14-7-2022

https://govtribe.com/award/federal-vehicle/air-force-strategic-transformation-support-afsts accessed on Friday 22-7-2022

https://www.dvidshub.net/news/267448/353rd-special-operations-group-wraps-up-cobra-gold-2018 accessed on Sunday 21-8-2022

5/5 - (3 أصوات)

المركز الديمقراطى العربى

المركز الديمقراطي العربي مؤسسة مستقلة تعمل فى اطار البحث العلمى والتحليلى فى القضايا الاستراتيجية والسياسية والاقتصادية، ويهدف بشكل اساسى الى دراسة القضايا العربية وانماط التفاعل بين الدول العربية حكومات وشعوبا ومنظمات غير حكومية.

مقالات ذات صلة

اترك تعليقاً

لن يتم نشر عنوان بريدك الإلكتروني. الحقول الإلزامية مشار إليها بـ *

زر الذهاب إلى الأعلى