Prepared by the researcher : Mohammad Ali Ahmad Humran.Ph.D. researcher, Department of Geography, College of Arts and Humanities, Sana’a University.
Democratic Arabic Center
Journal of Asian Issues : Eighteenth Issue – October 2023
A Periodical International Journal published by the “Democratic Arab Center” Germany – Berlin
:To download the pdf version of the research papers, please visit the following link
Fish wealth is one of the factors contributing to strengthening the economic strength of the Organization of the States bordering the Indian Ocean, through its effectiveness in achieving food security, and its impact on global markets and international maritime trade. Here we exclude the Republic of Yemen, which witnessed a decline in fish production and a weakness in intra-maritime trade with countries. Arab countries and the countries of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, which affected Yemeni food security, and as a result of the weakness of strategic maritime planning, many external threats emerged to control the region and exploit its resources, which necessitated the necessity of conducting strategic maritime planning aimed at building and updating a modern maritime development strategy that contributes to enhancing food security in Yemen and the countries of the region, through which many marine planning approaches and geographical information systems are used, in addition to the regional maritime strategic approach, and power analysis. Here the aim of the study emerges in seeking to find a database that helps the decision maker in understanding and knowing the characteristics of the strategic region, which can be used in Achieving comprehensive maritime development and enhancing effectiveness in building a regional Arab bloc that contributes to neutralizing conflicts in the region and achieving regional balance.
Yemeni maritime field constitutes an influential strategic center of gravity inregional maritime economic relations and point for building and implementing the objectives of Yemeni maritime strategy inRed Sea and Indian Ocean region. However, Yemen has been facing local and international challenges obstacles rock to developstrategyand employeemarine elementspower to secure food and national security, in addition that Arab League, AGC failed to neutralize regional conflicts and American hegemony, which U.S and forging policy dominate Yemeni, Arab and regional political sphere and increasing unstable as well as threaten Yemen, Arab and regional national security.
It required conducting study aimed to build Yemeni and regional maritime strategy by using modern geographical and maritime approaches, It Based on theories and regional marine application,as well as conducting MSPas modern policy that EU and many countries succeed to solve marine issues and enhance resources productions in blue economy.Study divided to four levels, first discover general features in red sea and Indian ocean, second conducting MSP in Yemen islands in red sea, third analysis challenges, fourth results and suggestions, and conclusion.
Study anticipated thatwill clarify important of Unifying Yemen ,Arab and Regional policy for conducting MSPto able to build joint maritime strategy development in increasing fish production and exports , regulating imports , improving local and regional legislation and laws , providing Yemeni and regional maritime trade bodiesand it also comes in response to the direction of the Ministry of Fisheries in updating the marine fish strategy in 2022 and the Supreme Agricultural and Fisheries Committee in the Republic of Yemen.
The study total cost of approximately $800 million, that estimated to conduct at 10 years. The study will be a good project for stockholders such as Yemen navy and Coast Guard and fish ministry to investment in blue economy of YIRS due to various opportunities for jobs and increase income as well as protect Yemen food security. The future goal is to strengthen regional cooperation, maritime unions with Arab,African,and IORA in order to achieve and build regional naval power that could projected regional marine policy and strategy, as well as to get advantages of changing international policy for liberation from American and Western hegemony, and for building active Arain regional power that contribute to achieving regional and international balance.
The study will cover red sea and Indian ocean to understand the regional maritime , and the role of Yemen maritime geostrategic that influence and affected according to function maritime reginal, It focus and chose specific area as example to conducted MSP in Yemen islands in Red Sea, as well as the preparation of an executive strategic plan for sustainable marine development and blue economy, the field of models and samples will be chosen and using GIS , including five points as sample of islands in which MSP is carried out to identify the natural and human marine characteristics of the islands, and to explore the extent of marine, knowing the island’s inhabitants, how to inspire and entice them, how to contribute to the colonization and development of YIRS in accordance with the needs u using novel techniques for a minimum of two years. and it will clarify the important of partners and allies as well as the role of IORA for conducting MSP to build joint maritime strategy.
3.Study Approaches and Methodology
3.1. Geography approaches
The study usedapproaches mixed, marine regional, economic,policy, physical and strategic marine regional to find parameter that unify on the area, and it used GIS, MSP to discover and analysis the geostrategic marine features (Shela & steinbure, 2010, pp. 4-10)describe, analyze, and explore the characteristics of Yemeni maritime and implement Geomorphology approaches and international relations theories that locations and shape islands affected on international and region economic relation to enhance the effectiveness of Yemen rule to shape the Global and regional political order(Al-Zawak, p. 35). The legal approach used to confirmed implicating and respect maritime laws in Yemen maritime environment and the organization of marine activities in 1982, that we could complain UN and IOG and charge them for harming Yemen ecosystem by Internal shipping trades as well as the Yemeni maritime laws issued after 1990, and taking advantage of them in the recruitment, exploitation of marine life(Al-Hakimi, 1988, p. 3), Law No. 2in 2006 and Law of fishing, exploitation and protection of aquatic life, and the pertinent provisions of the Yemeni Constitution, as well as the rules of the Supreme Political Council, which was established in 2015. The law that organizes YIRS, (Yemen, 2010, p1-100).As well as adopted modernize Arabian and regional marine law.
To study the topography of Red Sea , Indian Ocean , bathymetry , physical feathers it depend on Landsat’s and Shi files and remote sensing by using ArcGIS, while YIRS region, it used Yemen topographic maps at a scale of 1-50000 issued by the Yemeni Survey Authority, Yemen (DEM12) (EARTH , 2022)and the bathymetry model(GEBCO, 2022), and Landsat 8 images, and marine charts issued by the UK (Admiralty chart, 1985,) and nautical charts Admiral(Dragoon, 2018, pp. 1-100).In addition, using GIS.10.8.1, meteorological stations,and a device (Navionics Asia and Africa) for the operations of reading marine maps, marineand island, blue economy surveys and used sonar, as well as the rate of sea waves and average depths from the coast and sea waves, marine debris, marine channels, marine distances in the sea appeared, and to learnt marine topography and many natural and human marine phenomena’s that could effect on marine policy.
Fig (1). land Sate images and Topography map.
Source, USAG, 2021.
4.1. Toclarify the Important of unify Yemen, Arab, and regional policy under IORA to conduct MSP and build Yemen and regional maritime strategy in red sea and Indian Ocean.
4.2. Toconduct MSP, by using GIS to discover, collect, analyze and manage the marine natural and human characteristics inYIRS, to build new data base that could build modern YIRS maritime strategic plans that respond for risks and challenges and solve issues that face bule economy investment and archiving sustainable development.
4.3. To understand issues and challengesthat affected in YIRS and using MSP processing that build a course of action plan and select the best sites for fisheries ports that could help local society for settle islands and stable to increase the production and export of fish and marine life, as well as to find the major elements for investment in blue economy.
5.1. Considering the significance of reginal marine geostatic in red sea and Indian ocean which have regional power feathers and the location of YIRS and their abundant fish-rich marine and continental areas
5.2. The significance of SMSP in advancing food security and the blue economy.
5.3. It responds to the problems and dangers facing YIRS and threaten maritime security, as well as to solve obstacles that face investment and growing blue economy.
5.4. Contribute to the strengthening of maritime economic relations and cooperation with the Res Sea basin area, intuitive Silk Road Project and IORA.
5.5. To highlight the importance of strengthening joint African and Asian regional cooperation for countries bordering the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean in conducting marine spatial planning under the supervision of the League of Arab States, the African Union, and IORA.
5.6.To support unify Arabian and regional policy to build and shift to be regional power to make stable in the area and stop foreign policy involvement and conflicts in red sea and Indian ocean.
- Problems, Questionaries and justifications for the study:
6.1. Mean Problem
Due to the poor spatial strategic planning of the Yemeni marine in the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean, Yemen has not been taken advantage of, while red sea and Indian ocean have become a priority for foreign marine strategies that are exposed to illegal fishing, control marine resources and affecting marine environmental pollution.
Is that if the marine area in red sea and Indian ocean is known well and understood byYemeni decision makers and maritime strategic planning team, so they will be able to draw and design successful maritime strategy development that could solve issue and problems as well as well be responded to counter forgine challenges in the area?
The question is how can we use MAP and GIS to understand the discover, analysis, collected and management marine environment and build a database in order to help making desions to build successful marine strategic planning.
What is the importance of MSP, GIS to discover Yemen marine features in red sea and Indian ocean? Yemen maritime location is center of gravity in red sea and Indian ocean based on marine regional, physical, economic and management regional study?
How using MSP in Yemen islands in red sea, maritime regional study and IORA in finding solutions in building Yemeni marine strategy and increasing production of marine life? How can cooperation be achieved in the regional maritime strategic management between Yemen and IORA?
There are branches problems in study area have relation and that connected with major problem, for example: Yemeni population increase is witnessing a significant growth, as the proportion of the population in the coastal governorates and at a distance of 100 km from the coast is about 65.5%. (Ishteag, 2022, p. 57). Besides that, Yemen natural marine characteristics are unique from other in Red Sea.
It located in continental shelf areas and at medium and few depths along the Yemeni coast MSP procedure, which is known as the modern practical way to organize the use of the Yemeni marine field and the interrelationships between natural and human marine phenomena in order to respond and achieve balance in requirements to achieve development and protect the marine environment (Catrina, 2018, p. 6). Through the application of the SWAT system, strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats will be known. Analysis will be carried out and a strategic maritime development plan will be prepared for the fishing ports and Yemeni islands, which aims to achieve development.
6.5 Literature and information sources and Background and processing
By conducting previous studies at the master’s level, many marine studies, strategic management and MSP in Eurasia, Asia were reviewed, and training was conducted on the using (GIS). Obtaining evidence from the international maritime organizations EEZ, UN reports on Population, maritime trade, in addition to communicating with international geographical organizations, including the Asian Geographical Society, getting benefiting from working groups, and by taking advantage of modern technology, many studies were reviewed, including the study of ASEAN with EU in developing the marine strategy for the development of fishing ports and the cultivation of organisms.
The follow up on (TASK FORCE, AD, Hoc) the working group and teams formed in the Association and the Asian Geographical Society to implement the case study in strategic MSP and fisheries development within the joint regional maritime strategy in the Indian Ocean region, and from the perspective of the Arab maritime policy and the general regional affairs of the IORA, and in cooperation with the organizations and federations International financial support for the study and implementation of the project, it will be submitted to the Asian Geographical Working Group (AGA) and according to the instructions and plan of the Ministry of Fisheries and the Higher Agricultural Committee in the Republic of Yemen in 2022. It requires 4-5 consultants from the European Union. Arab Union Fisheries, ASEAN, Asian Geographical Society to evaluate and supervise the feasibility study through consultations during meetings and visits and on social networking sites.
6.4.1. Field and desk study
The study will be conducted through a field trip in Yemen Red Sea region. Given the distances and the difficulty of the field trip to the coasts of IORA, the results of the study and analysis of information will be based on the office study, and the use of geographic information systems (GIS) remote sensing to manage information, data and map production, and will also be relied on Comparative study and survey operations as much as possible in IORA , and the application for membership in the Asian Geographical Society will be used to conduct questions and interviews to learn more about the region.
6.4.2. Data collection and information sources.
The reports and statistics of the UN, the data and IORAreports, reports and statistics of government agencies and offices In Yemen, the FAO, the reports of the Arab League States, Arab Fisheries Union, the International Maritime Trade Organization were relied on. and World Bank reports.
- Yemen and Regional Marine Geostrategic in Red Sea and Indian Ocean.
The Yemeni maritime domain located in the heart of the Indian Ocean. its connection and relationship with elementsof maritime natural and human power, including international markets, according to marine regionalpolicy, economic, function, management. Cultural and geostrategic region, Yemen has more influence power and affection on the international policy because many kye maritimegeostaticelements:
Yemen controlled, el lmandeb strait that located in Chok Point and Yemeni maritime domain is in the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean that connected with letteral states in the area, it has marine bodies constitute about 545,000 square km2, and include rich marine resources and high-quality fish. In addition, Yemen possesses about 282 islands, the most famous of which are Socotra, Abd al-Kuri, Mayun, Dhu Harab, and Kamaran, which control the shipping routes. Yemen has one of the most important transit ports in Aden, Hodeidah, and Mukalla, which have a great influence on international politics.
It overlooks the Indian Ocean about (26) countries, and the population is about (2.65 billion). Almost a person, equivalent to (39%) of the total population of the world, and it is characterized by the growth of population density and the difference and diversity in the approaches,political systems and the multiplicity of cultures and economic policies, so according to geostrategic perspective there are many blocs * (Jivanta, 2018, pp. 1-200)and geopolitical, economic and political alliances have a connection and interest in the Indian Ocean(Zhu, 2017, p. 205) The Indian Ocean constitutes is the third largest ocean in the world.
Map (1) member states bordering the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea.
Source, Author by geographic information systems.GIS.10.8.1
The geopolitical, economic and political alliances have a link and interest in the Indian Ocean(Clogan, 2017, p. 4).
The study loofward to progress and developmentrelation under umbrella of IORA, it has 23 member states, the population is about 3. 2 million people in 2017 census.(Blessing, 2020)Where the French island of Reunion joined, as well as the approval of Saudi Council of Ministers for membership in the organization in 2020, Egypt is also an observer member of the organization. (FAO, World Bank.Reports indicate that the international sea lanes in the Indian Ocean constitute (75%) of the global energy supply (Zhu, 2017, p. 17) and contribute to the strength of Yemen and the promotion of the development of international maritime relations, as well as the possibility of enhancing cooperation and partnership in various fields of investment in the blue economy sector, which appeared in 1989 and the emergence of the green economy, as Yemen is a partner and an active member of IORA.
8.Yemen and Reginal Marine elements power in Red Sea and IndianOcean
By using conducting MSP buy using GIS for describing, discovering and analysis the physical and human marine features in red sea and Indian ocean which have major strategic elements power, but they are not invested and implemented by local state in Yemen and IROA. Map (2).
Fig (2) Yemen marine power
8.1. Centers of strength
The Yemeni maritime field connect with red sea and Indian Ocean and constitute the most important natural marine geostrategic characteristics of Yemen, and who control Yemen can be able to controller of regional power, Yemen maritimeis key elements at Arab national security as well as Islamic and reginal society.it connected between west and east continental area. Yemen filed connected and affected at four major straits Suze channel, Bab, Almendeb, Malka, and Hormoz Strite. Yemen has great civilization and affected on regional marine cultures for ages in south east Asia, Africa and EU.
Through the increase in the change in the geostrategic perspective of the Indian Ocean, its geostrategic importance as one of the pivotal geopolitical marine areas globally, due to its distinctiveness and differences in its changing, overlapping and different geographical entity, as well as its connection and relationship with many cultures and international systems, in addition to language and ideology. The importance comes through contact and partnership with the countries bordering the Indian Ocean, which constitute large areas of the world, in addition to the fact that many countries have good economic relations withYemen and could be future markets for Yemeni exports, including Southeast Asian countries, which are among the first thirty countries to receive Yemeni exports, such as South Korea, China, and other countries.
8.2. Yemeni maritime
It constitutes one of the important elements of the comprehensive national naval power, lies in investing in the blue economy in the Indian Ocean, and the exclusive economic zone in the Indian Ocean constitutes about 26.7-27.8 million km2, or 38% of the total area of the entire Indian Ocean. Which can contribute significantly to the benefit and partnership in the organization, given that the world today seeks to strengthen partnerships, cooperation, and regional and international competition, as the average per capita income in Indonesia’s budget reaches 65,233 US dollars per person, which constitutes the highest percentage at the level of the organization. Yemen has good relations with Indonesia, and less the average per capita income in Somalia is 123 US dollars, Yemen is about 1123 dollars, and in poor countries is Mozambique and Madagascar. Through the study, the description and analysis of cooperation and investment in the group of countries bordering the Indian Ocean in the field of
8.3. Weaknesses and lack of strength in a regional freedom
The political unstable, pollution, foreign policy involving and control marina resources on the same time local state couldn’t depend on themselves to have right military power for marine protecting and secure the area (Robert ,2016, P1-20), as well as increasing reginal maritime power conflicts between USCENTCOM, AFRCOM and 34 foreign states that become major threaten marine security area (Humran, 2022, P1-200) , including intra-trade among IORA countries is weak unstable.
By analyzing the statistics in Yemeni maritime trade and Yemen thick exports, and according to local and regional reports that mentioned there are keys challenges facedYemen and the countries in the study area in the weakness ofregional maritime power, the absence of modern joint and developmental maritime strategic plans.
The study proposal constitutes an applied and executive work plan that enhances the value of Yemeni and regional fish production and exports and the settlement of the fish industry and the promotion of intra-marine trade with IORA, and work to enhance food security in Yemen and regioncountries.
9.Feasibility study for fishing ports and Yemeni islands in the Red Sea
9.1. Yemen Islands characteristics in red sea
YIRS is an important natural region in western coast of Yemen map (3). They distributed in differences long distance from coast line that lie from Saudi border to the edge Mayon island around 732km long, which affected on the width of Yemen base line to more that 60km, as well as Yemen shelf edge around 100 inlands located on shelf islands and 80 islands on off- shelf islands (Brodle, ROUPHALE, & TURAK, 1971, p. 1_100)) which is known for its abundance of natural wealth, including fish and marine life(Abas، 1996، الصفحات 20-200)) The majority of the islands are tiny in size (1–5km2) and are situated close to the maritime boundaries between Yemen and Saudi Arabia Map (3). One of the major Yemeni islands in the Red Sea is Kamaran, Hanish Al-Kubra, Jabal Zuqar, Hanish Al-Soghra, and Al-Fasht.A semi-continental climate with a hot summer and rising temperatures from north to south until Bab al-Mandab Strait dominates the islands and Yemeni marine area in the Red Sea. Due to the southern Red Sea’s physical configuration as semi-inland waters, the sea currents there are more agile and swift.
fig (3). study area
- Islands Characteristics analysis
By using GIS and MSP processing we found that YIRS distributed on northern and middle area, while Mayoin islands located on the southern part of Yemen red sea. The northern islands which are situated on a mid-coast adjacent to the governorate of Hagah, Yemen’s middle islands, which are situated on Hodeida coast; and Yemen’s southern islands, which are situated on the Taiz governor coast. Midi Coast Islands have an area of 1 – 15 km2, Inland waters up to 2000 m deep near the sea gullies in corridor countries small fishing harbors, Antofash population centers, and the Midi coast islands of Dhuhrab, Ardain, Al-Morak, Ghorab, Dhahra, Al-Asheq Al-Kabeer, and Al-Saghir.Most of the Yemeni islands are in the Red Sea, according to bathometry, land sat images, and GIS in shallow waters running south from the northern Midi coast and north from the Midi coast. They contain small fishing harbors and population centers in Antofash. The strategic importance of the islands is formed in the Midi coast, for its border location with Saudi Arabia and includes many islands on a map (4) and administratively follows. Governorate (Humran, 2022, pp. 1-200),The islands of the Midi coast are distinguished by a number of characteristics, they are located in areas rich in fisheries, allowing for the establishment of fishing ports on the island of Dhuhrab and the provision of modern marine vessels.They scattered close in the Red Sea, and through their geographical, topographical and morphological characteristics, located near and within the international trade navigation lines, and they have an impact and effectiveness in the movement of trade and maritime security through the presence of lighthouses, coast guard patrols. Yemeni island of Mayon controls Bab Al-Mandab is in the middle of the corridor, in addition to the fact that the islands are located near the coasts of neighboring countries, and thus it has importance in foreign policy and international relations.
Source: researcher. byGIS.10.8.1
11.The importance of strategic marine-spatial planning. (MSP)
MSP is critical in determining the best location and assisting the government with economic development trends in the blue economy, including the development of Yemeni islands. A basic method of assessing and allocating the spatio-temporal activities of marine activities in marine areas to meet ecological, economic, and social goals is known as marine spatial planning, or marine space planning. These goals are then identified through a political process) (Yates & Bradshow, 2018, pp. 10-200) In order to achieve economic, social, and geological goals, it defines a scientific management of the spatial and temporal distribution of human activities. Competition has grown in the twenty-first century; in 2017, there were 900 scientific papers and roughly 10,000 articles in the field of MSP (Zaucha & Gee, 2019, pp. 2-199)where there is a rise in interest in maritime transportation, fishing, marine biology, commercial and military ship building and development, resource exploration, seaport development, and pollution prevention in the ocean. Only EUA in araba and regional area has conducted MSP, because it so expensive.
The study confirms that enabling Yemen, in partnership with Arab and regional countries, to implement marine spatial planning is a strategic means of collecting a database through which political, Yemeni and Arab decision-makers can develop successful plans at various environmental, economic, political, social and security levels, through which the Giving the political decision-maker the knowledge and ability to draw strategic plans in the region, and in partnership with the countries of the region to achieve an Arab and regional naval force that will fill the void and contribute to achieving economic development for the peoples of the region.
- Fish and Marine Biology
YIRS have many types of fish such as tuna, sardine, mackerel, shrimp, cuttlefish, and maritime life and habits feather that goatherd around islands or example coral reef, coral assemblages, coral reef, coralline algae, mangroves and seagrasses. fish production included a higher proportion of invertebrates, the most important of which are shrimp, (prawns), and squid, totaling (60,000 tons) and valued at 45.600 $US (Cnter, 2017) Yemen And while it is possible to achieve a high rate of marine life production, Yemeni fishermen face significant challenges that have affected their lives and daily source of income due to the presence of various foreign companies that carry out marine fishing activities and obtain licenses from Yemeni authorities, in addition to illegal fishing by a number of traditional fishing units in economic waters, which has harmed international relations. Yemeni authorities impounded more than six traditional Egyptian fishing boats in the study area in 2017, in addition to recurring fishing issues with Eritrea, which detains Yemeni fishermen in violation of laws and maritime relations.
13.Challenges and Obstacles.
There are many natural and physical challenges that threaten YIRS and maritime security on red sea, which affected Yemen national security, international and regional maritime security ad well as fiery local society, marine ecosystem on the area map (5). According to author surveys, reports and studies results that conducted via online marine workshop with (wmu, 2022)“Ocean Decade programs”, WMU conference and “lets investigate ocean traveler together” hold on October 2019, International conference on marine /maritime spatial planning from 22-23, November, 2022, there are local, regional and international factors that have difference level on affections.
The weakens of communication between islands and central authority, weakness of islands budgets Purified water desalination plants for drinking in the islands, First aid centers, The importance of establishing centers for marine research and control in the islands, Appointing management managers and approving a budget to operate the islands from the allocations of the governorates affiliated to it, Providing a daily routine patrol for the islands or a helicopter, Providing operational stations by energysolar panel, establishing protection centers and coast guard areas, we encourage authorly to get benefiting from the Egyptian experience in investing the Yemeni Ministry of Defense and the Ministry of Interior for its employees in the islands and working to settle them. Discharge on the beach, Hight level of letters, for example authority in Hodeah ,lahg and Hagah should encourage students at schools , universities and local society to protect environment ,So the study suggested to hold training known (beach sampling training from 1-20 November, 2023 fig (2), aslo Safer oil tanker, Hael Saee instructress at RassEsaa 10%,smuglimg.
13.2. Regional and international challenges
They have Highest percent of affection on YIRS, for example , International maritime lines that ships tankers , ships trades , ships oils , war ships that around 66 ships around Yemen economical and territorial water per day that affect 40% , while Foreign fish ships and boats company affected 20%,smuglimg , immigrations , armed smuggling, piracy affected 10% , untenability fishing efforts rear of investments at coral reef, seagrasses, international ship pollution on Yemen ecosystem, not modernize marketing, absent of maritime strategic plans that encourage youth for inventions and investment at islands on red sea.
Beside that Fish community face fishing technical and equipment’s that high prices. so, by using XGIS, Buffer zoon (Yang, 2017, pp. 1-30)integration, important points, variables certation evaluations, classifications, and responded of stockholder, as well as study used reports of Transports centers, FAOO, International trade conferences 2021, and Arab Transport conferences to evaluated the size of dangerous and threaten in red sea. Map (5)
Fig (5). challenges and threaten Yemeni islands and marine security
Source, author, depend on GIS.
13.3.Climate change and marine dead zones
The sea is a source of oxygen, and because of sea pollution, it contributes to covering sea surfaces, which reducing dissolved oxygen,it is dangerous areas that contribute to the killing of fishwhere marine life multiplies. Because of transport ships, naval destroyers, and stupid nuclear submarines, they contribute to the effect.The study expected that the Red Sea will be added to these dead areas, where oxygen is greatly reduced, which leads to suffocation and death of marine life and animals, as well as fish breeding ground. Three-dimensional methodology and strategy and finding solutions. Healthy seas and oceans constitute one of the foundations for the continuity of the planet and natural life, from the perspective of realistic theory and the environmental school.
Addressing the causes, where the focus is on reducing nutrient pollutants, including ships, that contribute to affecting oxygen.
B, protecting the fragile marine environment and sea and ocean resources from marine pollution, by conducting studies in areas of expanding oxygen deficiency in Bab al-Mandab, the Suez Canal and near the Yemeni islands in the Red Sea, as well as developing a tracking plan to study the decline in the percentage of oxygen in the world’s oceans, including the southern part. the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean, which are among the priorities of the Yemeni maritime geostrategy in the region, to be able to monitor and identify sites exposed to the influence of pollutants in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean region and place them on maps, and develop digital models for them that are most affected and the lines and methods of effective solutions.
14.1. Conducting MSP, by using GIS, drones survey and undertaker vehicles, Landsat are essential tools that processing easily to build general understand and illustrated for area even we couldn’t reach some islands because of war in Yemen, but study desktop in the islands and background for working on the area that help us.
14.2. Study discovered that red sea and Indian ocean is one of the geostrategic locations that have regional maritime power characteristic and required to unify Yemen, Arab and IROA Policy to shift to full of the political gap and build Arabian regional power to make stable and secure the area.
14.3. Study found that Islands have unique natural that have wide biosphere, EEZ which are wealthy and virgin maritime resources and valuable for opportunities blue economy activities.
14.4. Study found that Islands have geostrategic location that could play major role to serve, secure, support, protect the international maritime trade, as well as help international maritime for guiding ships and building maritime services and logistics points as well as investment on blue economy activities.
14.5. Study analyses by using MSP and GIS being able creating a database for fishing ports and structures on the Yemeni islands in the Red Sea, as well as it conducted and produced maps (6)that including results and illustrated elations and impacts on others phenomena.
Fig (6). YIRS region’s marine phenomena
Source: researcher rely on GIS
14.6. The study found that the best area for budling modern fish boat multi services in Kamaran island as well as Fosht,Honish, and for investment and growing blue economy at EEZ area and government should buy the boat’s value in the common area and the purchase of two medium and modern boats is around 4,800,000 US$.
14.7. The study found that cooperation and cement relationships, sharing efforts for SMSP, as well as building economic agreements with Red Sea and IORA is major step to achieve Yemen islands maritime strategy and protect maritime security.
15.1. Conducting Yemeni and regional spatial planning is essential step for understating and know the features of red sea and Indian ocean that help Yemeni, Arab and reginal leaders and decisions makers to anticipated and build joint regional maritime strategy to achieve the right and successful development in the region area.
15.2. Establishing a command-and-control center to manage marine information systems and a regional marine strategy in order to enhance cooperation and exchange information and data for marine fishing activities and enhance communication with regional countries in the western Indian Ocean and South Africa.
15.3. Raising the capabilities of workers infisheries sector and benefiting from regional expertise in the settlement of fisheries industries and the construction of fishing vessels, imparting the skills of the local community, decision-makers and political decision-makers in marketing management, and the importance of strengthening marine and fisheries economic relations in order to increase the quantity of production and increase marine exports.
15.4.Thy expected to create job opportunities and employ multiple workforces for more than 100 workers according to the nature of marine planning, to purchase, produce and manufacture 700 marine fishing boats equipped with modern marine systems, and to benefit from solar energy in the Red Sea, which is one of the largest radiation area Solar around the world.
15.5. Developing and rehabilitating fishing ports and providing them with services to increase production, building a tuna fish factory, developing and modernizing the traditional boat-making workshop, benefiting from local expertise and cadres in small and medium marine industries, as well as from the Arab countries and the Republic of China.
15.6. Improving the situation of the local community and fishermen’s associations in the study area, where we will be able to develop proposals to equip 2 sea fishing ports equipped with modern methods, facilitating the process of communication with fishermen and receiving boats of different sizes and meeting marine services such as maintenance, preservation and cooling of fish, transport and export of fish and.
The Yemeni geostrategic thought is one of the main factors that contributed to building maritime geopolitics and contributed to strengthening African and Asian regional cooperation since centuries. Study believe that achieving marine development, security and stability in Yemen or an Arab country is linked to all Arab policy at strategic level andnon-Arab country can to be alone and able to achieve development, security, and stability, and to move toward strengthening its foreign policy and international effectiveness on its own. It is necessary to unify Arab, African, and Asian efforts because the size of the risks and limitations are greater than the size of the state alone, and from the perspective of alliances and military force, it is one of the means of obtaining regional power to achieve continuity and maintain Survival.
By unifying Yemeni, Arab and regional politics at the present time, as the world is witnessing a number of transformations, including liberation from unipolar politics and the shift to multipolarity. Through unifying national and regional politics based on the theory of regionalism, the Arab countries will be able to build an effective and influential regional Arab force. In the global system by taking advantage of the characteristics of natural and human power and promoting the development of regional maritime alliances, including the Organization of Indian Ocean States. The question is, do the Arab countries possess the characteristics of a regional power from the perspective of the geostrategic maritime region, and what is the location and impact of Yemen and its geostrategic natural and human effectiveness in the maritime region? What are the factors of strength and weakness through which the elements of regional power can be measured, which are represented in size, economic strength, population, economy, culture, technology, and compare them with the countries of the world? The importance of Yemeni, Arab and regional maritime spatial planning in building foundations and databases that contribute to developing strategic visions and plans? What is the extent of the threats and challenges, and how is the role of studies and the art of maritime geostrategy highlighted in making regional maritime strategic decisions and plans at the present time, which constitute the focus and essence of the study.
- Al-Haki, i. (1966). Maritme Legeslation Development porposal in the Yemen OF Arab Repuplic. Swedan: World maritme University Diessertaion
- Al-Hakimi. (1988). Maritme Legslation development porposla in the Yemen of Arab Repuplic . Sweden: World maritme universit dessetration
- Al-Zawak, M. (2000). Econmic Geography. Cairo: University Knowledges House
- (2020, MAY 1). ECOFISH. Retrieved from he inland and marine coastal fisheries resources of the Eastern Africa, Southern Africa and Indian Ocean region: https://ecofish-programme.org/authors/mr-blessing-mapfumo/
- Brodle, J., ROUPHALE, T., & TURAK, E. (1971). Seagrasses and Mangrove’s at Yemen red sea
- Catrina, S. (2018). Guide line for marine strategic planning. New York: UN
- Clogan, C. S. (2017). the blue economy of the Indian ocean: context and challenges. journal of indian ocean rims studies , v011, isse i, 4
- Cnter, Y. S. (2017). National Center For Statics . sanaa: Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation
- Dragoon, F. (2018). Marine Survy. Chairo: Haydrographic
- EARTH, E. (2022, May 1). USGS. Retrieved 2022, from USGS: https://earthexplorer.usgs.gov/
- (2022, May 1). Gridded Bathmetry Data. Retrieved from General Bathmetry Chart of the Ocean : https://www.gebco.net/
- Humran, M. A. (2022). The Geostrategic Importanc of Yemeni seas and Islands, Master Degree. Arab and Asian studies , Arab Demigratic Center, 1-100
- Ishteag, A. (2022). Plastic debris in the Indian Ocean: a threat to the coastal population and. , Musrsoish: IORA Press
- Jivanta, S. (2018). Matitme Governance and south east asia, Trade, Securit, and sustinable development in the indian ocean. Singfore: World Secentific
- Saleh, A. A. (1999). Yemen Decree. sanaa: Yemen legslation
- Shehab mphsen Abas (1996). . Yemen islnds .sanaa: Abade center .
- Shela, S., & steinbure, J. S. (2010). GIS RESERCH METHODS. incorporating spatila Prespectives . California: Esri Press
- (2022, may 1). Ocean Decade programs. (online, Performer) online, Simothosonian,2, Berue.
- Yang, C. (2017). Introduction to GIS Progrmaing and funcdmnetals wirth Paython and ArcGIS. NW. U.S: Taylor and Frances .
- Yates, K. L., & Bradshow, C. A. (2018). OFSHORE ENERGY AND MARINE SPATIAL PLANNING . Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.
- Zaucha, J., & Gee, K. (2019). MARITME SPATIAL PLANNING, past, present, future. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International
- Zhu, C. (2017). Annual Report on the develpment in the indian ocean region , Indo -Pacific; Concept Defination and strategy development. Beijing, China: Social Sciences Academic Pres,v.
- (2019). Fish. New york: roudltedeh.