Research studies

The return of refugees in Palestinian poetry Reviewing the technical, literary and social dimensions of the poems of returning to the homeland


Prepared by the researche :

  • Jahad Faiz alslam – Assistant Professor in the Department of Arabic Language and Literature – University of Tehran – Iran
  • Kobara Rosno – Education teacher -Iran – Email: kobrarashno <

Democratic Arabic Center

Journal of cultural linguistic and artistic studies : Thirty-second Issue – June 2024

A Periodical International Journal published by the “Democratic Arab Center” Germany – Berlin

Nationales ISSN-Zentrum für Deutschland
 ISSN  2625-8943

Journal of cultural linguistic and artistic studies

:To download the pdf version of the research papers, please visit the following link



In this article, the various developments that caused the emergence of Israel, followed by the displacement of the Palestinian nation, as well as the issue of the return of the displaced in the poems of Palestinians; will be reviewed.

The return of Palestinian refugees who were forced out of their land is a right recognized by all international laws, and Palestinian poetry is the only tool that has been fully served to achieve this right. There is no topic that has opened its place in Palestinian poetry as much as the right of return.

It can be said that Palestinian poetry is the best memory to protect the right of the Palestinian people to return to their homeland and makes the return motivation stronger in the Palestinian people. In this context, Palestinian poetry has done what it has been able to do in sincerity and has been successful in portraying the refugee camps and their suffering with literary and technical methods.


  Returning to the homeland is the only goal that all Palestinians agree on, and the whole issue of Palestine revolves around it, and this has caused that despite decades of displacement and expulsion from their homeland; They still haven’t gotten used to it, and every moment they think more and more about returning and only returning, and even in the most difficult situations, their motto is return. Because it must be said that although the displacement and emigration from the homeland and its painful consequences are a heavy burden on the Palestinian nation, and although the Holy Quds Sharif is in the hands of the usurper Israel, each of these is a part of the problem of the Palestinian nation.

The fact that the return of the Palestinian people to the land of their fathers and ancestors is the whole issue of Palestine, and all other problems will be resolved by themselves in the shadow of its solution, that is why the displacement and calamity and all its consequences are like untold suffering. and failure and… has not been able to extinguish the flame of hope for return and insistence on it in the Palestinian nation, and their optimism to a happy life and far from the pain of displacement, to despair and evil change nose Their insistence and hope to return has become stronger and stronger. And they transfer and teach this insistence and hope to the next generation and their young children.

Throughout history, there have been so many wars and escapes that have caused countless destruction, displacement, sorrow and calamities. But the displacement of the Palestinian nation is a strange story. A story whose sadness pains untainted modern hearts to the point of stopping from beating and makes the heart’s blood flow from the audience. Narrating this disaster does not come from any language or logic except the language of poetry and politeness. Among Arab poetry in general and Palestinian poets in particular, if we review hundreds of odes, odes that do not mention the plight of Palestine and Palestinians; It is rarely found. Palestinian poets, whether those who remained in the occupied territories and resisted, or those who, along with many Palestinian residents, suffered the scars of displacement; All of them, without exception, agree on the problems of exile, hardship of displacement, or insistence on returning to the homeland and recognizing the Palestinian nation as entitled to this right.

Statement of the problem, questions and hypotheses; 

Are the poems of the return of refugees to the homeland of Palestinian poets just a personal experience and a story of migration and exile? Or has he been able to express the suffering and hardship of the Palestinian refugees and the right and necessity of their return with a literary, technical and social method? There are other questions such as: – Are the strategies and contexts of return expressed in Palestinian poetry?

​ – Are the goals of return specified in Palestinian poetry?

-Who wrote the most return poems?

This issue draws several hypotheses:

-Poems about Palestinian refugees who have been able to express the necessity and right to return to their homeland with a literary and technical method.

-The poems about the Palestinian refugees have been able to keep the themes of resistance and struggle against the Israeli invaders alive in the minds of the Palestinian people and the world.

-The themes of the poems of the refugees’ return are of literary, technical, social and intellectual importance and privilege.

Research background;

In the field of Palestinian literature and poetry, many research works have been done both inside the country and in other countries, especially in Arab countries, but no book was found independently in the field of return in Palestinian poetry, although articles have been written in Arab countries. The most important of them is Yusuf Hatini’s 2011 article, the author of the article “The Way of Return”, “The Way of Return”, poems by Tawfiq Ziyad, Wabu Haltam and Isa al-Roumi, and the subject of the certainty of return, “The Certainty of Return”, poems by Darvish, Abu Salmi, Rashid, and Fadavi Touqan, as well as the subject of “Halm of Return” Bazeghest” has reviewed poems by Vajiya Salem, Ayoub Taha, Wamfleh, etc., and the authors of this article have used Mr. Hatini’s article.

But the authors of this article have tried to write different topics with a comprehensive view of the research.

Research Methodology;

The authors of the research have tried to use the descriptive and historical method of analyzing and reviewing the poems of the Palestinians’ return, in such a way that after collecting and reading the poems, they will reach the desired result on the way to the main problem of the research.

The issue of Palestine and its roots;

        Palestine is an Arab region that is bounded by the Mediterranean Sea in the west, Lebanon in the north, the Jordan River and Syria in the east, and the Sinai Peninsula – which is a part of Egypt – in the east. . The area of this area is twenty-seven thousand and twenty-four square kilometers. And it has a moderate climate, which is not the same in all its parts, and therefore the occupation of most of its people is agriculture. And there are 876 thousand hectares of arable land in this region. Also, this area is located in the vicinity of the Mediterranean Sea and the Suez Canal, which attracted the attention of Europeans due to its industrial and economic growth and the need for cheap raw materials and a suitable market. So that he considered the colonization plan of this region from a long time ago.

The phenomenon of Zionism was a political movement that began to grow in the second half of the 19th century in contrast to cultural Zionism. Since 1890, it has increased its activity and at the same time as the First World War, the interests of the great powers (Europe and America) were connected with it and led to the creation of a Jewish state in Palestine. The issuance of the Balfour Declaration in November 1917 by England in order to establish a Jewish national homeland in Palestine was the crystallization of this union of interests.

The first step of the Zionists to obtain Palestine was to try to obtain permission from the Ottoman Sultan, which failed in all cases. With the beginning of the weakness of the Ottoman government, it became clear that the colonialists had planned for the Ottoman conquests, and on this basis, in 1916, a year before the complete collapse of the Ottoman Empire, secret negotiations were held between England and France to delineate the Middle East.

In November 1917, James Balfour, the British Foreign Minister, in a letter to Lord Rothschild, the head of the Bank of England and the head of several companies and a Jewish member of the British Royal Commission, announced the favorable opinion of the British government towards the establishment of a national home for the Jewish people in Palestine. He asked him to inform the Zionist Federation about this matter. In this way, Britain becomes a guiding and supporting factor in realizing the goals of global Zionism and does not spare any efforts in this direction.

During its guardianship over Palestine, England deliberately did things that resulted in the strengthening of Zionism and the weakening of the Palestinian nation. And he openly and brazenly violated even the basic rights of the original owners of the land of Palestine. Among these actions;

  In 1920, the caretaker government announced the beginning of the government of a person named Herbert Samuel. He was the first head of the Jewish government appointed by the British caretaker government, a Zionist.

This obvious right-slaying by the international madman and British colonialism had dire consequences for the Palestinian nation, the Islamic-Arab community, which continues until now. Following the approval of the Balfour Declaration, there were many wars and conflicts between the Palestinians on one side and the Jews and the British rulers on the other side along with various strikes. But finally, on November 29, 1948, the United Nations General Assembly approved the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine. And America was the first government to recognize the existence of this illegitimate government, followed by France and even Russia.

The right of return of Palestinians from the legal aspect;

        One of the issues that has attracted the attention of most of the world today is the issue of Palestine and the Palestinian refugees and especially their return to their land. IDPs who today go through the worst conditions in the hope of returning to a normal life in the land of their fathers and ancestors. Therefore, before addressing the main issue of the research, which is dealing with the issue of returning to the homeland and its reflection in Palestinian poetry, the legal aspects of the case are briefly mentioned.

Every person’s country is his home and like his home, staying, leaving or returning to it is one of his Muslim rights. On the other hand, he cannot impose himself on other people’s country, just as he cannot enter someone else’s house by force. In fact, the right of return includes the return to one’s property and society with all its traditions and culture. Therefore, this right has been recognized internationally and by other official and legal rules. The recognition of this right by governments and countries means the return of a displaced person who was forced to leave his home country based on a series of factors and events. Therefore, the right to return is: “The right to stay and leave and return voluntarily to one’s country whenever a person wants.” (Agha Bakshi, (1375) vol. 2, p. 113).

According to the above definition, the right to return from one’s homeland is certain for every person, but sometimes this right may be denied by the government and prevent the return of the expelled person to his/her homeland for any reason. In this case, he finds the title of refugee or displaced person. (same source, p. 113).

In the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 13 states: “Everyone has the right.Leaving a country includes one’s own country.

Also, the Fourth Geneva Convention declares;

       “All types of expulsion and expelling people out of the occupied territory are prohibited.”

     “The International Covenant on Political Human Rights and Citizenship also stipulates not to prohibit a person from returning to his country, or the International Covenant on the denial of any type of racial discrimination and the denial of the right to return for racial and ethnic reasons” (Ghazi, c. First, 1363, p.87). The right to return to the homeland is a sacred right for the oppressed Palestinian nation, which every sane heart affirms and sanctifies, although the displacement of the Palestinian nation has been going on for a long time, which has imposed excruciating suffering on them, but it has never recovered. They have not settled and will not. Palestinian elders died for this belief and Palestinian men, women and youth live with this belief and hope and efforts to realize it. Its children and babies suck this right drop by drop of mother’s milk and grow up with love for Palestine and return to the homeland.

Palestinian resistance literature;

       Palestinian literature is said to be a collection of literary works – poetry, fiction, etc. created by the Palestinian people, and in a more general sense, it refers to any type of literary writing that is about the Palestinian resistance. Because Palestine has exceeded the limit and framework of a specific geographical area and has become a global issue.

The resistance of 1936 was the first event that laid the foundation for the emergence of the first generation of Palestinian resistance poets. Before 1936, the poetry of this period had distanced itself from the weakness and imitation of the predecessors, but it had not yet freed itself from the captivity of verbal and original arrangements. The main transformation of poetry took place in 1936. “At this stage, the poet was no longer the speaker of the rulers, but lived for the people and with the people, and was with the pains and joys of the people. At this stage, the poets had the highest role in the development of their culture and the greatest benefit in increasing their knowledge and awareness. It is deserved to consider the poets of this stage as the leaders of contemporary Palestinian poetry. (same source, pp. 115-118).

The poets of this period used the classic form of the ode to express their experiences. Because on the one hand, they were facing the threat of the British and Zionists, who wanted to remove the Arab identity of Palestine and destroy the Palestinian character; therefore, Palestinian poets wanted to preserve Cultural authenticity and national personality benefited from their cultural and traditional heritage. On the other hand, this format has the same rhyme and it is easier and more fluent to read it in public demonstrations. In this way, the poetry of this period is like a declaration. There was a revolution, a poetry that resembled shouts, slogans and sermons. Among the top poets of this period, Ibrahim Toukan, Abdur Rahim Mahmoud and Abu Salmi can be mentioned. This generation is the original generation of resistance, which is always searching for the rich concepts of freedom, It was liberation, the independence of the country, and pleas and revenge.” (Darvish, 1358, Palestinian literature, pp. 29-8).

The third period: This period begins with the disaster of 1948, i.e. the establishment of the Israeli state in Palestine. In the period before the resistance and armed struggle of Palestine, we mentioned that these struggles delayed the realization of the Zionist plans, but against these actions, the British turned to some of their Arab vassals to prevent them through their mediation. The struggle and armed strikes of Palestine became, and unfortunately, the same happened. Finally, the Israeli government was established in 1948, and the era of displacement, suffering and misfortune of the Palestinians began. Moj Satregi, which had started a storm in 1936 and had nurtured many poets such as Ibrahim Touqan and brave fighters such as Ezzeddin Qassam, turned to silence in 1948 and from it, whether in the field of politics or Literature and poetry came out and sank into an aura of despair. In this year, Abdur Rahim Mahmoud was martyred and Abu Salmi chose a corner of loneliness and sadness, and thus each of the writers and poets stopped continuing their previous method, and the fierce fire of the 1936 movement turned into a cold and silent oven, and the spirit of despair, pessimism And the desperation among the Arabs, especially the Palestinians, continued. In this sense, the poets after this year are known as the losers who speak of suffering, tears and lost paradise. Let’s see Yusuf al-Khatib’s poem:

“My friend, that is Chekauki…/ in the borders/ who has passed the boundaries of a thousand treaties…/ and he came in, he returns freely/ and I am wounded and helpless here/ I wish I could be like Chekauki/ I would take flight/ and in the boundless sphere/ on my orange grove or on a stream/ I would flap my wings…/ I wish I were Chekauki.” (2010,

But after 1984, man lives wandering, displaced, alone and without a land. One of the most brilliant poets of this period is Fadavi Touqan, the sister of Ibrahim Touqan. Fadavi Tuqan describes the confused and hopeless spirit of the Palestinian man as follows:

“My life is tears and my heart is overflowing/ It is longing, it is a book of poetry and oud/ And this is our youth/ It is disappointed and failed dreams/ This youth was watered by misfortune.” (Touqan, 1993, pp. 17-20).

The generation that wrote poetry in and around Palestine after 1948 is a generation that should be called the “generation of failure”, the generation of grief and the generation of broken heads. Examining the poetry of the best Palestinian and Arab speakers about Palestine in the years after 48, shows that this is the general spirit of Palestinian poetry, both those who wrote poetry in the old style and those who chose new forms. (Shafi’i Kodkani, 1359, p. 203).

In this period, due to the new and decisive political and historical events, new titles and topics also enter the literature, although the topics before 48, such as the duty of Muslims and Arabs towards Palestine and protesting the actions of Arab leaders and… still continued, but issues such as displacement and their return to the homeland stand out in the poetry of this period;

  1. A) Palestinian Arab refugees: The 1948 war forced hundreds of thousands of Palestinian Arab Muslims and Christians to leave their homes and lands. In 1967, the war flared up again and more than four hundred thousand people were driven from their homes. Examining the literary works written after the disaster of the defeat of Palestine shows that writers and poets pay a lot of attention to the issue of refugees. In the poetry of the poets, the Palestinian displaced person soon found an oppressed, broken and pushed face who lives hard in the tents of the Mandars while hungry and sick children surround him.
  2. B) Return: The whisper of boredom from life in exile, which was slowly creeping into the minds of some poets, soon turned into loud and all-encompassing cries. The displaced person loudly declares his displeasure at accepting the fate that was imposed on him and made him a worthless being. The truth is that every Palestinian Arab who, after 1948, was forced to live in Yemen, Damascus, Beirut, Cairo. Baghdad and wherever else he has been, he has always felt like a stranger and has never lived with satisfaction and happiness. And this false impression that the refugees are contentedly and happily living in other Arab countries, so that the evil plans of the leaders and politicians can be implemented, should be forgotten. Since the 1950s, you will not find any Palestinian poet whose poetry does not reflect this way of thinking. (same source, p. 144) )

In the meantime, the image that Fadavi Touqan paints of this issue is more beautiful than all these images. The desire to return to the homeland in two works “Neda al-Araz” (Cry of the Land) and “Al-Toufan wa Al-Shajara” (Storm and Tree) of Fadavi. Touqan is presented in a more evolved form, in the poem (Crying of the Land), he creates the love of return inside him and keeps his thoughts busy for a long time. (Touqan, 1993, pp. 121-123).

The desire to visit the homeland is something higher than sending a message by the wind and the stars, and the poem shows that the displaced must try, no matter how desperately, to join the land he was separated from once again. He remembers the land that gave him its treasures and compares it with the current pitiable situation. He remembers the land that has generously cherished him from childhood to old age. He remembers with fascination the land of the homeland in spring, the wheat field waving in the breeze that holds the treasure of its grains for him in his heart. He saw what was hidden and witnessed the orange trees that spread their fragrance with every breeze and spread shadows in every direction (Khalid Suleiman, 1376, p. 150) until one night unconsciously – consciously – of course in an imaginary way. – He crosses the border and in his poem it is as if that beautiful space is located on the other side of the border within a few steps of him, as soon as he crosses the border, he quickly reaches it, and in the following, two beautiful images are drawn. to embody the refugee’s regret and remorse towards the homeland;

The first image: The golden ears of wheat wave in front of his eyes

Gnouda clusters in the field of “Yahdaneh al-Haqal Khaira Motla”

And the second picture: the orange tree appears in front of him, “Walaha Leh Shajar al-Oranam”

with a pleasant smell and a long shadow

Then, immediately, Soz describes the inside of the displaced from his words like this, along with a stormy thought that took over his being;

How can I endure!

see my land

To see my violated rights.

And I will stay here again like a shy stranger!

Why should I be a foreigner living in a foreign land and

fly to eternity in that strange place.

should i stay Abaki

who says And I am the gossip

No! I will return to my beloved land

I have to come back, I must come back

I will come back, whatever happens). Yes, I will come back, this is a vital book

The code and symbol of the tent;

Poets often use the symbol of “al-khyam and al-khymah al-suddah” in order to depict the hardships and sufferings of displacement in the best way, so that it evokes nothing but suffering and torment. Although the appearance of the descriptions is different for different poets, but the secret is the same. And perhaps the ode “Kheima” by Kamal Nasser expresses the use of this code, which is a reminder of fear and astonishment, death and pain for lost honor and being forgotten and betrayed;

Terrified in Rahab, the place of crucifixion, forgotten in time.

Hayri Ali illusions in al-Madi, no love in the sky, no affection

The results of the stars are bad on the earth, the scandals are disgusting.

Ekafans are the Law of Laerdi ¬ folding the injuries of Laerdi in Aman

Ya Khaymati Al-Suda Zali Hana Zakari Ali Ashla Hakami Hayan

. (Khaled Ali Mustafa, 1986, p. 87)

Al-Shaer Moin Basiso describes the displacement and homelessness of Palestinian refugees in the form of black tents that cannot protect the refugees from strong winds and floods. And when the flood occurs, there is no sign of the tents or their residents. This shows that the sorrow of homelessness and displacement is a double pain when it is associated with other sufferings such as being homeless. In these verses, he states that the purpose of occupying his land is to uproot his nation by the invaders. But the devastating flood of occupation, no matter how strong and foundational it is, cannot remove the pillar of the nation’s tent, because the roots of the Palestinian nation remain forever in the land of Palestine, even though the storm of occupation of every part of this nation has thrown into a corner;

I did not leave the flood without the rope and the rope from that tribe or from that country.

Here is wreckage, here is death, here is drowning, here are the remains of the willow.

Talaq al-Baqiyyah Min Shaabi and I know that we are between the blind and the insane and the renegade.

Talaq al-Baqiya Min Shaabi Fazak Abi Watlak Ammi Wa Ma Fi Al-Khish Min Uhud

  (same source, p. 88)

Insist on return;

With a glance at Palestinian poetry, it is easy to understand that every ode and verse written with the theme of return; contains emphasis in different forms; Such as: inna, inna, laqad and many other restrictions that are a sign of insistence and emphasis on returning to the homeland. Also, in these poems, the verb to return is used with the future participle forms such as: Sanaodu, Saaodu, Sanarji, Saarja, Sitaghair, Sanbani, Sannahi, Sanati… The use of these verbs and lexical items like them shows firm faith and confidence in the certainty of return in the future. Returning to the homeland will be realized in the eyes of every Palestinian, even if this time is so long and so much fighting and killing takes place that only one of the Palestinians survives.

My people are before you, as you wish. They are destroyed

If ten of us remain, we will return

And we say it

And we say it and celebrate it

If even one of us remains, we will return (Abdul Rahman Al-Kayyali, 1975, p. 300).

Insistence and confirmation of the remaining principle of a Palestinian identity and maintaining that despite the disappearance of the fact that there is a different identity between them, take a guide and thank you for the insistence of Palestine in this country. A Palestinian who is determined to live up to all its trends and aspects of life, a Palestinian who remains without even its visions and drinks, food and scotch, a bastard and a bastard, his concern and concern is the ring of Palestine and the soul of a Palestinian who has lost it. This is what Mahmoud Darwish says in the poem “A Lover from Palestine” on the site;

Palestinian eyes and tattoos

Palestinian name

Palestinian dreams and concerns

The Palestinianity of the handkerchief, the feet, and the body

The Palestinianity of words and silence

Palestinian voice

Palestinian of birth and death

(Darwish Mahmoud, 1993, I love you, or I don’t love you, p. 10)

A Palestinian with an existence that has long been long gone from abroad and has left my homeland, without a single whit of frequency, and I am reassured by it. I betrayed my homeland and betrayed it These are tragic stories that are very sad. If you are satisfied with this, you will not be able to pay me for it in your homeland. You will not be able to pay it in exchange for a place in your homeland. You will receive it, or you will receive a fine for it. Or, compensation. Kind What is the purpose and delivery of the name of the poet of Mujawid;

We will return that homeland, and we will not accept anything in return for it

We will not accept a price for it… We have hope that will pay us back.

So be patient, my daughter, be patient tomorrow morning, victory will be ours (Harun Hashim Rashid, 2005, p. 13).

Certainty and insistence on return is a firm and unbreakable belief, and Palestinian poetry is the bearer of this belief and the message of its mission. “Hasan Yahya” the Palestinian poet and writer, anyone who despairs of returning or does not believe in it and forgets his homeland; The owner of an incomplete and sick intellect knows;

The truth will return to its owners one day

As long as there is a share left between the children

…No one forgets the place of his birth

Except for those whose mind is sick

The right to return to the order is number one

Jericho and Jerusalem will return…

And you will return to us as a beacon

Palestine despite the deniers

The nations bear witness to that (

Mahmoud Darvish in the poem “Masaa al-Narjas wa Malhah Al-Silafa” shows that he and his nation do not have any doubts about returning to their homeland and see it as a reality. Why use the past tense for something that hasn’t happened yet? In the Arabic language, it expresses the certainty of its occurrence.

This ode begins with the description of everyday and normal life issues, which the poet speaks eloquently about. Clear facts with a simple and vernacular language, which despite its simplicity, is beautiful and pleasant and shows the inspiration that comes from a poet committed to the homeland. And at the same time, there are completely technical and literary images in it. From the usual simplicity of a Palestinian home with the utmost love and hope that waves in it. Common things such as onions, garlic and okra when they are hung on the roof of a house for winter storage, milking goats, holding children’s marriage ceremonies, are all everyday and very common things in every house, but they show enthusiasm and vitality. And the hope of life is in that house.

“This ode can be examined from various intellectual, political, historical, mythological, unique and linguistic aspects. This ode is inherently the best screamer and expression of the desire to return to the homeland that has been suffering for years. That and being displaced in different exiles have offended its owners. In this ode, return is equal to victory.” (Faiz al-Iraqi, 1998, p. 59).

In this ode, Darvish sings with strong dogma and confidence;

They came back…

From the end of the long tunnel to their mirrors. . And they came back

When their brothers insisted, individually or in groups, and returned

From the legends of defending castles to simple words

They will no longer raise their hands or their banners to perform miracles if they wish.

They returned to celebrate the essence of their existence. And they tidy this air

And they marry their sons to their daughters; And they danced, a body hidden in the marble

  . (Mahmoud Darwish, 1994, p. 419)

The insistence on the return and the certainty of it took a more serious form since the formation of the first intifada of the Palestinian nation in 1987, and the poets gave a stronger call for the return. Because the intifada is no longer the mirage-like promises of the heads of the Arab governments, which will bring disappointment. Rather, it is a power based on the tenacity of men and women, children and young people, who shook the enemy’s body and robbed him of good sleep. They made him understand that Palestine and Palestine are alive and uncompromising and resistant will not allow their holy land to be trampled by the enemies of humanity.

And we sing of Al-Quds, O children of Babylon

O children of chains

You will return to Jerusalem soon

And soon you will grow up

And soon you will reap the wheat from the memory of the past

Soon tears will become ears of corn

Oh, children of Babylon!

And soon you will grow up

And soon…



In this ode, the repetition of the word “soon” represents the depth of hope and the limitation of the desire to return to Jerusalem, which is a symbol of Palestine and the sanctification of the homeland. Darvish shouting the word “Hallelujah” which means a shout of thanks at the time of opening and happiness; At the end of the poem, he shows his strong belief in the imminent return. (Ghanim, Ghassan, 2010, p. 43).

“Ali Fouda” in an ode titled “Sinbad’s Return” expresses the dream of return and the hope for it with an emotional and tender tone. He considers the homeland as a kind mother that he regrets leaving. He misses his kindness and should return to him;

I feel sorry for you, mother

I feel compassion for you in all seasons

And how much – and God knows best – how much I regret

To you… to you, mother

I’m coming

I’m coming…

The repetition of “آنا قدمٌ” expresses the necessity of returning and its certainty. (Houtesh, undated, p. 180).

In the poetry of some poets, it is a secret key for the weapon of resistance, by means of which he calls the enemy to fight and makes him understand that the land of Palestine belongs to the Palestinian nation. A nation that has its roots in the land of Palestine and the newly arrived occupier is not able to destroy the past and the memories of the Palestinians that they have from the land of their fathers and ancestors. erase and destroy, because the key to this past is in the hand of the Palestinian and it is unattainable for the enemy. This key is also a weapon for the Palestinian to expel his enemy from his land and open the gates of a bright future for himself, his children, and future generations. Palestinian poet Abdul Ghani al-Tamimi says;

The key to my house is still in my hand. I still embrace the memory of my country.

I have never known despair – O executioner – these are your tools, sharpen them… and this is my skin.

O killer, destroy my day, you are not capable of killing my tomorrow.


Also, the key can be the code of insisting on returning, which is passed from one generation to another so that the home and homeland are not forgotten. Another Palestinian poet, “Vajiya Salem”, says;

Liberating the land is the hope, and with the right of return it is complete.

A right for which we would not accept a substitute. There is no substitute for it in the universe.

My key is in my pocket for my great-grandson. He is moving (Hamman Manbaa).

The insistence on returning and being confident about it is not reserved for a generation that has witnessed the disaster and has witnessed crimes such as Deir Yassin and Kafr Ghassim, etc., but with the passage of nearly seventy years since the disaster in Palestine, the generations Later, they have tried and fought deeper and more fruitfully to return to their homeland. They see the life in the homeland and the duty of their land in front of their eyes moment by moment. Because the generation that saw the disaster knows that it is their duty to narrate the story of the homeland with all its beauty to their children with passion and love. Remembering the martyrs and their struggles, mentioning the inhumane crimes of the occupying enemy, remembering the bitterness of displacement and the box in which he kept the key to his house like a precious treasure; to narrate over and over again without any boredom. And the result of this narrative is the education of a generation that remembers the homeland without any shortage or caste, even though they are still young, and is ready to fight and fight against all aspects of the homeland to return to it, and without a single bit of hopelessness. A bright future is in the loving bosom of the homeland.

Ehab Al-Dali, a young Palestinian girl, has organized this insistence and confidence, and as a result, the hope of return, with eloquent words. These poems show the fact that the love for the homeland and the hope of returning to it has captured the soul of every Palestinian They say you will not remember it

All for five days and forget about it

No, for sure, sixty-three years

It is engraved in our memories and remains in our thoughts

…and hearing the grandmother’s voice calling us

Children, let me tell you a story

The story of inheriting our lands that we will not give up

You repeat it over and over again without getting tired of it.

A story of love, struggle and struggle until the missiles came.

Artillery and bullets make some of us fall wounded, prisoners

And martyrs, and grants the rest the title of refugee

He has no home, and he has a key in his hand, and he says, “We will return one day, home.”

We will return one day, Dar, and we will have victory (, and this love and hope is not reserved for a specific generation or a specific class or group.

Fadavi Touqan portrays the insistence to return and its certainty in a different way and expresses his insistence to return by expressing combinations in the form of negative interrogatives.

In this poem, Fadavi describes the situation of a displaced person from Palestine who has spent a lifetime in displacement and homelessness and now thinks to himself and comes to the conclusion that he can no longer live far from his homeland and his rights see usurped and trampled and must return to the homeland even if only his lifeless body reaches the soil of the homeland… and the answer to his questions is only in returning to the homeland.

Will you usurp my land? He takes away my right and I remain

The ally of homelessness, I have become a shameful humiliation here

Should I stay here to die a stranger in a strange land?

Should I stay and who said it? I will return to my beloved land

I will finish this novel myself, I must return.

I will stay here, I will die here, prepare my resting place

…the destruction of two arms longing for a lifeless, resting body (Fadwa Tuqan, 1993, pp. 121-123).

This ode “The Call of the Earth” shows the insistence on returning even if the result is the loss of life. In this long ode, Fadavi Tuqan describes a displaced Palestinian whose nightmare of staying and dying in displacement ignites a fire inside him and forces him to leave. He walks and overcomes many hardships, reaches the border of the homeland, the smell of the homeland and a thousand other pleasant feelings about the homeland, like whispering with the trees, make him unconscious and Suddenly, the sound of two gunshots breaks the silence, and the next day at dawn, a lifeless body is seen on the ground.

The result of the discussion;

-Today, the issue and problem of Palestine is the most fundamental issue in the world, both from a legal, political and cultural point of view. Because despite the passage of more than 70 years since the issue of Palestine, the international assemblies have not been able to find a basic solution for the full and complete return of the rights of the Palestinian nation to that nation. Palestine uses any means to defend its deprived rights, poetry and literature being one of the most important of them.

-The return in Palestinian poetry is more prominent than any other topic and has a very strong reflection.

-In Palestinian poetry, you can hardly find an ode that does not talk about return.

-As much as the suffering and sorrow of displacement and distance from the homeland becomes more annoying, the hope and effort to return among Palestinians becomes stronger and finds more expression in Palestinian poetry.

-With reference to the poetry of Palestine, the idea of return and the insistence and assurance of the realization of this right is not reserved for a specific group and generation of the Palestinian nation, but is transferred from one generation to another until its final realization.

-The poems of the refugees’ return are one of the most obvious and important examples of the resistance poetry of the Palestinian nation.

-The idea of return is expressed stronger in the minds of Palestinian poets every day than in the past, and they will never surrender to the passage of time.

– Lyric poetry, which is the song of humanity and his message that he sings, and an art by which he expresses his feelings and emotions, his joy and sadness, his nostalgia and pain, his happiness and tragedy, bursting from the depths of his conscience, feelings and emotions.

-Narrative and dramatic poetry that left its impact on Palestine and its cause. It is poetry for a future that the Palestinian person dreams of.

-Epic poetry, a literary art based on heroic poetry, and aims to glorify a collective, religious, national, or human feeling.

– Rhetoric and directness at the beginning of the occupation, and this poetic quality continued until the late seventies, as the tragedy took poetry from lyricism and romanticism to rhetorical and directness as a result of the terrible event and the urgent need for incitement and resistance.

-Simplicity and clarity. Tragedy poetry was characterized by sophistication, clarity, and simplicity of the linguistic dictionary.

-The spirit of belief, commitment, and resistance is poetry that does not carry for us crying,     -lamentation, despair, or the spirit of retreat and retreat. Rather, it carries to this world and to future generations the spirit of belief, resistance, and hope for return.

Sources and references;

-Houtesh, Abdul Rahman. Al-Thawra poetry in contemporary Arabic literature, Al-Rabat, Al-Maarif Library for publication and distribution.

-Hatini, Youssef,: Return to Al-Sha’ar al-Falestini. http://www.thaqafa.org2010..

-Khaled, Suleiman; Palestine and contemporary Arab poetry, translated by Shahreh Bagheri, Tehran, Cheshmeh, 1376.

-Sun, Ghazi; Zionist Terrorism in Occupied Palestine, translated by Hamid Ahmadi, vol. 1, (Tehran, Amir Kabir Publishing House, 1363).

-Darvish, Mahmoud, Ahbak or La Ahbak, Beirut, Dar al-Odeh, 8th edition, 1993.

-Dervish; Mahmoud, Palestinian Literature, translated by Musa Eswar, Tehran, Soroush, 1358, first edition.

-Darvish, Mahmoud, Diwan Mahmoud Darvish, Beirut, Darul-Odeh, M. The second volume, the first edition, 1994.

-Shafii Kodkani, Mohammad Reza, Contemporary Arab poetry, Tehran, Tos, 1359, first edition.

-Tuqan, Fadavi, Al-Amaal Shayari al-Kamalah, Beirut-Lebanon, Al-Masua’a Arabiya for Studies and Publishing. First edition, 1993.

-Ali, Agha Bakshi in collaboration with Mino Afshari Rad; Dictionary of Political Sciences, Volume 2 (Tehran, Center for Information and Scientific Documents of Iran (1375)

-Al-Iraqi, Fayez, Shaar al-Intifada fi al-Badin al-Fikri and Fani, Damascus, Syria, Ittihad al-Katab al-Arab, 1998.

-Ghanim, Ghassan, Al-Quds and Al-Shaar al-Hadith, The Literary Position, Urban Literary Magazine, Tadree on the Union of the Books of the Arabs in Syria – Sunnah al-Arbaun – Al-Adab 466 Shabat 2010, p. 43.

-Al-Kayali, Abd al-Rahman, al-Shaar al-Falestini fi Nakba Palestine, Beirut, Lebanon, Al-Masua al-Arabiyyah for publishing. First edition, 1975.

-Mustafa, Khalid Ali, Al-Shaar al-Falestini fi Nakba Palestine, Baghdad, Iraq, Dar al-Shaon al-Thaqafiya Al-Alamiya, second edition, 1986.

-Hashem Rashid, Haroon, Al-Amaal Al-Shaariyyah Al-Kamalah, Amman-Jordan, Daram Jadlawi Publishing House, 2005.

Internet sites; –


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