Research studies

The Impact of Climate Change on Food Security A Case study: Evaluation of Egyptian legislation and policies related to climate change on food security


Prepared by the researche : Mohamed Shokry – University Of Salento (Italy)

Democratic Arabic Center

International Journal of Economic Studies : Twenty-ninth Issue – May 2024

A Periodical International Journal published by the “Democratic Arab Center” Germany – Berlin

Nationales ISSN-Zentrum für Deutschland
ISSN  2569-7366
International Journal of Economic Studies

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The present study delves into the complex interplay between climate change and food security in Egypt, with a specific focus on evaluating the efficiency of the country’s legislative and policy frameworks in mitigating the adverse effects. By examining the repercussions of climate change on agricultural productivity, water availability, and overall food supply, the research aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the challenges faced by Egypt in maintaining food security. Furthermore, the study analyzes the existing legislative and policy measures, assessing their effectiveness in addressing these challenges and identifying potential areas for improvement. The results of this investigation may contribute valuable insights for policymakers and stakeholders to develop more robust and sustainable strategies for ensuring food security in the face of climate change. In conclusion, Egypt’s increased wheat and rice crop yield may be attributed to government efforts to combat climate change and its effects on food security. Nevertheless, considering the data shows a growth in imports of both crops during this time, it is not possible to conclude that it is successful to the level of self-sufficiency in these two crops.

  1. Introduction

      Climate change has emerged as one of the most pressing global issues of our time, as it significantly affects various aspects of human life, including food security. As the planet undergoes a series of transformations, such as rising temperatures, shifting precipitation patterns and an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, the agricultural sector is facing numerous challenges. These challenges not only threaten the livelihoods of millions of people worldwide but also raise concerns about the sustainability of food production systems (Muluneh, 2021).

   In this context, the agricultural sector is particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, as it relies heavily on favorable environmental conditions for crop growth and animal husbandry. Rising temperatures can lead to heat stress in livestock, reduced crop yields, and increased pest infestations (El Bilali, Bassole, Dambo, & Berjan, 2020). Moreover, changes in precipitation patterns can result in either water scarcity or flooding, both of which can negatively impact agricultural productivity.

  This paper aims to delve deeper into the specific implications of climate change on food security in Egypt, focusing on the analysis of Egyptian legislation and policies related to climate change and their impact on Egyptian food security. By examining these legal and policy frameworks, the paper seeks to understand how the Egyptian government is addressing the challenges posed by climate change and whether these efforts are sufficient to ensure food security in the long run.

  The study will explore the various legislative and policy measures implemented by the Egyptian government to tackle climate change and its impacts on food security. This includes an examination of the legal instruments, strategies, and action plans that have been developed to promote sustainable agricultural practices, enhance food production, and safeguard the country’s food security.

  Furthermore, the paper discusses the effectiveness of these legislative and policy initiatives in addressing the challenges posed by climate change. It also identifies the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and challenges in the current approach, as well as potential areas for improvement. By providing a comprehensive analysis of the Egyptian experience, this paper aims to contribute to the ongoing global efforts to develop more effective and sustainable strategies for addressing climate change-related challenges and ensuring food security for the Egyptian population and other vulnerable communities around the world.

  1. Literature Review

    Abdelmajid et al. conducted an extensive investigation into the consequences of climate change on food security in Morocco, a North African country similar to Egypt in terms of geographical and ecological characteristics. Their study offers a valuable comparison to our research on the impact of climate change on food security in Egypt, as it provides insights into the challenges faced by countries in the region. The authors emphasize the significance of adapting agricultural policies to address the detrimental effects of climate change on food security, which is crucial for the sustainable development of North African nations (Abdelmajid, Mukhtar, Baig, & Reed, 2021). By implementing appropriate policies and strategies, these countries can minimize the adverse impacts of climate change on their agricultural sectors and, consequently, on food security. Abdelmajid et al.’s work underscores the importance of regional cooperation and knowledge-sharing among North African nations to tackle common challenges posed by climate change.

  Muluneh took a broader approach in their research, examining the global implications of climate change on biodiversity and food security. This study provides a comprehensive context for understanding the issue at hand, as it highlights the interconnectedness of various aspects of climate change and its far-reaching consequences on food security worldwide. Muluneh’s work emphasizes the need for global cooperation and coordinated efforts to mitigate the effects of climate change on food security, considering its vast and complex nature (Muluneh, 2021).

  Pemunta et al. conducted a study that focused on the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam’s (GERD) impact on Egyptian national security, human security, and food security within the Nile River Basin. This research is pertinent to our topic as it highlights the intricate connections between various aspects of security, such as environmental, political, and socio-economic factors, in the context of a large-scale infrastructure project. The GERD’s construction has raised concerns among downstream countries like Egypt, as it may affect their water supply and, consequently, their agricultural production and food security. By examining the interconnectedness of security aspects in the context of the GERD, Pemunta et al.’s work emphasizes the importance of considering multiple factors when addressing complex issues like climate change and food security. This study underscores the need for a comprehensive approach to ensure sustainable development and food security in the Nile River Basin (Pemunta et al., 2021).

  Din et al. conducted a comprehensive exploration of world nations’ priorities concerning climate change and food security. Their research offers an overview of the strategies and approaches adopted by different countries to tackle these pressing issues. This study is relevant to our topic as it provides insights into the various ways nations are addressing climate change and its impact on food security. Din et al.’s work highlights the diverse range of policies, initiatives, and collaborations that countries are implementing to mitigate the effects of climate change on food security. By examining these strategies, we can identify best practices and potential areas for improvement in our study on Egyptian legislation and policies related to climate change and food security. Furthermore, this research underscores the importance of international cooperation and knowledge-sharing in addressing global challenges like climate change and food security (Din et al., 2022).

  Alrteimei et al. conducted a significant study that investigated the influence of regional climate change on crop yield variations in the Mediterranean region, including Egypt. Their research offers valuable insights into the challenges faced by countries in this region, particularly Egypt, in maintaining food security amidst the changing climate. By examining the impact of climate change on crop yields, Alrteimei et al.‘s work highlights the importance of understanding and addressing the effects of climate change on agricultural productivity and food security. The findings of this study can be compared with our research on Egyptian legislation and policies related to climate change and food security. By reviewing and comparing these studies, we can gain a more comprehensive understanding of the complex relationship between climate change, agricultural productivity, and food security in the Egyptian context. This holistic perspective will enable us to identify key areas where policy improvements and interventions are needed to ensure food security in the face of climate change. Moreover, by understanding the challenges faced by the Mediterranean region as a whole, we can explore potential regional collaborations and knowledge-sharing initiatives that could contribute to enhancing food security in Egypt and other countries in the region. Alrteimei et al.‘s research emphasizes the importance of regional cooperation in addressing common challenges posed by climate change and its impact on food security (Alrteimei, Ash’aari, & Muharram, 2022).

   The various studies discussed offer diverse perspectives on the impact of climate change on food security, both on a global scale and within specific regions like the Mediterranean. These research works encompass different aspects of the issue, such as the influence of large-scale infrastructure projects on national and human security, nations’ priorities and strategies concerning climate change and food security, and the effects of regional climate change on crop yield variations. By analyzing and comparing these studies with our research on Egyptian legislation and policies related to climate change and food security, we can gain a more profound understanding of the intricate relationship between climate change, legal frameworks, policy measures, and food security, specifically in the Egyptian context. This comprehensive approach allows us to identify key interdependencies, challenges, and potential solutions that can contribute to enhancing food security in Egypt and other countries facing similar circumstances. Moreover, the diverse perspectives provided by these studies highlight the importance of adopting a multi-faceted and collaborative approach to address the complex issue of climate change and its impact on food security. By understanding the various factors at play and the different strategies employed by countries worldwide, we can develop more effective and sustainable policies and interventions to ensure food security in the face of climate change.

  1. Analytical Study
    • Egypt and  effects of climate change

    Egypt is one of the countries in the world that will be most affected by the consequences of climate change (Omar, Moussa, & Hinkelmann, 2021). The state was interested in activating policies to mitigate and adapt to the consequences of climate change (Yassen, Nam, & Hong, 2020). The challenges resulting from climate change in Egypt are (El-Masry, El-Sayed, Awad, El-Sammak, & Sabarouti, 2022):

  • Sea level rise.
  • Affected agricultural crops.
  • Lack of water resources.
  • Health effects.
  • Impacts on population and tourism.

   The World Bank confirmed in its study published in 2007 that Egypt is among the 84 countries included in the study and is considered one of the countries most affected by sea level rise (Eid, El-Marsafawy, & Ouda, 2007).

   Focusing on the food security context of the impact of climate change on Egypt, we find three impacts that are the most dangerous to Egyptian food security:

  • Increased rates of desertification

    Desertification is defined in Article 1 of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification as “land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry regions as a result of multiple factors, including climate change and human activities.” The problem of desertification is one of the most important environmental challenges that Egypt suffers from. Egypt is classified as one of the country’s most suffering from the problem. This is according to statistics from the Executive Secretariat of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, which also confirm that 3.5 acres are exposed to desertification every hour, which is considered extremely dangerous, especially since the agricultural area is limited and represents only about 4% of Egypt’s area.

  • Land quality is affected, agricultural production deteriorates, and food security is affected

  Studies used for different climate scenarios confirm the impact of agricultural production on the African continent, including Egypt, and that rising temperatures and changing rainfall patterns will affect the productivity of agricultural crops and livestock, leading to increased rates of poverty and risks and losses in livelihoods (according to the report Fifth Synthesis 2014 Chapter 12 Human Security – Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). Table (1) shows the extent to which some agricultural crops in Egypt will be affected if the temperature rises between 1.5 degrees Celsius and 3.5 degrees Celsius.

  • Water resources are affected and water scarcity rates increase

  The Nile River is the main source of water; It provides about 95% of Egypt’s water needs, followed by seasonal rains that fall on the coasts of Egypt extending north and east, then groundwater, and the reuse of treated agricultural drainage water. There is still clear uncertainty in future climate predictions about the possibility of an increase or decrease in the Nile River’s flow. It is expected that the demand for water will increase with the increase in population in the Nile Basin countries, including the Arab Republic of Egypt. Therefore, adaptation measures must be adopted that are compatible with the uncertainty of the Nile River’s revenues in light of the effects of potential climate changes on water resources.

Table (1): Change in the productivity of the most important agricultural crops in Egypt related to its food security due to climate change.

Crops Change in crop productivity (%)
Temperature increased by 1.5 C Temperature increased by 3.5 C
Wheat -11 -27
Corn -40
Rice -26
Vegetables -28
Onions -1.53
Potato -11

Source: (National Reporting Report, March 2016, Egypt/UNFCCC, p. 137).

  Therefore, the need has emerged to provide innovative solutions to support the food security file in Egypt, especially in light of the successive global crises and challenges, starting with the Corona pandemic and passing through the Russian-Ukrainian crisis, with the exacerbation of the risks of climate change, which have become a tangible reality, as the agricultural sector represents a basic pillar of the Egyptian national economy. Therefore, President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi paid great attention to the agricultural sector, as the sector enjoys unprecedented and continuous support from the government, because it contributes about 15% of the gross domestic product, and absorbs more than 25% of the workforce in Egypt, in addition to the tangible contribution to maximizing reserves. Foreign exchange through increasing agricultural exports.

     The objectives of the strategy for the future were to achieve Egyptian food security

  • Preserving economic resources
  • Creating comprehensive and inclusive development
  • Adaptation to climate change, with the aim of preserving, maintaining, improving and developing the available agricultural economic resources
  • Reducing the import gap
  • Achieving balanced and sustainable development
  • Providing more job opportunities, especially for women and youth, and establishing new and integrated agricultural communities
  • Strengthening the competitiveness of agricultural products in local and international markets.

   The first actual steps towards this were the government’s adoption of innovation and technology programs in the field of agriculture through:

  • Deepening the role of applied research in the field of developing short-lived varieties that are tolerant to climate stresses
  • Benefiting from artificial intelligence and climate-smart agriculture programs
  • Expanding modern agricultural mechanization, digital applications and early warning systems, increasing the flexibility and strengthening of the agricultural sector in marginal and climate-fragile areas.
  • Launching initiatives to encourage the transition to modern irrigation systems, especially in light of the limited water resources as one of the challenges facing the agricultural sector in Egypt.

  The Egyptian government’s efforts also focused on the issue of food security, through:

  • The Ministry of Agriculture, in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), launched the Food and Agriculture Initiative for Sustainable Transformation (FAST) during the COP 27 climate conference on the sidelines of Adaptation and Agriculture Day on November 12, 2022, in which the US Secretary of Agriculture and the Minister of Climate Change and Environment of the United Arab Emirates and a large number of distinguished ministers of agriculture and environment around the world, which aimed to stimulate the mobilization of funding for agricultural adaptation and innovation programmers. The reality indicates the inability of developing countries and emerging economies to finance these programs from their budgets.
  • A strategy to achieve food security through 6 axes:
  • Horizontal expansion by adding new lands in light of available resources
  • Vertical expansion through developing high-yielding varieties, applying modern agricultural practices, and expanding protected crop
  • Increasing the competitiveness of agricultural exports and strengthening plant and animal health
  • Supporting the agricultural sector by increasing investments directed to it
  • Supporting livestock, poultry and fish production activities
  • Changing consumption patterns as one of the mechanisms to reduce pressure on resources.
  • The state will adopt national programs to reclaim the desert within the framework of strengthening the food security file and in support of Egypt’s pioneering role in adopting initiatives and projects to adapt to climate change and combat the neutralization and degradation of desert lands.
  • Activating the national program for the production of vegetable crop seeds by developing and registering 26 new hybrids and varieties of vegetable crops for commercial trading in the Egyptian market for 10 crops, “tomatoes – eggplant – peppers – cantaloupe – watermelon – peas – cowpeas – beans – cucumbers – zucchini,” which It leads to reducing the import bill and reducing the cost of seeds, as well as cooperation with seed production companies in foreign countries to partner in producing seeds of distinct varieties of hybrid vegetable crops in Egypt.
  • Establishing 332 centers for combined agricultural services: It is targeted to establish 332 centers for combined agricultural services in the governorates (20 governorates with 52 centers) within the Decent Life Initiative, at a cost of more than 2 billion pounds, including 996 between a veterinary unit, an extension center, agricultural associations, and dairy collection centers. Include all needs of veterinary services and genetic improvement in these centers.
  • Expanding the provision of approved seeds for strategic crops, through:
  • Developing varieties and hybrids of short-lived crops that are highly productive, early maturing, resistant to biological and environmental stresses, and water-saving for strategic crops “wheat – corn – rice – cotton – fava beans.”
  • Preparing and publishing the class map that suits the conditions of the agricultural areas in terms of the nature of the soil, climatic conditions, and water needs, and increasing the coverage rate of approved seeds for the strategic crops “wheat and corn.”
  • Implementing about 320 agricultural projects at a cost exceeding 42 billion pounds in the areas of supporting agricultural development and small farmers, with a focus on horizontal agricultural expansion projects.
    • Background of Egyptian institutional construction towards climate change

   Egypt has taken many steps towards institutional building towards climate change, which can be summarized as follows (ABOELNAGA, TÓTH, & NESZMÉLYI, 2019; Daoud, 2021; Elhegazy et al., 2023; Froehlich & Al-Saidi, 2017):

  • Egypt is one of the first Arab countries to deal with the phenomenon of climate change, as it signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1992, and ratified it in 1994.
  • Establishment of the Climate Change Unit at the Environmental Affairs Agency in 1996.
  • The National Committee on Climate Change was formed in 1997.
  • Egypt signed the Kyoto Protocol in 1999, and ratified it in 2005.
  • Establishing the National Committee for the Clean Development Mechanism, which includes the Council and the Egyptian Office for the Clean Development Mechanism, headed by the Minister of State for Environmental Affairs in 2005?
  • Restructuring the National Committee for Climate Change, headed by the Minister of State for Environmental Affairs, by Prime Minister’s Decision No. 272 of 2007.
  • Transforming the Climate Change Unit into a central administration in 2009.
    • The Egyptian legislative and regulatory system towards climate change
      • Regulatory system
  1. Organizational Profile:

    Egypt sought an institutional plan to establish entities to confront climate change and its development, and before that, the establishment of the Environmental Affairs Agency as follows:

   Since the establishment of the Environmental Affairs Agency by Presidential Decree No. 631 of 1982 and then its re-establishment under the presidency of the Council of Ministers pursuant to Law No. 4 of 1994 regarding environmental protection, the Agency has become the national authority competent to support environmental relations between the Arab Republic of Egypt and international and regional countries and organizations, and it is recommended that measures be taken. The legal requirements necessary to join international and regional agreements related to the environment. Which prepares draft laws and decisions necessary to implement these agreements and has become specialized in following up on the implementation of these international and regional agreements related to the environment (Hafez:, 2008).

  The following is a list of those entities referred to, and the chronological date of their issuance as follow[1]:

  • The National Council for Climate Change was formed by Prime Minister’s Decision No. 1912 of 2015.
  • Prime Minister’s Decision No. 1129 of 2019, considering that the National Council for Climate Change, established pursuant to Prime Minister’s Decision No. 1912 of 2015, is the national body concerned with the climate change file.
  • The Sovereign Fund for Investment and Development of Egypt was established by Law No. 177 of 2018, and some provisions of Law No. 177 of 2017 were amended to establish the Egypt Fund (the Sovereign Fund of Egypt for Investment and Development) by Law No. 197 of 2020.

  The establishment of the Sovereign Fund of Egypt came as one of the mechanisms to enhance partnership with the private sector, which represents the investment arm of the government, explaining that the Sovereign Fund of Egypt was established in 2018 within the framework of the Egyptian state’s plan to achieve sustainable development, Egypt Vision 2030, and the Sovereign Fund of Egypt targets sectors with high growth. Sustainable development and sectors that serve Egypt’s future economy, and sets an investment strategy based on the government’s vision and short, medium, and long-term needs. The Sovereign Fund has invested in many projects in the field of climate change that support the state’s move to transition to green projects. The Fund has established projects including: a green hydrogen and ammonia production project, in partnership with a number of specialized international companies, and water desalination projects[2].

  1. Organizational Obstacle:

   From an operational standpoint, it may lead to overlap and multiplicity of competent authorities, legislation, and institutions, including the Environmental Protection Fund established in accordance with the provisions of Article No. (14) Of Environment Law No. 4 of 1994 and its amendments, and the aforementioned Sovereign Fund established in 2018.

  1. Organizational Proposal:

    In order to avoid conflict, the Environmental Protection Fund established in accordance with the provisions of Article No. (14) Of Environment Law No. 4 of 1994 and its amendments shall be separated from the aforementioned Sovereign Fund established in 2018, to prevent duplication and institutional overlap between them. There is a regulatory proposal for unification and institutional coordination under the legal supervision and one competent authority through two methods: The first: Amending an article in the law by replacing and establishing a special fund to confront climate change under the name, for example, (Climate Neutrality Fund) as a direct point of contact at the national level to activate financing mechanisms, grants, and technical and technical assistance from Before the Green Climate Fund at the international and regional levels. Or the second method: amending an article in the law to add and operate a “National Fund for Environment and Climate” with high technical specifications and transparency to increase the ability to attract and manage financing for environmental and climate change activities and achieve sustainable development goals for Egypt. It undertakes the tasks of attracting funds, considering funding requests, evaluating requests, setting priorities for support in accordance with the established strategies in general, and the climate change strategy in particular, coordinating support, and monitoring implementation, in cooperation with other competent official bodies, while setting rules of transparency and accountability for the Fund’s work in light of amending the provisions of Environmental law.

  • Legislative System
  1. Legislative Profile

  Egypt has introduced many provisions and concepts within direct and indirect environmental protection legislation or those with environmental significance, whether by addition, amendment or deletion, to confront crimes against the environment in general and the climate in particular, most notably Environmental Law No. 4 of 1994 and its successive amendments by Law No. 9 of 2009, and Law No. 105 of 2015, and a draft law is currently being prepared to amend some provisions of the applicable environmental law to introduce some additions appropriate to the environmental and living climate reality, confront environmental crimes and climate change, and keep pace with the provisions of international agreements on the environment, sustainable development and climate change.

  1. Legislative Obstacles
  • The texts of the Environmental Law and its amendments were dominated by interest in reducing environmental pollution in general and air pollution in particular (mitigating the causes of the effects of climate change), and its interest, to a certain extent, in reducing this pollution. However, the provisions of the law lack explicit texts regulating the issue of adaptation to climate change, and their limited contribution to causing environmental pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, in light of modern comparative legislation (Nachmany et al., 2015), especially industrial ones, and adaptation remains one of the most important axes that must be worked on regulatory and legislatively. In addition to developing stimulating legislative policies that contribute to mitigating and reducing the causes of the phenomenon of climate change, in addition to the shortcomings of the law with regard to providing and monitoring financial allocations for efforts to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to these negative effects of the phenomenon of climate change, as well as designing a clearly defined institutional framework with tasks, powers and responsibilities. Specific (as a central body) for coordination between multiple jurisdictions.
  • The weakness legislative policies stimulating investment in land public transport, despite its importance in reducing greenhouse gas emissions to further activate the sustainable transport system.
  • The weakness of most of the environmentally relevant legislation in force regarding encouraging national initiatives to adapt to climate change, mitigate emissions, and involve all sectors of society, including the poor, vulnerable, and marginalized groups (Hafez, 2021).
  1. Legislative Proposal

  There are three scenarios for drafting contemporary legislation to confront the risks of climate change that ensure climate neutrality:

  • Issuing a special climate change law that includes all the previously mentioned aspects.
  • Amending the main regular laws referred to previously to accommodate new rules regarding mitigating the effects of climate change and adapting to these effects. These amendments can be collected through a single law/law decree that indicates the amendment of specific articles in each law.
  • Amending the current environmental law, and completing work on secondary legislation that has not yet been issued in the package of applicable laws, including standards and limits for the percentage of emissions as stated in the environmental law, while introducing modifications to them to indicate emissions related to climate change, and assigning each concerned authorities to work within The scope of its jurisdiction, in addition to drafting new secondary legislation as required by the proposed amendment to the Environmental Law to detail the general provisions introduced therein from technical aspects.

The advantages and disadvantages of each method are:

   The first method is considered the most appropriate in terms of the comprehensiveness of the regulation, its accuracy, and the clarity of its path, considering that the provisions of private law transcend the provisions of public law, and precede it in application. But this method is considered to be a laborious and expensive matter as well. The process of preparing it will require a relatively long time, as it requires discussing its topics with all relevant parties before issuing it, in addition to the importance of finding appropriate policies to ensure its application and enforcement, in addition to testing its various effects, including its financial and social costs. The second method responds to the concerns raised by the first method, but it is flawed by the multiplicity of amendments that will affect different laws, and most importantly, the difficulty of comprehending, from a technical standpoint, the proposed institutional structure. The institutional framework is the same for all, so which law will be integrated. The third and final method responds to the concerns referred to in the first and second methods, but does not achieve all the positives that can be achieved through the first method. It has become clear to us that the environmental law regulates the stage of reducing the effects of environmental pollution in a reasonable manner (which includes climate change, albeit indirectly) and refers to international agreements in what is not stipulated in it, which means that the expected amendment will complete the aspects that the current environmental law overlooked. With regard to the issue of mitigating the effects of climate change, it will focus in particular on issues of adaptation and identifying opportunities, in addition to integrating the institutional framework agreed upon with the various stakeholders, with a statement of its powers, responsibilities, and coordination mechanisms with other parties, or leaving these procedural issues to special regulations and instructions, and what follows. This stipulates the establishment of a special fund for the environment and climate change and clarifies its basic provisions from the administrative, financial, supervisory, governance and accountability aspects, or leaving the determination of these and other issues to a special law issued later, as well as enhancing awareness, training and scientific research. Therefore, the amendment is limited to limited additions, but they meet the purpose of the amendment, and through them all competent authorities are granted the authority to prepare regulations and instructions for the general provisions that will be included in the amendments[3].

   Since the environmental law is one of the closest laws applicable to the phenomenon of climate change, and it itself indicates cooperation and coordination with many competent authorities, it can be said that the third method may be the most appropriate currently for Egypt. After the amendments enter into force within a certain period, and once the technical, human and material capabilities are built, a new environmental law can be enacted that includes climate change issues from various aspects, which makes its enforcement easily accessible, given the accumulated expertise and experience of the institutions responsible for implementing the law, as well as individuals those who are addressed by its provisions. Another advantage of this option is that it will benefit from the set of general provisions contained in the Environmental Law and the special provisions for the air environment, environmental impact assessment, environmental approval, oversight and inspection, the powers granted in this field, the system of criminal and civil liability, and the administrative powers that the law has granted to some entities in dealing with environmental crime, as well as referral to international agreements and their provisions

The following is a summary of the legislative proposal in points:

  • Developing a legal concept for climate neutrality and its quality indicators in line with quality of life indicators.
  • Reviewing the legislative system in light of a comparative study of contemporary climate neutrality legislation to ensure climate justice in accordance with the concepts and provisions of international agreements and the Egyptian environmental reality to ensure environmental and climate security.
  • Applying the principle of legislative gradualism in eliminating the causes of climate change, its negative effects, and future risks[4].

  • Evaluating Egyptian Political and Legislative Efforts in Light of Food Security and Climate Change

   Egyptian political and legislative efforts in the context of food security have demonstrated a commendable level of awareness and commitment towards addressing the challenges posed by climate change. These efforts have led to the development of various policies and initiatives aimed at ensuring food security, which can be further evaluated based on their effectiveness, scope, adaptability, and potential areas for improvement (Makwata, 2022).

   One of the key strengths of these efforts is the recognition that climate change has a significant impact on agricultural productivity and food security. This understanding has guided the Egyptian government in creating policies and strategies that focus on sustainable agriculture, water management, and renewable energy, all of which contribute to mitigating the effects of climate change on food production (Saqr & Mattheisen, 2018).

   Some of the notable initiatives undertaken by the Egyptian government include the National Food Security Strategy (NFSS) and the Sustainable Agriculture Development Strategy (SADS) (Adeyeye, Ashaolu, Bolaji, Abegunde, & Omoyajowo, 2023). These strategies aim to increase agricultural productivity, improve resource management, and enhance the resilience of the agricultural sector to climate change. Additionally, the government has invested in infrastructure development, such as irrigation systems and storage facilities, to ensure a stable food supply. However, there are areas where the Egyptian efforts could be improved to enhance their effectiveness in achieving food security goals. One of the challenges is the limited implementation and enforcement of some policies and legislation, which may hinder their overall impact. To address this issue, the government should focus on strengthening governance and ensuring better coordination between various stakeholders, including government agencies, private sector entities, and civil society organizations (Ghoneim, 2015; Outhman & Omran, 2023) .

   Moreover, while Egypt has made progress in addressing climate change and food security, the scope of its efforts could be expanded to include more comprehensive and long-term solutions. For instance, investing in research and development of climate-resilient agricultural practices, exploring alternative food sources, and promoting regional cooperation could contribute to a more robust and sustainable food security strategy (Abou Ziyan, 2019). In addition to the aforementioned areas for improvement, it is crucial to consider the importance of public awareness and education in achieving food security (El Araby, 2019). Raising awareness about climate change and its impact on food security, as well as promoting sustainable agricultural practices among the general population, can contribute significantly to the success of government initiatives.

  Furthermore, fostering partnerships and collaborations with international organizations, research institutions, and other countries can help Egypt access cutting-edge technologies, knowledge, and expertise in the field of food security and climate change. By doing so, Egypt can enhance its existing policies and strategies, adapt to the evolving challenges posed by climate change, and contribute to global efforts aimed at ensuring food security for all (Lasheen, 2022; Mohamed, 2018).

  • Economic Effect of Egyptian Political and Legislative Efforts in Light of Food Security and Climate Change

    From the previous presentation, it can be said that Egypt’s real efforts towards the issue of food security and the damage it causes due to climate changes began in the years following 2015. The effectiveness of these efforts can be measured by tracking the impact of climate changes on crop productivity and comparing them to the expected results in Table (1). The research will limit itself to measuring two main crops (wheat and rice) during the period 2016-2023:

   Table 2 summarizes Egypt’s production and import of wheat and rice, Egypt’s production of wheat and rice during the period 2016-2023:

Table (2): Egypt’s production and import of wheat and rice, Egypt’s production of wheat and rice during the period 2016-2023





Wheat Rice

(Million Ton)


(Million Ton)


(Million Ton)


(Million Ton)

2016 9.58 12.7 3.92 3.5
2017 8.48 12 3.79 3.8
2018 8.48 11.5 3.64 4
2019 8.49 12.5 3.68 4
2020 9.79 12.9 3.77 4.2
2021 9.84 11.1 4.02 4
2022 9.8 9.02 4.3 6
2023 10 10.8 4.46 6.5

Source: (Egyptian Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, Economic Affairs Sector, Agricultural Yield Statistics, Different Issues).

 The previous table indicates Egypt’s improvement in the productivity of wheat and rice crops as an impact of Egyptian efforts to confront climate change and its impact on food security. However, it cannot be said that it is effective to the extent of self-sufficiency in these two crops given what the table indicates of an increase in imports of the two crops throughout this period.

  1. Discussion

    Achieving food security in Egypt, particularly in the context of climate change, presents both obstacles and opportunities. To effectively address these challenges, it is essential to understand the various factors that influence food security and the potential solutions that can be implemented.

  • Obstacles
  1. Climate change: Unpredictable weather patterns, rising temperatures, and water scarcity due to climate change pose significant challenges to Egyptian agriculture. These factors can lead to reduced crop yields and negatively impact the overall food supply (Garcia & Rosenberg, 2010).
  2. Limited arable land: Egypt has a relatively small amount of arable land, which makes it difficult to increase agricultural productivity to meet the growing population’s food demands. This limitation can hinder efforts to achieve food security (ElKhouly, Fonda, & El-Ghitany, 2022).
  3. Inefficient water management: Egypt’s heavy reliance on the Nile River for irrigation makes it vulnerable to water scarcity, particularly during droughts. Inefficient water management can lead to decreased agricultural productivity and negatively impact food security (Misra, 2014).
  4. Limited technological advancements: Egypt’s agricultural sector could benefit from more advanced technologies and practices to improve productivity, reduce waste, and adapt to climate change. However, limited resources and infrastructure may hinder the adoption of these technologies (Thyen & Karadag, 2021).
  5. Insufficient investment: Achieving food security requires significant investment in infrastructure, research, and development. Egypt may face challenges in securing the necessary funding to implement its food security strategies effectively (Yigezu et al., 2021).
    • Opportunities
  6. Renewable energy: Egypt has vast potential for renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power. Harnessing these resources can contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, mitigating climate change, and providing sustainable energy for agricultural practices (Chen, Abdelhalim, Liu, Rico-Ramirez, & Han, 2021).
  7. Sustainable agriculture: Adopting sustainable agricultural practices, such as conservation agriculture, agroforestry, and precision farming, can help increase productivity, reduce environmental impacts, and enhance the resilience of the agricultural sector to climate change (Tondel, D’Alessandro, & Dekeyser, 2022).
  8. Water management improvements: Implementing water-saving technologies, such as drip irrigation systems and rainwater harvesting, can help Egypt optimize its water usage in agriculture and improve overall food security (Zhuang et al., 2022).
  9. International cooperation: Egypt can collaborate with other countries, international organizations, and research institutions to access advanced technologies, knowledge, and expertise in the field of food security and climate change. This cooperation can help Egypt adapt to the evolving challenges posed by climate change and contribute to global efforts aimed at ensuring food security for all (Abouaiana & Battisti, 2022) .
  10. Conclusion

   Addressing the pressing issue of climate change and its significant impact on food security, particularly in Egypt, necessitates a comprehensive and collaborative approach. This is because climate change poses numerous challenges to the country, including rising temperatures, shifting precipitation patterns, and an increase in extreme weather events, all of which affect agricultural productivity and livelihoods. Egypt’s food security is at risk due to these factors, and it is crucial to understand the interconnected aspects of security and adopt appropriate policies and strategies to minimize the adverse impacts.

   Several studies have highlighted the importance of regional cooperation in tackling global challenges posed by climate change. By working together, countries can share knowledge, resources, and best practices to develop effective solutions. Moreover, understanding the interconnected aspects of security, such as environmental, energy, and food security, can help in designing comprehensive strategies that address multiple challenges simultaneously.

   The literature review also underscores the significance of adopting appropriate policies and strategies to combat climate change and its effects on food security. Governments worldwide have implemented various measures, including promoting sustainable agricultural practices, enhancing food production, and safeguarding the nation’s food security. These initiatives often involve a combination of regulatory frameworks, financial incentives, and public awareness campaigns.

   Egypt has taken significant steps to address the challenges posed by climate change through legislation and policy frameworks. The country has established various entities and regulatory bodies to tackle climate change and promote sustainable development. These institutions work towards promoting renewable energy, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and enhancing the resilience of vulnerable communities.

   However, the analytical study also reveals some organizational obstacles in Egypt’s institutional construction and legislative system towards climate change. There is a need to address overlapping responsibilities among different entities and ensure effective institutional coordination under the legal supervision. This can be achieved by streamlining the decision-making process, clarifying roles and responsibilities, and fostering collaboration among relevant stakeholders.

  To ensure food security in the face of climate change, Egypt can learn from the experiences of other countries and continuously improve its legislative and policy frameworks. This may involve conducting regular assessments of the effectiveness of existing policies, incorporating feedback from stakeholders, and adapting strategies to changing circumstances. By doing so, the country can work towards ensuring food security for its population and contributing to global efforts in overcoming climate change-related challenges.

  Moreover, investing in research and development can help Egypt identify innovative solutions to address climate change and its impact on food security. This may include developing climate-resilient crop varieties, improving irrigation techniques, and exploring alternative sources of water for agriculture. Collaborating with international research institutions and organizations can also facilitate the exchange of knowledge and expertise.

  Public awareness and education play a crucial role in promoting behavioral changes that contribute to climate change mitigation and adaptation. The Egyptian government can launch public awareness campaigns to educate people about the importance of sustainable practices, such as reducing water and energy consumption, adopting eco-friendly transportation methods, and minimizing waste generation.

   Furthermore, empowering local communities and smallholder farmers can help in building resilience against climate change and ensuring food security. This can be achieved by providing them with access to appropriate technology, financial resources, and market opportunities. Capacity building initiatives, such as training programs and extension services, can also enhance their skills and knowledge in adopting sustainable agricultural practices.

   In conclusion, addressing climate change and its impact on food security in Egypt requires a multifaceted and collaborative approach. This involves understanding the interconnected aspects of security, adopting appropriate policies and strategies, and ensuring effective institutional coordination. By learning from the experiences of other countries, continuously improving legislative and policy frameworks, and fostering collaboration among various stakeholders, Egypt can work towards ensuring food security for its population and contributing to global efforts in overcoming climate change-related challenges. The increase in crops ,specially, wheat and rice production in Egypt can be attributed to the country’s efforts to combat climate change and its effects on food security. But, considering that the data shows that imports of the two crops have increased throughout this time, it is impossible to conclude that it is successful to the point of self-sufficiency in these two crops.


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