Research studies

Psychoanalysis Theory

 

Prepared by the researcher  : 

Dr Abd  Elhamid El-nafissi – specialized in in culture, literature and media

PhD student.  AFAF EL MAHDI  – specialized in in culture, literature and media

Democratic Arab Center

Journal of Afro-Asian Studies : Tenth Issue – August 2021

A Periodical International Journal published by the “Democratic Arab Center” Germany – Berlin

Nationales ISSN-Zentrum für Deutschland
ISSN  2628-6475
Journal of Afro-Asian Studies

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Abstract

This article is an investigation of Freudian phenomenon psychoanalysis theory. The article provides definitions of some important Freudian terms like consciousness, drive repression and others. In addition, it explains the fundamental points of psychoanalysis like the characteristics, the definition and the notion of the subject from a Freudian point of view. It is an explanative article to psychoanalysis theory.

Introduction

Psychoanalysis is a science which is mentioned in the nineteen centuries by Sigmund Freud and other practitioners.  Psychoanalysis is an umbrella term that carries many dependent and independent terms that all meet in the points of the diagnosis and the curing of a patient and in the reinterpreting of the social and cultural characteristics of societies and people. The following chapter elaborates and explains the basics of psychoanalysis theory. This article would answer the following questions: What is psychoanalysis? Who is its founder? How it does develop? What does it mean psychanalysis theory? What does Freud mean by unconsciousness?  What are the defence mechanism? What are the themes and principles of classical psychoanalysis? And what are the ethics of psychoanalysis?

The Beginning of Psychoanalysis

The nineteen century is an age of discovery and enlightenment; it is when the first birth of psychoanalysis and other disciplines like psychology and sociology. As a first appearance of a medical science like psychoanalysis, it very quickly spreads in clinical and academic spheres[1].  For instance, psychoanalysis is considered a paramount medical curing during the nineteen centuries basically with the shell-shocked patients during both the World War I and II. Moreover, it is taught at the universities as a science of diagnosis, it diagnoses mental utterances and people behavior and interactions as the unconscious impulses[2].

There is such an interesting feature of psychoanalysis which is the reflexivity of human beings. To begin with, it refers to the method that through which a man or woman can get meaning of what others say and interpreting their own actions; therefore, humans are seen as meaning making machines[3]. Besides, the reflexivity of human beings also means that the psychological theories that are culturally based, they do not only describe what people look like but it also produces people in their own image[4].

Freud’s Life and the Schools of Psychanalysis

The following paragraph would explain the life of Sigmund Freud and the development of psychoanalysis. To start with, Freud is considered by time the founder of psychoanalysis and the theory too. Freud first believes in this science by many of his teachers and scholars of his time since they are the ones who pave the way to psychoanalysis as a science. Freud is well-educated in humanities and classical literature which support him in the learning of psychoanalysis[5].  As far as his personal life is concerned, Freud is originally a Jews from Europe; he gets his emancipation even though he suffers from anti-Semitism. Freud later on with all his studies and academic career, he becomes able to see the foibles of his society better than those who are within it[6].

Freud is the one who states that there is a mental status of human mind that is the unconscious. Freud brings to the medical and academic field a new subject of analysis that is the unconscious; he is the first one who reveals the real definition and nature of unconscious and later on to psychoanalysis in general[7]. To define the unconscious is “the unconscious, first and foremost, is a term applied to the tendency of unacknowledged wishes to break through into consciousness through indirect mean”[8], so the unconsciousness is all the messages that concerned a man or a woman and they wish to fulfill.

There are schools of psychoanalysis that are well-known from years ago. The following map sums up all the schools.

Figure 5- Schools in psychoanalysis

 Source: This map shows us the schools of psychoanalysis and it is taken from the book of Frosh Stephan A Brief Introduction to Psychoanalytic Theory.

The Unconsciousness

Freud coined psychoanalysis and basically unconsciousness. To begin with, Freud would like to prove himself as an intellectual and cultural figure and he has an inclination to philosophy and psychology as sciences[9]. Besides, psychoanalysis is a stream of psychology, focusing on creating its own vision and attitudes of the world; ultimately, psychoanalysis is created to explain certain trauma caused by internal and external factors[10].

            There are some special terms of Freud like sex and dreams in addition to Oedipus complex and unconscious.  For example, the unconscious is a phenomenon comes from the clinical work of Freud[11]. Freud confirms that they are three ways of saying parole: “1-the conscious, which means they are in awareness, 2- preconscious, which indicates that they are not conscious but are nevertheless available for thinking, should the person concerned need them, 3- Unconscious, which means they are repressed and inaccessible[12]”.

            The unconscious of Freud has its own characteristics like it is a dynamic system. To start with, a dynamic system is perceived as a set of psychological forces that are responsible of repression[13].  This feature of the unconscious as a dynamic system leads to a science called psychodynamic; it is a major of theories and therapies that are basically based on the idea of dynamic system[14].  Freud explains the difference by the conscious and the unconscious ideas by stating that “the former comprises the presentation of the thing plus the presentation of the world belonging to it, while the unconscious presentation is the presentation of the thing alone[15]”.

The Foundation of Psychoanalysis

There were events and medical cases that push forward Freud to create what is called today and famous psychoanalysis. In 1886, Freud began a new adventure at Berg Strasse 19, it was a central point in his life since he shifted all his interest from neuroanatomy to the detailed clinical observation of mental functioning. The first book of Sigmund Freud is On Aphasia: A Critical Study, published in 1891 and it was dedicated to Josef Breuer, then Freud was perceived as a psychological contribution to these conditions. Freud was facing problems concerning patients for whom no organic treatment is possible and seeing the impotence of the current treatment. When Freud got into struggling with the suitable curing to assist his hysterical patients, he used the then-current technique of trying to clear away symptoms employing hypnotic proposition. Unfortunately, Freud lost the challenge at hypnosis and became intellectually unsatisfied with the approach. Freud was encouraged by his best friend Breuer ‘s depiction of the case of Anna O, which all contributed to a great change in Freud live is the discovery of ideas are the core of psychoanalysis[16].

            The core of psychoanalysis from ideas, principles, aims and themes would be concluded in the following paragraphs. The case of hysteria that Freud worked on led him to deduce the first basis of psychoanalysis; for instance, the patient Jones who would like to be a famous social worker, got sick by a mental state and had many somantic complaints. She supposed to have two clear states of consciousness, one seems normal and the other is of a naughty child, she shifted between the two through autohypnosis and through which she would awake in a normal state. She would like to link her worries and her hallucinations to Breuer who was shocked once he saw that her symptoms determined once they get together. Breuer devoted most of his time treating and curing her until she assumed a hysterical pregnancy which pushed him to flee and to publish her case himself. Freud after the hearing of Breuer case, he concluded that whatever are the causes of hysteria, the symptoms themselves are both treated and abolished by using ideas alone[17].

            Freud had explained well that there is a connection between the ideas of inner psychic conflict and hysteria. He clarifies that inner psychic conflict is much enough to cause hysteria, he even asserted on the importance of sexuality as the feasible causes of nervous disorders and of sexual seduction in general and the reasons of neuroses which Breuer talked about and was uncomfortable about. Freud and Breuer disagreed on certain points that each of them viewed things according to his principles; for instance, Breuer believed that hysterical symptoms could appeared in a hypnoid state, proposing that the division of the mind was due to pathological brain function rather than as Freud explained due to psychological conflict. Besides, Freud and Breuer published a collaboration in 1893 called On the Psychical Mechanisms of Hysterical Phenomenon: Preliminary Communication after they released a book called Studies on Hysteria in 1895; yet, it was the last collaboration between the two since Freud no longer wanted to work on hypnoid states and would like to focus on sexuality[18].

            Freud had caused all these neurotic symptoms to sexuality and the sexual nature of the patient. He once wrote “I was not prepared for this conclusion and my expectations played no part in it, for I had begun my investigation of neurotics quite unsuspectingly”[19]. Even though, there was some doubt and questions about what Freud had reached from conclusions that the symptoms of neurasthenia as well as those of hysteria were caused by sexual disturbance and such illnesses were consequences of heredity in the nervous system. For example, Freud concluded from his patients talk that childhood seduction is the source of sexual disturbance, he also declared that the patient verbal productions had meaning and that the psychic as well as physical life pursued the principles of determinism. [20]

            Freud and Breuer worked together on certain treatment and curing sides that were enough effective in the curing of patients. For instance, in the case of Elizabeth von R, Freud had turned to the cathartic technique, the treatment is done in 1892 and became popular in 1895, it was identified by Freud as the first- full length analysis of hysteria. Freud explained his method by “clearing away the pathogenic psychical material layer by layer, and we liked to compare it with the technique of excavating a buried city”[21], Freud reminds the Bernheim school technique and how had shown that people would recall what had happened to them during a somnambulist state and he employed the pressure technique , pressing on his hand on the patients ‘s forehead to get memories but it was a tiresome procedure to Freud and the patient but later on Freud developed himself and used the same procedure of pressure technique which led Freud to notice resistance from a patient and becomes an essential element in psychoanalysis[22].

Psychoanalysis Theory

Psychoanalysis is a science that could deal with the human being and as well as with a social or a cultural phenomenon, all the social and cultural phenomenon are caused by a man or a woman due to a drive, this drive has many interpretations according to Freud so what does drive mean according to Freud?

Drive is explained by Freud differently and unique and the drive for Freud is two types. To start with, drive is a psychological concept basically employed by Freud and those who come after him, Freud defines the drive as “it is a concept on the frontier between the mental and the somatic”[23], the drive is that instinct which urges someone to do what the unconscious tells him or her to do, not in respect to the laws but in satisfying the desire. Besides, the drive is an actual impulse or call to do something under the pressure of the unconscious, such as there are some cases in which people are not controlling themselves so they lose all the control over things; ultimately, Freud has a second name to the drive is the experience of being compelled to do something[24].

As stated before, there are two types of the drive that are the sexual drive and the other drive as Freud says. To begin with, sexual drive or sexuality is a concept that sets up the theory of Freud; sexuality is pleasure and the sense of reaching the highest self-satisfaction. For psychoanalysis, it serves the sexual desires of man and woman not the reproduction[25]. The second drive is called the other drive, it is a strong drive that destructs the individual like hunger and thirst and these are classified by psychoanalysts as the ego-preservative drives. Freud mentions a third drive that is the death drive and he gives proofs of its existence and what is death drive? Death drive is a strange and powerful power that destroys whatever does not go with a human’s principle and mind such as the social conflicts[26].

Psychoanalysis conceives those humans become objects when they encounter their drive like sex, love, and food. To start with, this process gets in the thought of objectification in the sense that these people are derived from their humanity and their sense of existence. This idea of object relation is well-explained by Laplanche and Pontalis who write “as we know, a person is described as an object in so far as the instincts are directed towards him; there is nothing pejorative in this-no particular implication that the person concerned is in any sense not a subject[27]”, the object relation is a theory that studies how the object affects the subject and becomes stronger than it in the effect on the human’s mind.

The notion of a subject is discussed before by the post-structuralism and also by psychoanalysis.  To start with, the subject according to Lacan means that “the person is not in control of her or himself, but is rather a kind of alienated being at the mercy of certain kinds of internal and external forces[28]”, the subject or the person in fact is not someone who is out of the universal system but he or she is a part of the system when he or she follows the stream and becomes a docile body. Besides, the subject is a notion of meaning and actions and it is exposed to forces in the sense that they are outsider forces that work in a delusion of the subjects and Lacan names them by the big other of society[29].

Psychoanalysis is not just a medical science but it has other relations to other disciplines. To begin with, psychoanalysis works in the benefit of other social and cultural disciplines, it helps investigating and digging in the issue from a point that could say things differently; in fact, psychoanalysis contributes to understand social and cultural phenomena[30].

There are some psychoanalytic terms that proved their efficiency in the analysis of some social and cultural issues. To start with, the term repression is used in social analysis as a term that signifies the oppressed societies and how they repress their people desires. The second term is projection; it refers to the hatred of society that underlies in the unconscious of us and reveals out in the external behavior. The third term is identification; it stands for the identity that people enrolled in even though it is not theirs; such as diasporic identities which shows how much the other cultures impact on the people’s identities. The fourth concept is castration; it means in psychoanalysis the lack of achieving something, in social analysis means the lack of full filing the human’s desires. As a conclusion, psychoanalysis theory is an analysis of people’s thoughts, feelings, behaviours, desires, and memories.

Defence Mechanism

The socialization of human beings indirectly plays a certain role in controlling themselves from the outside factors as well as protecting themselves against the full force of their unconscious impulses.  The following paragraphs explains the mechanisms that psychoanalysis set up to do this.

            Many scientists in psychoanalysis have been defining defence which is a word that used a lot in the field of psychoanalysis in general. A defence is defined as the following “a defence is a mental action that blocks a perceived threat, this threat might come from outside, but commonly it is an internal threat”[31]. The defence works as a mechanism against all the refute actions; for instance, an idea or a wish or a traumatic memory is considered as a dangerous thing to the ego system in that occasion the defences react and operate. To explain this phenomenon from a psychological point of view, if someone is aware of the threat, meaning it is already got the alarm from the consciousness, on the other hand, if the threat is an unconscious idea to the person, it keeps the menace upon the person and once it is recognized the defence is activated against it and the reasoning too[32].

            Self-protection is one of the first defence mechanism that psychoanalysts talk about.  Self-protection is all the time works as a basic and automatic reaction of the organism, human threat. This kind of self-protection is carried by taken some evasive actions in order to evade any threat, even though there is a risk that a threat will have an attack before it can be escaped; hence, the best idea is to provide someone self with defences in order to protect itself. Once the defences are set up, should be permanent. These defences have advantages as well as disadvantages; for instance, one is always protected by the defences and the defences can play the role of destroying a potential aggressor, whereas, the disadvantages are the defences need to be arranged in good order which costs a lot of money and energy. In general, defences can preserve oneself and they can not solve conflicts[33].

            Defences are forms of unconscious psychological processes that prevent harming of unpleasant unconscious ideas in order not to leave much trace in in consciousness. The defences and the ego are partners since they both work to mobilize unconscious defences against the elements of the id and superego. Repression is considered one of the most noticeable and known of defences and it is psychologically determined as a broad term used to stop unconscious impulse from being achieved. The term repression stands for an entity which is the unconscious idea kept out of consciousness and to the process that preserves it[34].

            Freud focuses mostly on repression as a defensive mechanism and her daughter Anna Freud adds more ones as defensive mechanism. Regression is a defence that enables the individual to evade the facing something disturbing by protecting oneself or fixating upon the problem. Second defence is reaction-formation which stands for the reaction against an unconscious idea by doing its opposite; for instance, extreme politeness against envious hostility, and the example of risk taking against timidity and hyper anxiety. Third defence according to Anna Freud is denial, it is a kind of defence that explained by sociologists and social psychologists as process by which people refuse to see the implication of their actions, it is defined too as a way of refusing to permit an idea access to consciousness. Finally, sublimation is a defence that Freud recognized as an important defence because it is a basis for creativity, the aim of this defence is that the activities that seem sublime or super good are ways to fulfill the sexual desires, as a consequence, the energy from the drives is carried politely and slightly to bring the satisfaction to the person and also to move forward in culture[35].

            Defence and resistance are both terms connected with each other and they complete one another. Defence stands for the tools through which the mind unconsciously assures itself from the risk from within and without. On the other hand, resistance refers to the operation of defense inside the analytic situation. The proceedings of analysis involve a profound process for both analyst and patient; the patient’s inner world of imagination, emotions and Sufiism spotlights more on the figure of the analyst whereas the patient comes in contact with all the nostalgic memories of itself and the world around him or her. Resistance mirrors the methods by which patient and analyst arranged to evade the danger that could arise, defence and resistance are paramount in the job of interpretation since it makes a good contribution to result of analysis[36].

            These two concepts have a historical path and they complete each other. Defence and resistance both originate from the work of Freud, he mentioned them in 1894 in his paper Neuro-Psychoses of Defence, introducing the idea that the mind unconsciously divides itself when there is a risk like unacceptable ideas, experiences and feelings. Hence, the ego guards itself against any strange up normal things. Whether these ideas that repressed on the conscious side of the mind contribute to repression of incompatible ideas and begin to affect them, curing must be present to restore to the normal phase[37].

            Freud elaborates more the two concepts of his theory of psychoanalysis and they get much more importance in the field of psychology.  As far as Freud is concerned, defence is no more synonym of repression and it is seen as a mean to include all the techniques used to control conflict. Besides, Freud had shown the series of unconscious operations through which defences come into action; facing a natural desire that menaces the emergence of a danger situation, the ego generates signal anxiety,  a unite of unconscious impacts that mobilizes the defences obligatory to prevent the menacing elements, Freud calls these four danger situations by psychic helplessness, loss of the object, castration anxiety, and superego anxiety[38].

            The structural theory works with the operation of the three psychic agencies id, ego, and superego and the relation among them. The term of defence gets changed with the new alteration of psychology since defence no longer just mirrors the action of the ego against the banned impulse, but it contains joining of ego and impulse, a combination by which the ego won enough power to arrange the needs of the id and superego. Besides, resistance is no more synonyms with the activity of defence in the analytic situation, according to Freud, it exists five different kinds of resistance which the only three first have to do with ego; resistance due to repression, to the transference, and to the secondary gain from illness. Another origin of resistance is the sluggishness of libido which means the aversion to give up a previous method of satisfaction, a fifth and last resistance comes from the superego, in the shape of a persistence of unconscious guilt and the urgent need of punishment[39].

            Anna Freud follows the job of her father Sigmund Freud who explains and gives much information on the subject but Anna Freud adds more details to the issue and makes it clearer enough to most people. To start with, Anna Freud established the foundation of the investigation about the study of defenses and their development, she analyses and arranges the mechanisms of defenses available to the ego, identifying nine which are common to her father too; regression, repression, reaction formation, isolation, undoing, projection, interjection, turning against the self and reversal, and she adds another one the tenth one is sublimation that is seen as more normal than an ego function.  After Anna’s studies and observation of children in school and residential settings as well as child analysis, she comes to the conclusion that she puts defense and the experience of danger inside a development context. There are some defenses like sublimation and repression are available to the ego only with the formation of the tripartite mental structure whereas other defenses are features of earlier phases of ego development[40].

            Generally speaking, Anna Freud sees defences and resistance in way that looks like her father adding just more clarifications and little addition. Anna Freud considers defences as mechanisms, actions that come feasible to the ego basically over almost a relatively prolonged time of maturation. On the other hand, Melanie Klein and her followers, consider defenses as a symbolic representation or unconscious phantasies which are put to a particular careful use. They argued too that       from the first stances of life, the infant understands and shows all experiences in terms of its relationships with other outside things which is seen as the only way to see and to know the other world. Natural impulses are shaped as phantasies of what the self hopes to achieve. Defenses contains the conversion and manipulation of representations of self and objects; Klein initiated many defensive maneuvers which could best be seen from this angle. To protect the good representation from the bad representation of the self and object, there should be a split between the things so as to evade the dominance of the bad[41].

Themes and principles of Classical Psychoanalysis.

The theory of psychoanalysis centuries ago had been classical in the sense it is first interested in the most important things like; the ego, dreams, sexuality, and other subjects. Today especially in the United State of America there are many schools that become so famous about psychoanalyses and they both share some important points and they radically differ in other ones. Freud ideas were accepted by some and refuted by others because of saying that they are less useful and incompatible. The followings paragraphs would discuss the classical theory of psychoanalysis.

            Freud first ideas where centered around issues that were the main focus of research investigation for Freud and his followers. The interpretation of dreams is one of the famous points that Freud talked about and still today his analysis and interpretations from patients are used as major references in many cases. According to Freud almost all the dreams that happen to us are result of preceding mental events, dreams are neither chatter, nonsense, visitations from outside places or people, nor divinely inspired; yet, when they are studied and analysed it becomes clear to us that they are sense-making reflections of our everyday concerns. The term of overdetermination is used on psychoanalysis and it means the mental events like neurotic symptom, dream image, or parapraxis that are always caused by more than one antecedent mental cause. So, the two terms; psychic determination and overdetermination are major developed words in the interpretation of dreams[42].

            Another theme of classical psychoanalysis is talking about instinct and providing the characteristics of psychoanalysis. The article Three essay discusses the instinct and talks about mainly the sexual instinct or libido, it is a biological concept, a part of man’s and woman’s phylogenetic inheritance which during childhood experiences a genetically preprogrammed developmental of organizations.  Besides, Kohut who is the architect of self psychology suggested a third source of psychic energy, narcissism that went through daily phasic reorganization in parallel with libido. The Three Essays mentions also that the sexual deviations represent arrests or regressions of the new born developmental programme, which means that the sexual instinct can be analyzed into its source, aim, and objects, then each of these can be seen as developing independently of one another[43].

            Freud gives much importance to the role of anxiety and he provides enough data about the topic. Freud had revised his theories of instinct in 1920 and the model of mind in 1923, then he revised his theory of genesis anxiety and its main role in psychic conflict in his monograph 1926 The Problem of Anxiety. Freud explains the genesis of anxiety by the product of transformation of damned up sexual energy, in other terms, it is a product of sexual frustration. In 1926, Freud said other ideas about the topic is that an individual advanced anxiety in response to the perspective of a developing danger situation, named this by signal anxiety on the light of that the ego organized its defensive operations. The issue of the genesis and role of the anxiety had been a subject of discuss and disagreement among psychoanalytic scientists, most of scientists and schools adopted the vision of Freud that is anxiety is a motive of defense, the difference that Freud ‘s castration anxiety included both fear of genital mutilation in both sexes as well as fears of bodily injury[44].

            During the 1970 and till the present days, the classical perspective has disseminated till the mid of the twenty century. This expansion is due to two reasons; accretion from within and assimilation of findings and frameworks from other schools of psychoanalysis. The first classical psychoanalysis was extracted from biology and not from sociology, its vehicles of motivation were instincts not coming from people like a mother but they are taken from instincts like sex and aggression. Many classical analysts supported Freud’s vision of analysts as scientist’s surgeon working upon an objectified analysand, Freud was not seen as an equal partner in the enterprise, the analysand ‘s ideas were known, whereas these of the analyst were kept private for him. The classical psychoanalysis is recommended to use corrective emotional experience[45] .

            The ego is a concept and a phenomenon that takes much debate and discussion from Freud till the recent scientists. During the 1930s and 1940s, ego psychologists were the forerunner of the classical thought, they took their ideas from Freud ‘s knowledge and assumptions especially from Freud’s major works like; The Interpretation of Dreams, Three Essays on The Theory of Sexuality, Beyond the Pleasure Principle, The Ego and the Id, and The Problem of Anxiety. These scientists mainly focused on the majors of the ego of The Ego and the Id. For instance, the issue of the ego has been explained in various ways, Ann Freud studied the ego ‘s defensive devices stressed the threats to the mind coming from within, from the pressures and demands of the drives. The second psychologist is Hartmann who sees the ego as an organ of reasoning adaptation, Hartmann’s main focal point was about its inner workings and structure as well as on risk and other functions that are set for it[46].

            The relationship between the analyst and the patient or rather the analysand is rather more conservative and secret in the previous year whereas today it gets changed. The relationship between these two fundamental persons in the structural relationship created a mood of transference from limited relationship to real relationship. By the 1950s, many patients and analysands had perceptions about the analyst that were so forcefully supported by the residues of early experiences that almost all of what the analysand and the patients said and thought about the analyst might regarded as transference and unrealistic view about him or her. Freud wrote about the unobjectionable positive transference of analytic patient, he called it by unquestionable since it did not get inside the ongoing psychoanalytic process.  Another new vision of the patient and the analyst is that recently the new schools developed a new trend toward the reduction in the attribution of authority and privilege to analyst’s point of view compared to that of the patient, it is a trend that insisted on the collaboration and equality between the analyst and analysand; hence, in these days most of psychologists say that the analytic couple or pair than the patient and the doctor, it is in fact now an interchanging relation[47].

Psychoanalysis and Ethics

Psychoanalysis is a science that tries to show to the patient the wright and the wrong thing. Historically speaking, psychoanalysis has a long history of deep-seated ambivalence about ethics, ethics are defined according to psychoanalysis as right and wrong actions, good and bad character features and other cases. Ethics are not meaning the same as morality, they both mean different things; for instance, ethics affords arguments on behalf of basic regulating standards and decision-making methods, whereas morality is a more expressive concept standing for how people think and behave inside a cultural context. Freud ‘s interpreters presented that classical psychoanalysis theory contributed to the pointless of ethical vision and discourse because the genuine moral conduct is not permitted. Freud ‘s comprehending of morality is in terms of superego seemingly grasps an ethical relativism incompatible with any rational method of adaptation among other competing standards that ostensibly differ systematically with changing of child development, personality type, and sociocultural context[48].

            There is a contradiction between the anti-moral implications of classical psychoanalytic theory and the moral aspects of analytic practice which needs a serious analytic thinking. This is considered an important study because such a study would explain to us that how the moral aspects of psychoanalysis are not known for so long, the weakest point that was a strong point to other of the failure of Freud ‘s friends to find an adequate approach to ethics has served as a major energetic for many scientists like Alfred Adler and Erich Fromm who broke any rank with the classical tradition, in addition to Erik Erikson, Heinz Kohut, and Irwin Hoffman who reexamined psychoanalysis largely from within , partly in order to find an ethic in psychoanalysis[49].

            One of the fundamental ethics aspects in psychoanalysis is neutrality which is considered by many scientists as an essential element in talking about ethics in psychoanalysis. During the era of Hartmann, the concept of neutrality is given much more spotlight about both its meaning and its usefulness. The term is used in writing on technique for a desirable mental state containing a combination of decently conscientious and permissive attitudes and characters that are part of an analytic listening. The term neutrality is presented as a translation of Freud ‘s term indifferenz that comes from the Latin term neuter which means neither one nor the other. The term captures Freud ‘s attention that the analyst hears with smoothly suspend attention that Anna Freud featured in structural terms like taking up a mental position close to the demands of the id, ego, and superego. As far as Freud is concerned, to be neutral means that the aim of the listening is to benefit the patient by allowing the analyst to hear the full series of meanings in the patient’s communications with little distortion and interference from the analyst ‘s own opinions[50].

Conclusion

As a summary, this chapter is elaborating the basics definitions of psychoanalysis with the role that they have in relation to humans; in addition to, it represents the kinds of drive that Freud talked about and the names of phenomena about feelings and reaction of people in the light of psychoanalysis. Besides, the article tries to speak about main points in psychoanalysis theory like defence mechanism, themes and principles of classical psychoanalysis, and psychoanalysis and ethics.

REFERNCES

Frosh, Stephen. A Brief Introduction to Psychoanalytic Theory. First, vol. Two, UK, Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.

            Gabbard, Glen O., et al., editors. TEXTBOOK OF Psychoanalysis. Second, vol. one, United State of America, American Psychiatric Publishing, 2012.

[1] – Frosh, Stephen. A Brief Introduction to Psychoanalytic Theory. First, vol. Two, UK, Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. P, 3

[2] – Ibid. P,3.

[3]-Frosh, Stephen. A Brief Introduction to Psychoanalytic Theory. First, vol. Two, UK, Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. P, 4.

[4] – Ibid. P, 5.

[5] – Frosh, Stephen. A Brief Introduction to Psychoanalytic Theory. First, vol. Two, UK, Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. P, 17.

[6] – Ibid. P, 17.

[7] – Ibid. P, 18.

[8] – Ibid. P,20.

[9] –  Frosh, Stephen. A Brief Introduction to Psychoanalytic Theory. First, vol. Two, UK, Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. P, 29.

[10] – Ibid. P,29.

[11] – Ibid. P, 39.

[12] – Frosh, Stephen. A Brief Introduction to Psychoanalytic Theory. First, vol. Two, UK, Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. P,40

[13] –  Frosh, Stephen. A Brief Introduction to Psychoanalytic Theory. First, vol. Two, UK, Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. P, 41.

[14] –  Ibid. P, 42.

[15] –  Ibid. P, 43/44.

[16] –  Gabbard, Glen O., et al., editors. TEXTBOOK OF Psychoanalysis. Second, vol. one, United State of America, American Psychiatric Publishing, 2012. P 7.

[17] – Ibid. P, 7.

[18] – Gabbard, Glen O., et al., editors. TEXTBOOK OF Psychoanalysis. Second, vol. one, United State of America, American Psychiatric Publishing, 2012. P, 8.

[19] – Ibid. P, 8.

[20] – Ibid. P, 8.

[21] – Ibid. P, 8.

[22] – Gabbard, Glen O., et al., editors. TEXTBOOK OF Psychoanalysis. Second, vol. one, United State of America, American Psychiatric Publishing, 2012. P, 8.

[23] –  Ibid. P, 46.

[24] –  Frosh, Stephen. A Brief Introduction to Psychoanalytic Theory. First, vol. Two, UK, Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. P,46.

[25] –  Ibid. P,48.

[26] –  Frosh, Stephen. A Brief Introduction to Psychoanalytic Theory. First, vol. Two, UK, Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. P, 54.

[27] –  Ibid P, 129.

[28] – Frosh, Stephen. A Brief Introduction to Psychoanalytic Theory. First, vol. Two, UK, Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. P, 174.

[29] – Frosh, Stephen. A Brief Introduction to Psychoanalytic Theory. First, vol. Two, UK, Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. P, 175

[30] – Ibid. P, 223.

[31] – Frosh, Stephen. A Brief Introduction to Psychoanalytic Theory. First, vol. Two, UK, Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. P, 57.

[32] –  Frosh, Stephen. A Brief Introduction to Psychoanalytic Theory. First, vol. Two, UK, Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.P, 57.

[33] – Frosh, Stephen. A Brief Introduction to Psychoanalytic Theory. First, vol. Two, UK, Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. P, 56.

[34] – Ibid. P, 59.

[35] –  Frosh, Stephen. A Brief Introduction to Psychoanalytic Theory. First, vol. Two, UK, Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. P, 65.

[36] – Gabbard, Glen O., et al., editors. TEXTBOOK OF Psychoanalysis. Second, vol. one, United State of America, American Psychiatric Publishing, 2012. P, 93.

[37] –  Gabbard, Glen O., et al., editors. TEXTBOOK OF Psychoanalysis. Second, vol. one, United State of America, American Psychiatric Publishing, 2012.P, 94.

[38] – Gabbard, Glen O., et al., editors. TEXTBOOK OF Psychoanalysis. Second, vol. one, United State of America, American Psychiatric Publishing, 2012. P, 94.

[39] –  Gabbard, Glen O., et al., editors. TEXTBOOK OF Psychoanalysis. Second, vol. one, United State of America, American Psychiatric Publishing, 2012. P, 94.

[40] – Gabbard, Glen O., et al., editors. TEXTBOOK OF Psychoanalysis. Second, vol. one, United State of America, American Psychiatric Publishing, 2012. P, 95.

[41] – Gabbard, Glen O., et al., editors. TEXTBOOK OF Psychoanalysis. Second, vol. one, United State of America, American Psychiatric Publishing, 2012.P, 95.

[42] – Gabbard, Glen O., et al., editors. TEXTBOOK OF Psychoanalysis. Second, vol. one, United State of America, American Psychiatric Publishing, 2012. P, 157.

[43] – Gabbard, Glen O., et al., editors. TEXTBOOK OF Psychoanalysis. Second, vol. one, United State of America, American Psychiatric Publishing, 2012.P, 158.

[44] – Gabbard, Glen O., et al., editors. TEXTBOOK OF Psychoanalysis. Second, vol. one, United State of America, American Psychiatric Publishing, 2012. P, 159.

[45] – Gabbard, Glen O., et al., editors. TEXTBOOK OF Psychoanalysis. Second, vol. one, United State of America, American Psychiatric Publishing, 2012.P, 159.

[46] –  Gabbard, Glen O., et al., editors. TEXTBOOK OF Psychoanalysis. Second, vol. one, United State of America, American Psychiatric Publishing, 2012. P, 159.

[47] – Gabbard, Glen O., et al., editors. TEXTBOOK OF Psychoanalysis. Second, vol. one, United State of America, American Psychiatric Publishing, 2012.P, 163.

[48] – Gabbard, Glen O., et al., editors. TEXTBOOK OF Psychoanalysis. Second, vol. one, United State of America, American Psychiatric Publishing, 2012.P, 349.

[49] – Ibid. P, 350.

[50] – Gabbard, Glen O., et al., editors. TEXTBOOK OF Psychoanalysis. Second, vol. one, United State of America, American Psychiatric Publishing, 2012.P, 352.

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