Research studies

British English vs American English : A Comparartive Study

 

Prepared by the researcher  :  Dr. Ben Azzouz Halima – University of Abu Bakr Belkaid – Tlemcen –

Democratic Arab Center

Journal of cultural linguistic and artistic studies : Twenty Issue – September 2021

A Periodical International Journal published by the “Democratic Arab Center” Germany – Berlin

Nationales ISSN-Zentrum für Deutschland
 ISSN  2625-8943

Journal of cultural linguistic and artistic studies

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Abstract 

   It is often believed that British English and American English are the foremost varieties of the English Language serving as reference norms for other varieties.That is the reason why they have obviously been compared and contrasted.Otherwise, categories of difference between Standard Br.E(S.Br.E) and standard American English(S.Am.E)each having their own sociolectic value : A difference in Pronunciation exists between the two foremost variants as well as a divergence in  Spelling, Grammar and Syntax  are distinctively  used to distinguish the two varieties of the English Language.Beyond these differences, Spelling is noted as one of the chief sources of variation.This is why orthography is chosen as a level of analysis under which British Spelling vs American Spelling are included, since it is mainly Spelling that indicated whether an expert is British or American in its origin.In fact, the given research work is merely an intralinguistic comparison between British English  and American English in terms of standard languages.

  • Introduction :

The study of « Comparative Linguistics » is considered as one of the great preoccupations achieved by linguists. Indeed, it is undeniable to point out that linguistic readership still admire to know more about what the term « Historical Comparative Linguistics » applies.

Sociolinguistically speaking, « Comparative Linguistics »in cotrast to « Contrastive Linguististics » tends to compare the sociolinguistic constituents of a given language where the similarities are often found more than the differences.

Therefore, to what does the term ‘Comparative Linguistics’ refer ?

  • The Implication of Comparative Linguistics :

The so-called approach ‘Comparative Linguistics’ marks the way of demonstrating the genetic relatedness of languages. The latter was developed and refined approximately in the classical period of historical linguistics,mainly between the 1820’s and the 1870’s.

Comparative Linguistics is then ; a branch of linguistics that makes statements on what concerns the features of different languages(especially those believed to have a common origin) or different states of language.

One of the comparative methods’ main techniques according to David Crystal is :

« The Comparison of forms taken from cognate languages to determine the nature of their historical relationship »

David Crystal (1992 : 16)

Meanwhile, historical emphasis developed under the heading of ‘Comparative Philology’. The latter displays major differences of aim, emphasis and technique compared with the kind of comparative work which would be carried on within a framework of contemporary linguistic theory.

Therefore, a comparativist within a linguistic department would tend to be called a ‘historical linguist’ ; otherwise, the name of ‘philologist would tend to be reserved for a comparativist in a department of literature or modern languages.

This, in fact, what comes in the digestive work of David Crystal in his book entitled « Introducing Linguistics » (1992)

In order to illustrate what is meant by a comparative method, here is a table providing some systematic correspondences in Latin and three Romance languages adopted from Jhon Lyons (1985 :193)

English Latin French Italian Spanish
Thing

Head

Horse

Sing

Dog

Goat

Causa

Caput

Caballus

Cantare

Canis

Capra

 

Chose

Chef

Cheval

Chanter

Chien

Chévre

 

Cosa

Capo

Cavallo

Cantare

Cane

Capra

 

Cosa

Cabo

Caballo

Cantar

 

Cabra

 

Plant

Key

Rain

Planta

Clavis

Pluvia

Plante

Clef

Pluie

Pianta

Chiave

Ploggia

IIanta

Iiave

IIuvia

Eight

Night

Fact

Milk

Octo

Nox/noctis

Factum

Lacte

Huit

Nuit

Fait

Lait

Otto

Notte

Fatto

Latte

Ocho

Noche

Hecho

Leche

Daughter

Beautiful

Filia

Formosus

Fille

 

Figlia

 

Hija

Hermoso

 For a better understanding on the functions of Comparative Linguistics, Victoria Fromkin & Robert Rodman summarize (1974 :33)

« The study of linguistic change is called historical and comparative linguistics. Linguists of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries studies the internal changes which occured in a language.They also compared languages , reconstructed earlier forms of particular language families and classified languages according to their family trees »

Fromkin.V & Robert Rodman (1974 :323)

Since this study is mainly a comparative linguistic analysis dealing with linguistic variation and language change between British English and American English in terms of Standard Languages, let’s shed the light on the notion of ‘Standard Language’ and more exactly on the term ‘ Standard English’

A standard Language is selected, it is accepted by influencial people and institutions and diffused geographically and socially, for example, through newspapers, education and the like, the latter acquires social prestige through use the powerful public figures and wealthy ; it is is taken to the most logical and valuable form of language because of its connections with written products. Thus, the public conciousness for a standard language is created and maintained.

As far as the characteristics of ‘Standard Language’ are concerned, here is a general idea of how Suzane R omaine (1994 : 70) conceives the term :

« The ideology of Standardization is a historical process which is always in progress. It occurs systematically in Spelling, Pronunciation, Word- Meaning, Word- Forms or Sentence Strusture Conventions. »

Towards the previous data, it is of a great interest to elucidate the term ‘Standard English’ as viewed by a number of distinct scholars ; Indeed, it refers to that variety that no one is able to tell from which part of a community it comes ; it is socially prestigious deriving from social class, political strength, popular acclaim and educational background.

It mainly refers to that variety which is likely to become the most widely spread among the public. Most of people speak a variety of Regional English and only a minority with a country actually use it when they talk.

Moreover, in his book entitled « Introducing Applied Linguistics », Ronald Carter defines ‘Standard English’ (1993 : 65)

« That varierty of English which is usually used in print and which is normally taught in schools and to non-native speakers using the language, it is also the variety which is normally spoken by educated people and used in news broadcats and other similar situations »

The idea of World Standard English stands mainly from that English is used by an enormous speech community, probably of 600 million of people of whom about 300 million are speakers of English as their mother tongue.

Thus, among the vast range of linguistic variation which exists, a World Standard English (W.S.E) is acting today as a strongly unifying force.

As its name reveals, the W.S.E is totally dominated by standard English Language.Considering that point, one should know that at present, English is the only language to adopt a World’s first language role and there is no competitor as a world language for the English Language.

In brief, the following diagram will clearly illustrate what might be the components of World Standard English (W.S.E)

World Standard English
British English,BBC

English English,English

Scottish English,Scots

Welsh English,Welsh

Ulster Scots,Hibreno

Irish English,English

Australian New Zealand&South Pacific Standard English
British &Irish Standard English
American &Standard English
Canadian Standard English
Caribean Standard English
West, East SouthAfrican Standardizing English
South Asian Standardizing English
Antipodean English,Australian English,Aboriginal English, New Zealand English,Maori English,Tok Pisin English, Brislama,Beach Lamar,etc

 

Caribbean English,Jamaican Nation Language,Barbarian/Bajan, Trinidadian Bahamian,Belizian,Guyanese,Nicaraguan…
American English,Net Work Standard, Northern,Midland, Southern,Black Vernacular, Gullah, Appalachian, Indian English,etc
Canadian English,Quebec English,Frenglish, Franglais, Inuit English,Newfoundland  English, Ukranian English,etc
African English,Nigerian English,Cameroon English,Sierra Leone,West African Pidgin, Kenyan English, Ugandan English, Tanzanian English, Zambian English, Zimbabwean English, South English

 

East Asian English

HongKong English

Singapore English

Malaysian English

Philippines English

Japanese English

South Asian English, Indian English, Pakistani English,Bengladesh English, Sirilankan English,Burmese English,etc
East Asian Standardizing English

Inuit English,

Since the given paper is aiming to compare British English and AmericanEnglish as varieties of the main super ordinate English Language, let’s have a bird’s eye view and a general case study on the different characteristics each variety of the English Language from the other.

  • British English and American English : a general case study 

It is often believed that British English and American English are the foremost varieties of the English Language serving as reference norms for other varieties. That is the reason why they have obviously been compared and contrasted.Meanwhile, the terms ‘British English’ and ‘American English’ are used differently by differnt people to refer to :

  • Two national varieties, eacg subsuming regional and other sub-varieties standard and non-standard.
  • Two national standard varieties an which each one is only part of the range of English within its own state, but the most prestigious part.
  • Two international varieties, that is each is mora than a national variety of the English Language.
  • Two international standard varieties that may or may not each subsume other standard varieties. Furthermore, each variety serves a reference norm for users of the language elsewhere.

Moreover, without a clear identification, as primarily belonging to one variety or the other, British English(Br.E) and American English(Am.E) are understood as national or international varieties.

British English and American English are both « variants » or « varieties » of the English Language, more similar than different.

In brief, the following may justify general categories or difference between Standard American English(S.Am.E)and Standard British English(S.Br.E) each having their own sociolectic value :A difference in pronunciation exists between the two foremost varieties, although it is the same spelling, by contrast, a divergence in spelling may be recognized, eventhough the same pronunciation. In such case, the same term is different but there is a similarity in spelling and pronunciation. Otherwise, grammar, syntax and pronunciation are distinctively used to distinguish the two varieties of the English Language. Beyond these differences, spelling is noted as one of the chief sources of variation.

  • British English vs American English : a comparative study

Even if it is believed that Americans and Britons are viewed to be ‘divided by a common language’ as claimed by George Bernard Shaw, the language remains essentially common, mainly, in terms of standard usage.

Consequently, Spelling differences between British English and American English serve as emblems of linguistic nationalism, and it is primarily spelling that indicates wether a text is British or American in origin.

For the sake of implementing a spelling differentiation between American English and British English, here is a list of about 400 American and British words that are spelt differently.

The words are complied respectively from a list of over 180 words sent by DANTILQUE(xx.dant.aol.com), the alt usage Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

In addition, two dictionaries are mainly used as primary materials, these are (COD) The Concise Oxford Dictionary Eight edition, 1990(190000 definitions) for the British side and The Merriem-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, Tenth edition,1993 for the American side, chosen as the best to reflect a contemporary usage of words.

For the reason of an intralinguistic comparison between British English and American English, the words are arranged alphabetically by the left hand column (Br.E) and by the right side(Am.E) from a Greek Classic Spelling to a Present Day Usage of the English Language.

(1-4) Greek (Classics) Spellig

 

British English        American English                 Meaning

 

1-    /oe/ – /e/
Amoeba                 amoeba, ameba         a tiny creature consisting of a single cell

which changes shape constantly.

Diarrhoea               diarrhea                 an illness in which waste matter is

emptied from the bowels frequently and

in a liquid form.

Oenology               enology                  the study of wine.

Aenology

Fetor                    fetor, foetor             an offensive state or putrid odour
Manoeuvre             maneuver               a movement performed with care and

skill.

In words of Greek origin, British English (Br.E) has /oe/ in exclusive variants,  in parallel, American English(Am.E)/e/ or less commonly /oe/ typically in non-exclusive variants may be well noticed in the examples above.

British English     American English                       Meaning
2-    /ae/ -/e/
Aeon, eon          aeon, eon                     an immeasurably long period of

Time.

Aesthetic           aesthetic, esthetic           concerned with beauty and the

Appreciation of beaty.

Archaoelogy       archaeology                  the study on ancient cultures,

peoples and periods of time by

scientific analysis of physical

remains.

Caesium            cesium                        a chemical element.
Encyclopedia,      encyclopedia

Encyclopaedia     encyclopaedia

In words of Classic ultimately Greek Origin, a neo- latin /ae/ passed into English as /oe/ then /ae/, British English has tended to keep /ae/ as an exclusive variant and American English has had /e/ and /ae/ as non-exclusive variants such as (a) aon, arch(a)eology, (a)esthetics and the like.

British English     American English                   Meaning
3-    /rh/ – /r/
Eurhythmics        eurythmics               a system of training through physical

movement to music.

British English /rh/ may be well noticed in its distinction for American English /r/ as the case of British English ‘eurhythmics’ and U.S English ‘eurythmics’, meaning as the example mentioned above.

British English      American English                   Meaning
4-    Silent/ph/
Apophthegm        apothegm                   a short mark containing some

general or generally accepted truth

A silent /ph/takes place in British English words of Classic ultimately Greek origin as the case of ‘apophthegm’ compared with American English ‘apothegm’ concerning spelling variation between the two varieties of the English Language.

5-    Latin Spelling
British English      American English                        Meaning
5-     /ph/ – /f/
Bisulphate           bisulfate                     hydrogen sulphate
Sulphate             sulfate                       a compound of sulphur and a

chemical element : copper

sulphate.

Sulphur              sulfur, sulphur              a chemical element used in

medecine and industry.

In words of Latin origin, British English /ph/ is substituted by American English /f/ in such words as British English (bisulphate, sulphate, disulfide) and the like.

(6-9) Old/ Middle English Spelling
British English         American English                Meaning
6-    /t/-/ed/
Burnt, burned            burned, burnt
Dreamt, dreamed       dreamed, dreamt
Leaned, leant            leaned                    to bend
Leaped, leapt            leaped, leapt            to jump high or long way.
Spilt, spilled              spilled, spilt              to run or fall over the edge of

a container.

By the Old and Middle English periods, a spelling distinction marks its existence on verbs, characterized by a British English /t/ and American English /ed/ use in the past simple tense.

British English   American English                  Meaning
7-    /gh/-/f/ & /ough/-/ow/
Draught,ghty          draft, fly              a flow of cool air in a room or other

enclosed space.

Draughtsman,        draftsman            one who makes drawings.

Draftsman

Plough,                plow, snowplow     a farming implement used for digging

Snowplough                                   the soil especially before seeds are

Planted.

A British English /gh/ is mainly replaced by an American English/f/ in such words of the English Language as the above instances and a spelling divergence may be well noticed in the replacement of /ough/ in British English by /ow/ in U.S English.

British English    American English                   Meaning
8-    /y/- /i/
Gypsy, gipsy        gypsy, gipsy            a member of a race of people,

originally from Asia, with dark hair

and skin who move from place to

place and traditionally live in

caravans.

Gybe                  jibe                       nautical : to change direction when

the wind is behind, by swinging the

sail from one side of a boat to the

other.

Tyre                   tire                        a covering fitted round the edge of a

wheet to absorb shocks.

Tyke (tike)           tyke, tike                a small child, especilally one who

behaves badly.

British English tends to use /y/ in such words as : gupsy, tyre, tyke. Whereas, /i/ is more suitable for an American English Spelling Use.

British English American English
Amid, amidst Amid, amidst
Among, amongst Among, amongst
While, whilst while
(10- 20) French Spelling
British English   American English    Meaning
10-/re/- /er/
Amphitheatre       amphitheater
Calibre               caliber                   the width of the inside of a tube or the

barrel of a gun.

Centre               center
Centreboard        centerboard            a movable board that can be lowered

through a hole in the botton of a

sailing boat.

Fibre                 fiber                      the part of food that one’s body can

not digest.

Louvre               louver                    each of a fixed or movable strips of

wood, plastic, etc designed to let air

in while keeping light or rain out.

Lustre                luster                    the soft brightness of a smooth or

shining surface : brilliance.

Manoeuvre          maneuver
Sabre                saber                     a light sword with a thin blade, used

in fencing.

Sepulchre           sepulcher,               a place for a dead body, grave.

Sepulchre

Sombre              somber                  dark in colour : dull and gloomy.
Theatre              theater, theatre
Titre                  titer, titre                 the concentration of a solution as

determined by titration.

 

In words of this type, British English /re/ and American English /er/ , the difference is exclusice, the chief spelling variation is of non- Germanic origin but rather of a French one, such as(amphitheatre/ amphitheater), (centre/ center), (sabre/ saber), (sombre/ somber), (theatre/ theater).

Though (theater, sepulcher and titer) are the preferred American English Spelling ; the words are part of names. Generally, the differences are noticed in inflections such as(centred/ centered) and compounds as (centrefold / centerfold), (centreboard/ centerboard) but usually Vanish in derivatives through the loss of the /e/ which is not pronounced, for instance(central, metric/metrical, theatrical).

British English       American English                       Meaning
11- /our/- /or/
Arbour                arbor                      a place in the shade of trees or

climbing plants over a wooden

framework for people to sit under(n)

Behaviour           bahaviour
Candour              candor                    the quality of being frank and honest

in one’s behaviour or speech.

Colour                color
Demeanour         demenor                   a way of behaving ; conduct.
Endeavour          endeavor                  an attempt or effort.
Fervour              fervor                      strength or intensity of feeling ;

enthusiasm.

British English   American English                    Meaning
Glamour              glamor                 the attraction or exciting quality that

makes certain activities, jobs, places,

etc seem special.

 

Harbour              harbor
Honour               honor
Humour              humor
Labour               labor                     a hard physical work.
Misdemeanor       misdemeanor          a minor wrong doing.
Neighbour           neighbor
Odour                odor
Parlour               parlor                   a room in a private house for sitting in,

entertaining visitors,etc

Rumour              rumor                   a story that is spread by being talked

about but may not be true.

Splendour           splendor                the state or quality of being splendid.
Tumour              tumor                    an abnormal mass of new tissue

growing in or part of the body.

Vigour                vigor                     physical strength or energy.

Most words of the type British English /our/ and U.S English /or/ are from Latin or French origin.In Latin, their forms are uniformly /or/ as (arbor, vigor, odor) and in Modern French, their cognates may have /eur/ as (couleur, honneur).Some, however, are from a Germanic origin, such as( harbo(u)r, neighbo(u)r).

The British English /u/ is rarely used in words, other than neighbo(u)r, that readily refer to people as (actor, author, emperor, governor, survivor, tenor) which are the same in both varieties, either British English or American English, though especially during the 16th and 17 th centuries such spellings as emperour and governour occured.

Another category of spelling differenciation between the two varieties of the English Language, the British /our/ and the American English/o/ may be well felt.

British English   American English                    Meaning
12- /our/- /o/
Boult                  bolt                        a narrow piece of metal that slides

across to lock a door, window, etc

Citrous               citrus                      any of a group of related trees that

have fruits,eg : orange, lemon…

Mould                mold                        a hollow container with a soft or

liquid substance is poured to set

or cool in that shape.

13- /mme/- /m/
Gramme            gram                        (n)
Kilogramme        kilogram                    (n)
Programme        program                    (n)
Programme        program, programme    (v)

As one may notice in the above examples, /mme/ marker is applied in British English spelling, mainly, in nouns as (programme) and sometimes the two cases are available in a British English, Orthography as (kilogramme, kilogram) whereas, the American English Spelling tends to use /m/ in nouns and rarely /mm/ as the case of verbs as (program, programme).

British English       American English                 Meaning
14- /que/- /ck/
Cheque                check                       (n) (in banking only)
Chequer, checker    checker                    (n) pattern
15- /ogue/- /og/ & /egue/- /ege/
Analogue             analogue or analog     a thing that is similar to another

Thing.

Catalogue             catalog or catalogue   a complete list of items, usually

in a special order and with a

description of each.

Dialogue             dialogue, dialog
Epilogue             epilogue, epilog           a section added at the end of a

book, film… as a comment on or

a conclusion to what has

happened in it.

Monologue           monologue, monolog    a long speech in a play, film…

spoken by one actor, especially

when alone.

Pedagogue          pedagogue, pedagog    a teacher.
Prologue             prologue, prolog           a separate part of a poem or

play that introduces it.

Renege(renegue)  renege                      (v) to fail to keep a promise, an

agreement, etc

Although in words like catalog(ue), dialog(ue), monolog(ue), prolog(ue), U.S English, sometimes, drops /ue/, only catalog is a widely used American English Variant.Thus, such spellings are systemic, non-exclusive variants in American English, the word analog(ue) is a special case, so that the spelling analog prevails in contrast with digital when referring to such things as computers, but it is undeniable not only in American English but also in British English, where American English spellings are generally used in the register of computing.

British English      American English                       Meaning
16- /xion/- /ction/
connection,         connection               (n)

connexion

Deflection,          deflection                 the action of changing or causing

Deflexion                                         something to change direction,

especially, after hitting something.

 

Inflection,            inflection                  the changing of a word form or word

Inflexion                                          ending to show its grammatical

function.

Reflection,          reflection                  an image reflected by a mirror, a

Reflexion                                         shiny surface, water…

 

The American English (ction) is well observed in the given instances above, what is replaced by (xion) in British English and sometimes, the two variants of spelling are available for a British English usage of words.

British English         American English                    Meaning
17- /ise/- /ize/
Advertise               advertise                     (v) to describe a product or

service publicly in order to

persuade people to buy/use it.

Apologise              apologize                    (v)
Apprise                 apprise                       (v) to inform somebody of

somebody.

Categorize,            categorize                   (v)

Categorise

Characterise,         characterize

Characterize

Colonise,colonize    colonize
Criticise, criticize     criticize
Merchandise          merchandize                (v)the activity of selling or

promoting goods

Mobilise                mobilize                      (v)to organise for a particular

purpose

Organise, organize   organize

Concerning the main type of variation, one should know that verbs taking only /ise/ do not generally have a noun in /tion/ as (advertise/advertisement), (apprise/ apprentice). However, some verbs that allow both forms-meanings as British English/ise/ and American English/ize/ do not form nouns in /tion/, for example : appologise/ize/ do not form nouns in /tion/ ; for example : (appologise/appologize/appology), (criticise/criticize/criticism) and the like.

British English     American English                    Meaning
18- /yse/- /yze/
Analyse               analyze
Catalyse              catalyze                  (v) to influence by analysis.
Dialyse                dialyse                   (v) to separate by dialysis.
Paralyse              paralyze

In Birtish English /yse/ and American English /yze/ group, such verbs as (analyse, paralyse) are preferred. Otherwise, (analyze, paralyze) are used in American English, the variants are systemic and have been mutually exclusive, but recently and more frequently, (analyze) has begun to appear in British English.Correspondingly, the difference disappears in nouns as (analysis, paralysis) as the  /z/ of the verbs becomes /s/ in the nouns.

British English    American English   Meaning
19- /an/- /a/
Baulk (balk)           balk                    (v) to be unwilling to or become

involved in someting.

Cauldron(caldron)   cauldron(caldron)   (over an) a large deep pot for boiling

liquids or cooking food especially

over a fire.

Caulk                  caulk (calk)           (n) goop to stop up boat leaks.
Gauge                 gauge (gage)        (n) a standard measure, especially of

whidth or thickness.

British English /au/ in comparison with American English /a/ may be well recognized through the above examples where mostly the two forms are applied in both varieties of the English Language.

British English    American English    meaning
20- /ce/- /se/
Defence             defense                 (n)the action of defending from attack.
Licence              license                  (n) an official document.
Offence              offense                 (n) an illegal act.
Pretence            pretense                (n) the action of pretending.
Practise, practice practice, practise      (n)
Practise            practice, practise       (v)
Vice                 vice                       (n) tool for holding work.

As one may notice, the British English /ce/ is notably replaced by its equivalent /se/ in American English words such as : Br.E ( defence, offence, prefence) and American English (defense, offense, pretense). Otherwise, the British English /ce/ remains the same in American English as mentioned in the last instances (vice/ vice).

British English    American English           Meaning
21- /or/- /er/
Adptor                 adapter                 (n)
Advisor                adviser                 (n)
Propeller,             propeller                (n) the person or thing that propels

Propellor

/or/ is obviously preffered to be used in British English words as the case of (adaptor, advisor, propellor) Whereas, /er/ is more suitable for an American English usage of words.

British English   American English                 Meaning
22- /ee/- /e/
Employee             employe               (n) a person who is hired to work

for a business,…

 

23- /gg/- /g/
Faggot                 fagot                   (n) a bundle of sticks
Wagon, waggon    wagon                  (n) an open railway truck for carrying

goods such as coal

Comparing the main type of English Spelling variation, British English /ee/ is greatly replaced by American English /e/ such as Br.E (employee) and Am.E(employe) and British English /gg/ is obviously replaced by /g/ in American English Spelling as the above examples.

British English    American English            Meaning
24- /l/- /ll/
Appal                appall                      (v) to make somebody feel horror

or disgust ; to shock somebody

deeply.

Distil                 distill                       (v) to extract the essential meaning

or most important part of an idea to

form something.

Fulfil                 fulfill
Skilful               skillful
Wilful                willful                       (adj) something done intentionally ;

deliberate.

In this group, British English /l/ is exclusively substituted by /ll/ in American English such the case of Br.E ( appal, distil, wilful) and Am.E ( appall, distill, willful) and the like.

British English       American English                    Meaning
25- /ll/- /l/
Calliper                caliper                       an instrument for measuring the

diameter of tubes of round objects

Councillor             councilor                   the member of a council.
Equalled               equaled
Jeweller               jeweler
Marvellous           marvelous
Quarrelled            quarreled
Scallywag,           scalawag,sacllwag        a person, especially, a child,who

Scalawag                                            behaves badlt but in a harmeless

way.

Travelled             traveled
Trowelled            troweled                     (v) to use a trowel on.
Woollen              woolen                       (adj)

British English is greatly marked by the use of /ll/ in such words as the above, whereas, American English tends to use only /l/.

British English    American English               Meaning
26- /pp/- /p/
Kidnapped           kidnaped                (v) to take somebody away by force

and illegaly, especially, in order to

obtain money in return for releasing

them.

Worshipped        worshiped
Worshipper         worshiper
British English   American English                 Meaning
27- /ss/- /s/
Busses              buses                     computer
Focussed           focused
28- /tt/- /t/
Cigarette            cigaret
Clarinettist          clarinetist                (n) a person who plays the clarinet.
Garrotte, garotte   garrote                   (v) to kill somebody by tightening

with or rope around his/her neck.

British English Spelling is marked by the use of /tt/ as (cigarette, clarinettist, garrotte) whereas, American English Spelling is often characterized by the use of /t/ as (cigaret, clarinetist, garrote).

British English     American English                  Meaning
29- /dge/- /dg/
Acknowledgment,   acknowledgment,     (n)

Acknowledgement  acknowledgement

Judgment,             judgement,             (n)

Judgement            judgment

Misjudgement,       misjudgment            (n)

(misjudgment)

As the above examples are concerned, Br.E /dge/ is notably replaced by /dg/ such as 🙁 acknowledgement, judgement) and ( acknowledgment, judgment) and so on.

British English   American English                      Meaning
30- /en/- /in/
Encase              incase                   (v) to surround or cover something,

especially, to protect it.

Enclose             inclose                   (v)
Enquire             inquire                    (v)
Ensure              insure                    (v) to make sure of something.

In this case, /en/ in British English is, mostly substituted by /in/ in American English such as : Br.E (encase, enclose, enquire, ensure) and American English (incase, inclose, inquire, insure).

British English       American English                    Meaning
31- Other Spelling Differentiation
Aeroplane           airplane                     (n)
Aluminium           aluminum                   (n)
Aretefact, artifact   artifact                       a thing made by people,especially,

a tool or weapon of historical

interest.

Behove               beloove                    (n) to be right or necessary for

somebody.

Carcass,carcase   carcass                     the dead body of an animal,

especially one ready for cutting

up as meat.

Cosy                  cozy, cosy                (adj) comfortable and usually

warm and secure because of being

small or enclosed.

Dependant           dependant, dependent    (n)
Kerb                   curb                           the ending of road.
Disk                    disk, disc                    computing
Flaky                   flakey                         (adj) behaving in a very strange

or crazy way.

Jail, gaol              jail                             (n) prison
Lens                   lens, lense                   (n) a piece of glass on other

transparent material with one or

more curved surfaces.Lenses

make things appear clearer,

larger or smaller when looked

through.

Moustache           mustache
Night                   night, nite
pyjamas               pajamas
Reverie                revery
Sonatorium           sanitorium
Speciality             specialty
Storey(story)         story, storey
Swab ; swob         swab(archaic swob)
Swap ; swop         swap
Though, tho          though, tho
Through               thru, through
Today                  (to-day)
Tonight                tonite, tonight
Phial, vial             vial, phial                    (n) a small glass container.
Wisky                  wiskey

Where differences exist between the two varieties of the English Language, American English Spellings tend to be shorter than British English Spelling, for instance : Am.E (jewelry, jeweler), Br.E (jewellery, jeweller), Am.E (councilor, counselor), Br.E (councillor, counsellor), US.E( catalog,color), Br.E(catalogue, colour) and so on.

Exceptions include American English kind of words as (instill) and British English(instil) ; american English(skillful) and British English (skilful).

Otherwise, in general terms, a spelling used in Briain is accepted in America than is an American Spelling in Britain.Therefore, British English seems sometimes to use spelling to distinguish items with the same pronunciation as (tyre/ tire), (cheque/ check).

Thereby, British English and American English Spelling can be seen in printed as well as edited texts as foremost varieties of the English Language.

  • Conclusion :

Throughout this paper, it was of a worth importance to ring up the curtain on the concept of ‘Comparative Linguistics’, what does it implement ? How does it work ? What effect has it done to languages ?

A case study of American English and British English in terms of spelling is more suitable to be mentioned since the majority of linguistic readers were and are still being curious about to discover whether a given expert is American or British in its origin.

For the sake of illustration, a great table diagramed the spelling differences between the two varieties of the English Language, in which 165 words are alphabetically collected under 31 spelling simplifications.

As a conclusion, even if it is believed that Americans and Britons are viewed to be divided by a common language, it is the English Language itself which remains essentially common, mainly, in terms of Standard English.

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