Prepared by the researcher
- JABER HAMOOD HAMDOON AL-NAUMANI– Sultanate of Oman – The Professor Supervisor
- Prof. Dr. Latifa Ben Arfa Rabai– Universite de Tunis, Institut Superieur de Gestion de Tunis, SMART Laboratory
Democratic Arab Center
Journal of Afro-Asian Studies : Seventeenth Issue – May 2023
A Periodical International Journal published by the “Democratic Arab Center” Germany – Berlin
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The study aimed to identify the reality of using the technologies of the fourth industrial revolution according to the technical requirements of e-government in light of the vision of Oman 2040. It used the descriptive approach in the sampling survey method as a tool for data collection, The sample consisted of (90) individual from theemployee of the Omani government institutions, in Muscat Governorate, Show results: that E-government institutions do not use robots. The large number of tasks carried out by e-government institutions constitutes an obstacle to employing the technologies of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, There is a statistically significant correlation between the use of the fourth industrial revolution technologies by the sample members within the fourth electronic government, and the degree of benefit from them.
The Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR) is characterized by the fusion of technologies that blur the lines between the physical, digital, and biological spheres. The main technological drivers of this revolution are artificial intelligence (AI), the Internet of Things (IoT), robotics, and automation. These technologies are changing the way businesses operate and offer new opportunities for growth and innovation.
To fully embrace the potential of the 4IR, businesses need to meet certain technical requirements. First and foremost, they need to have a reliable and robust IT infrastructure capable of handling large amounts of data and processing it in real-time. This infrastructure must be secure and scalable to accommodate future growth and technological advancements.
Another critical requirement is the ability to collect and analyze data effectively. IoT devices and sensors generate vast amounts of data that can be used to optimize operations, improve customer experiences, and identify new revenue streams. However, to do this, businesses need to have the right tools and expertise to extract insights from this data.
Artificial intelligence is also a key component of the 4IR, and businesses need to have the ability to develop and deploy AI applications. This requires access to high-quality data, powerful algorithms, and the necessary computing resources.
Finally, businesses need to be agile and adaptable to new technologies. The pace of change in the 4IR is rapid, and companies that fail to keep up risk falling behind their competitors. To stay ahead, businesses need to have a culture of innovation and experimentation, and they need to be willing to invest in new technologies and skills
What are the technical requirements of electronic government in utilizing the technologies of the fourth industrial revolution, and to what extent are governments able to meet these requirements in practice?
With the increasing adoption of technologies of the fourth industrial revolution (4IR), electronic government (e-government) has become a major trend in modern governance. However, the effective implementation of e-government requires the use of advanced technical infrastructure, such as Artificial Intelligence (AI), the Internet of Things (IoT), and Big Data Analytics, among others. While the benefits of such advanced technologies are well-established, the extent to which governments can meet the technical requirements of 4IR in practice remains uncertain.
Therefore, this study problem seeks to explore the technical requirements of e-government in utilizing the technologies of the 4IR, and to what extent governments can meet these requirements in practice. Specifically, this study will examine the following research questions:
- What are the technical requirements of e-government in utilizing the technologies of the 4IR?
- What is the current state of e-government adoption and utilization of 4IR technologies?
- What are the barriers and challenges faced by governments in meeting the technical requirements of e-government in utilizing the technologies of the 4IR?
- What are the potential implications of not meeting the technical requirements of e-government in utilizing the technologies of the 4IR?
- What are the best practices and strategies that governments can adopt to meet the technical requirements of e-government in utilizing the technologies of the 4IR?
The study objectives:
- To identify the technical requirements of electronic government in utilizing the technologies of the fourth industrial revolution.
- To examine the extent to which governments are adopting and utilizing 4IR technologies in e-government.
- To explore the barriers and challenges faced by governments in meeting the technical requirements of e-government in utilizing the technologies of the fourth industrial revolution.
- To assess the potential implications of not meeting the technical requirements of e-government in utilizing the technologies of the fourth industrial revolution.
- To identify best practices and strategies that governments can adopt to meet the technical requirements of e-government in utilizing the technologies of the fourth industrial revolution.
- 6- To provide recommendations for policymakers and government officials on how to effectively implement 4IR technologies in e-government, while ensuring inclusivity, accessibility, and transparency.
The importance of studying:
Studying the technical requirements of electronic government in utilizing the technologies of the fourth industrial revolution and assessing the extent to which governments can meet these requirements in practice is important for several reasons:
- Improve efficiency and effectiveness of government services: The adoption of 4IR technologies can help governments provide better services to citizens, improve efficiency and reduce costs.
- Enhance transparency and accountability: E-government can provide citizens with more access to information, increase transparency, and improve accountability of government activities
- Foster economic growth and innovation: The use of 4IR technologies in e-government can create new opportunities for businesses and entrepreneurs to develop innovative products and services, thus contributing to economic growth and job creation.
- Ensure inclusivity and accessibility: E-government can help bridge the digital divide and provide equal access to government services for all citizens, regardless of their location or socio-economic status.
- Address societal challenges: The use of 4IR technologies in e-government can help address societal challenges, such as environmental sustainability, public health, and safety.
The procedural terms:
The procedural terms that may be used in a study on the technical requirements of electronic government in utilizing the technologies of the fourth industrial revolution can include:
- Fourth Industrial Revolution: The fourth industrial revolution (4IR) refers to the current era of technological advancement in which new technologies such as artificial intelligence, the Internet of Things, blockchain, and robotics are transforming the way we live and work.
- Electronic Government: Electronic government (e-government) refers to the use of digital technologies to provide government services and engage with citizens. This can include online portals, mobile applications, and other digital channels.
- Technical Requirements: Technical requirements refer to the specific technological capabilities and infrastructure necessary to implement e-government and utilize 4IR technologies effectively. This can include hardware, software, network infrastructure, and security measures
Surveys and questionnaires: Surveys and questionnaires can be used to collect data from government officials, policymakers, and other stakeholders on their perceptions, attitudes, and experiences with e-government and 4IR technologies.
The fourth industrial revolution is characterized by the integration of technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT), artificial intelligence (AI), blockchain, and big data analytics into various industries (Cunha & Cunha, 2019). Governments around the world are looking to utilize these technologies to create efficient and effective electronic government (e-government) systems that provide services to citizens.
However, the reality of implementing the requirements of the fourth industrial revolution in e-government is not without challenges. One of the biggest challenges is the need for significant investment in infrastructure and training (Al-Qahtani, 2019). This includes upgrading existing systems, providing training for government employees on new technologies, and ensuring that the necessary infrastructure is in place to support the use of these technologies.
In addition, there are concerns around data security and privacy. The use of AI and big data analytics in e-government requires the collection and processing of vast amounts of data, which could potentially be used for nefarious purposes if not properly secured. Governments need to take steps to ensure that the data collected is secure and that citizens’ privacy is protected.
Despite these challenges, there are many potential benefits to utilizing the requirements of the fourth industrial revolution in e-government. These technologies can help governments provide more efficient and effective services to citizens, as well as create a more transparent and accountable government.
For example, the use of blockchain technology can help governments create more transparent and secure voting systems. By utilizing a decentralized and tamper-proof ledger, governments can ensure that votes are accurately recorded and that the results are not tampered with.
Similarly, the use of AI and big data analytics can help governments make more informed decisions by analyzing large amounts of data and identifying patterns that would be difficult for humans to detect. This can be particularly useful in areas such as public health, where data on disease outbreaks and epidemics can be analyzed to identify trends and make predictions about future outbreaks.
In conclusion, the reality of utilizing the requirements of the fourth industrial revolution in e-government is complex and challenging, but the potential benefits are significant. Governments must take steps to invest in infrastructure and training, ensure data security and privacy, and work to create transparent and accountable systems that benefit citizens.
The first axis: the fourth industrial revolution
The concept of the fourth industrial revolution:
IT stems from digitization, artificial intelligence, nanotechnology, biotechnology, and others, and thus represents a comprehensive digital transformation that requires countries to analyze how they deal with production technology, and the fourth industrial revolution is an unprecedented wave, as its effects exceed the effects of the previous three revolutions due to its speed. It proceeds in a multiplying geometric sequence, not a linear arithmetic follow-up, and its impact on all areas of life is wide and deep, in addition to its pluralistic system that would change the existing system, whether between or within countries, companies, and society as a whole, as it would cast a shadow over all areas of life. political, economic and social.
The most important features of the Fourth Industrial Revolution and the most important opportunities and challenges it presents:
It did not appear suddenly, but it was the result of three previous industrial revolutions. Before these revolutions, human life was dependent on agricultural activity, and man produced most of what he needed as basics for life, and communication between different regions was very difficult, and man was in hard work all the time and in battle. Continuing for life, then came the various industrial revolutions that radically changed human life from what has preceded, and every revolution of this social life also affects man and his relationship with what surrounds him.
The concept of the Fourth Industrial Revolution began to be referred to in 2011 at the Hanover Exhibition in Germany. During 2014 it was referred to, but with another term, which is the second machine age, by Bringo Leveson and Andrew McAfee, a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, but the real discussion of this concept took place in the Economic Forum World Conference held in Switzerland 2016, CEO of the Forum, Klaus Schwab, indicated that the fourth industrial revolution creates a world in which systems cooperate.
The virtual and physical of global manufacturing are interwoven together in a flexible way, allowing the absolute specialization of products and the creation of new operating models.
From the foregoing, it is clear that the fourth industrial revolution is moving towards automation through reducing the labor force and replacing it with advanced technology such as robots, and the decline of the human role in supervising the development processes. In merging between the three basic elements of the fourth industrial revolution, physical, digital, and biological, and resulting in artificial intelligence, which results in more human well-being.
Opportunities presented by the Fourth Industrial Revolution:
It leads to the production of new types of jobs different from what was familiar and available in the past, due to the tremendous developments and modern technology that depends on them, which will lead to the production of these jobs, and this is the case with every revolution. Knowledge due to the interference of technology and its needs for a type of workers different from workers in factories, the fourth industrial revolution will provide more opportunities for innovators to do more work because it is based on merging and melting the three elements on which it is based, which are the physical, digital and biological aspects in order to bring out the improvements in each A field for creating a new product, which is what distinguishes the innovators.
The most important challenges imposed by the fourth industrial revolution on social sites:
Increasing technological security threats, represented by piracy and information security, and requires raising the level of alertness if life is widely connected to different devices. The threat may be internal by dissatisfied employees at the workplace or dishonest, and it may be a bigger problem than that if it is related to threats. External, which transcends the issue of competition and reaches an issue Homeland security due to the fear that terrorist universities will reach important information that threatens the security of some countries and citizens.
Increasing unemployment rates: Perhaps this is the most dangerous thing that humanity will face due to the tendency to use robots and replace humans in many jobs. An economic report indicated that robots may take over half of the jobs in the United States and Britain, and the Bank of England believes that machines may occupy what Approximately 50% of the workforce over the next ten or twenty years, especially the middle and lower classes of the labor force, may be the jobs most likely to be replaced by human administrative workers, clerks, loan clerks, receptionists, paralegals, salespeople, and security guards And the chefs, and the greater the efficiency of the robot, the higher the level of unemployment, due to the increase in job opportunities in which it will replace the human being.
Increasing social inequality The quality of employment required for the era of the fourth industrial revolution on which work will be based and develop upon itself at a time led by modern technologies. It is the individual who is able to create and innovate unusual ideas and alternatives. They are intellectually gifted and inventors. They will be more important than physical capital and will The gap widens in the revolution between the class of the talented and those who depend on capital, and the most threatening class is the middle class that is exposed to annihilation, and society will be divided into the rich, who do not have capital, but they have innovative skills, and those who will assume prestigious jobs, and the poor, who do not possess these.
Challenges facing the Fourth Industrial Revolution:
The fourth industrial revolution requires a comprehensive economic restructuring associated with social and political restructuring, and it will see a change in cultural and social values. Human societies will suffer as a result of the consequences of the fourth industrial revolution, an increase in unemployment rates, as an economic report revealed that robots are developing so dramatically that they may replace humans in many jobs. Including tasks that require a high degree of efficiency, and that these smart robots may take over half of the jobs in the United States and Britain, and the Bank of England believes that machines may occupy 50% of the workforce in both countries over the next ten or twenty years, as confirmed economists’ estimates.
Ali Watfa sees that every revolution known to humanity, the one who developed it, the Fourth Industrial Revolution, carries in itself opportunities and challenges, and it is no secret to anyone that all industrial revolutions brought enormous opportunities. In every discovery or creativity, benefits and human gains flow that do not need to be defined. Opportunities and benefits Which was triggered by the discovery of steam, electricity and computers for humanity, something that exceeds any limitation, even in flashes of imagination, and this includes all inventions and technological creations that do not stop in their unprecedented stampede. The Fourth Industrial Revolution will provide wide opportunities for human societies to achieve high rates of economic and social development and Humanity in general by reducing production costs, and thus providing services and means of transportation and communication that combine high efficiency with a lower price. Among the other positives is also the contribution to better health care for people, as it shortens a lot of time in the process of development and the generalization of its achievements to the world, but it is imposed at the same time Unprecedented challenges for human societies.
The second axis: technical requirements
The technical requirements are the infrastructure that cannot be transformed from the administrative concept and the traditional method to the electronic administration without it, and it is represented in a set of physical components through which electronic applications can be implemented.
Technology requirements are among the important factors for the shift towards management and ensuring its actual implementation. Management should be accepted as an approach, philosophy and method of work, as well as acceptance of modern technologies themselves to build a culture of work towards change and towards the modern electronic approach to management.
It has different types and capabilities, in addition to the devices attached to it or supporting it, which are necessary and inherent in order for this device to be able to provide the services it was designed for to the beneficiary, including savings and withdrawal devices and processors of various types and sizes. When examining the device, it appears A deaf machine that works and operates with human hands and minds.
A number of servers must be available to run the basic software in addition to the storage and backup media. The specifications of the servers vary according to many determinants, such as the operating requirements for each of the operating programs such as digital repositories or integrated automated systems, in addition to the number of potential users of the system.
With the spread of cloud computing services, there has become a strong trend to use cloud servers as a strong and stable alternative to local servers. The idea of cloud computing is characterized by saving expenses in the long term by imposing changing and updating servers every five years, in addition to securing the Internet connection capacity. Cloud service providers have become among them strong competition, which Ensures the quality of services provided.
Networks and the Internet: Networks appeared as a natural result of the development of the computer, increasing its speed, capabilities and capabilities, which facilitated the possibility of using it by more than one beneficiary at the same time through independent input units, different in time and spatial, which is known as communication through networks, which can be defined as a group of computers Connected together by communication lines, they can be used to share available resources and transfer and exchange information between them. The types of networks are:
Linear networks: It is one of the most widespread types, as there is no central computer to control the work of the network, but it depends on the presence of a main wire (cable) used to connect all the elements of the network to each other.
Star network: It is called this because of the mediation of the main computer, and the connection of other computers around it and with it. Through the central main computer, all types of communications between the connected devices are controlled.
The ring network: computers are connected to a closed loop that takes the shape of the ring, so that the communication is in one direction, meaning that data can only be transferred in one direction.
An Internet connection must be provided from a reliable service provider, whether the connection is through a subscription, at speeds commensurate with the number of users. In the case of local servers, these speeds must be raised to suit the requests for access to the servers. A higher level of stability can be provided by securing the backup Internet line from a different service provider in the event of an outage. service from another provider.
The Third axis: e-government
The concept of e-government: The e-government represents a new method for providing services to the citizen in order to raise the efficiency of government performance, reduce the routine procedures that citizens suffer from, and provide information and data in an easy way to benefit from the massive digital revolution. Among the definitions used for e-government, we find:
- “E-government is the virtual version of the real government, i.e. the traditional one, with the difference that electronic networks and information systems, while simulating the functions of the second that exist physically in the state agencies.”
- Communication and information technology in government agencies and their full and effective investment in facilitating electronic services and consolidating the relationship in an efficient manner with the public, and many government units have embraced the digital revolution and put a wide variety of resources on the World Wide Web. The countries of the world reached 169 countries.
- The e-government is an organization of government administration on a communication and information format that assumes the tasks of delivering public services in an electronic and integrated manner by means of modern means of communication to citizens, private sector institutions and organizations with civil society, so that it brings real added value felt by its beneficiaries, and also contributes to the formation of Interactive relations with citizens, individuals, institutions and organizations, by providing them with non-traditional services that are commensurate with their privacy, needs, desires and aspirations in a short time and with high efficiency. So, it leads to facilitating services procedures and exchanging information electronically within and between the government and the various sectors of society.
- E-government is also a new concept in our Arab world, and it relies on the use of information and communication technology to reach the optimal use of government transactions, in order to ensure the provision of distinguished government service to citizens, companies, investors, foreigners, and everyone related to government activities. Many visions have emerged that clarify the meaning of e-government and its interpretation, and it is defined as the application and use of communication and information technology in government agencies and its full and effective investment in facilitating government services to consolidate relations efficiently with the beneficiaries of its public services and its last name as business innovation. Government through new methods of integrating and integrating information and providing an opportunity to access it through a website.
- The questionnaire consisted of two parts and (3) main axes, where the first part included demographic data such as (years of experience – employer – qualification), while the first axis in the second part included the reality of using the techniques of the fourth industrial revolution in electronic government institutions in ( 5) phrases, while the second axis contained the challenges facing e-government institutions in keeping pace with the developments resulting from the Fourth Industrial Revolution in (5) phrases, and the third on applicable solutions in e-government institutions in light of the Fourth Industrial Revolution in (5) phrases.
- The questionnaire consisted of (15) phrases to measure the reality of using the technologies of the fourth industrial revolution in the Omani e-government institutions, and to study the challenges that these institutions face in keeping pace with the developments resulting from the fourth industrial revolution, and to provide applicable solutions that keep pace with the aspired ambition, which would help the owners of The decision to develop government institutions in light of the fourth industrial revolution.
- Building the questionnaire. The questionnaire is designed and used in the research, usually when the researcher wants to collect several types of information and facts about issues or incidents in the past and present, and inquiries about trends, opinions, beliefs, values, feelings, and others.
Resolution parts. The questionnaire consists of
- part One. This part included the characteristics of the sample, as this part was devoted to knowing the demographic data of the sample, and this data was represented in (qualification, years of experience, and employer).
The second part. This part contained:
- The first axis. In the second part, it included the reality of using the techniques of the fourth industrial revolution in (5) phrases.
- The second axis. The challenges facing government institutions in keeping pace with the developments resulting from the Fourth Industrial Revolution included (5) expressions.
- The third axis. It includes applicable solutions that keep pace with the hoped-for ambition, which would help decision-makers to develop government institutions in light of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (5) phrases.
Table (1) Resolution scale. The questionnaire was based on a five-point Likert scale (from 1 to 5), where the score (1) indicates strongly disagree, while the score (5) indicates strongly agree. Table (1) shows the five-point gradient as follows:
|I Do Not Agree
in order to clarify the psychometric characteristics of the questionnaire, the following can be clarified:
The validity of the questionnaire.
Constructive honesty. Structural validity was applied to extract the indications of constructive validity for the questionnaire consisting of (15) statements. The constructive validity was verified by calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient between each axis of the questionnaire, as well as each axis with the total score of the questionnaire. The consistency was measured on the exploratory sample consisting of (30) officers from the study population.
Table (2) shows the Pearson correlation coefficient between the research axes:
|The second axis
|The first axis
|The first dimension
|The second dimension
- It is clear from the previous table that the correlation coefficient between the sub-axes with each other and the sub-axes with the degree of the total resolution has a strong correlation, which confirms the validity of the questionnaire for application. Internal consistency validity. To demonstrate the internal validity of the questionnaire, the Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated between each of the paragraphs of the axis and the total score of the axis to indicate the extent of the correlation and the significance of consistency.
Table (3) Axes and phrases of the questionnaire
The Third axis
The second axis
The first axis
The stability of the questionnaire was verified by using Cronbach’s alpha stability coefficient to verify the stability of the study tool, where the stability was calculated for each of the axes of the study tool, and the overall stability of the study tool was calculated. Table (4) shows the stability coefficient, which confirms the stability of the study tool represented by In the questionnaire:
Table (4) shows the stability coefficient, which confirms the stability of the study tool represented by In the questionnaire:
|Number of phrases
|The main axes
|The first axis
|The second axis
Analyze the results of the questionnaire.
- In order to analyze the responses to reach the results, the researcher analyzed the raw scores, and applied the different statistical coefficients on them through the statistical program (SPSS). The researcher used several statistical methods, namely the arithmetic mean, standard deviation, and correlation coefficients. The responses of the respondents to the questionnaire, as well as the standard deviation, the general average of the resolution scores was (2.85), while the standard deviation was (0.87) for the questionnaire as a whole, and the arithmetic mean for the first axis of the questionnaire was (1.2), and the second axis was (3.95). The arithmetic mean for the third axis was (3.42).
- The researcher adopted five averages for analysis and indication of significance through the arithmetic averages and standard deviations that he reached, where the largest arithmetic mean in the study sample was (4.85) and the lowest arithmetic mean was (1.1), while the smallest value of the standard deviation was (0.91) and the largest value The standard deviation is (2.14), and the researcher relied on five values, where the researcher adopted the value from (1.1-1.85) to indicate strongly disagree, (1.85-2.6) for disagreeing, and (2.6-3.35) for neutral, and (3.35-4.1). ) Agree, and (4.1-4.85) strongly agree.
Table (5) Means and standard deviations in the questionnaire axes
The first axis
|The reality of using the technologies of the fourth industrial revolution in electronic government institutions
The second axis
|Challenges facing e-government institutions in keeping pace with the developments resulting from the Fourth Industrial Revolution
|Applicable solutions in e-government institutions in light of the fourth industrial revolution
Through the study of the subject, and through the researcher’s study of the subject in a scientific manner and methodology, and based on the findings of the researcher in terms of results and analysis of the theoretical content and conducting scientific statistical analyzes of the degrees of measurement and interviews and dropping all of that on that study, the researcher reached the following conclusions:
- E-government institutions do not use virtual reality devices. Digital applications are absent from e-government institutions.
- E-government institutions do not use modern technology
- E-government institutions do not use robots. The large number of tasks carried out by e-government institutions constitutes an obstacle in employing the technologies of the Fourth Industrial Revolution.
- The high financial cost of purchasing private devices is one of the challenges facing e-government institutions.
- Technical support is not provided during the application of the techniques of the fourth industrial revolution in e-government institutions.
- There is a weakness in the availability of the Internet that supports the technologies of the fourth industrial revolution while using the technologies of the industrial revolution in e-government institutions
- Huge Internet networks are indispensable. These technologies are not efficient without a good infrastructure to serve them.
- Exchanging huge amounts of information increases the efficiency of e-government institutions The introduction of robots and artificial intelligence in e-government institutions increases administrative efficiency.
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