Prepared by the researcher
Sanae Hanine, Professor- researcher, Laboratory (LARETA), Faculty of Sciences and Techniques (FST), Hassan First University, Settat, Morocco
Moulay Driss Saikak – Professor- researcher, Mohammed V University, Rabat, Morocco
EL BOUFI Nazha – Professor- researcher, Laboratory (LARETA), Faculty of Sciences and Techniques (FST), Hassan First University, Settat, Morocco
Democratic Arab Center
Journal of African Studies and the Nile Basin : Twentieth Issue – June 2023
A Periodical International Journal published by the “Democratic Arab Center” Germany – Berlin
Journal of African Studies and the Nile Basin
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Soft power relies on culture, values, economic and preventive diplomacy rather than coercion or coercive military and economic force known as hard power. On this theoretical basis, the article examines the artillery that Morocco deploys on the African continent in terms of soft power, which seeks to establish itself as a regional power. The article makes an assessment that capitalizes on the main actions undertaken by Morocco in strategic areas such as security, economy, culture, immigration, education and training. It also opens up an analysis of the prospects for the future in the light of current elements and events.
Le soft power table sur la culture, les valeurs, la diplomatie économique et préventive plutôt que sur la contrainte ou la force militaire et économique coercitives dite hard-power. Sur cette base théorique, l’article examine l’artillerie que déploie le Maroc sur le continent africain en matière du soft power qui cherche à s’ériger en puissance régionale. L’article fait un bilan qui capitalise sur les principales actions entreprises par le Maroc à ce sujet dans des domaines stratégiques tels que la sécurité, l’économie, la culture, l’immigration, l’éducation-formation. Il ouvre également une analyse des perspectives du futur à la lumière des éléments actuels.
Morocco aspires to confirm its position as a regional geopolitical and geostrategic power by strengthening its African leadership. It has never ceased to deploy its efforts to root its position on the African scene and boost cooperation with African countries. To this end, Morocco wields a subtle use of soft power to achieve its geopolitical and geoeconomic objectives, which is based on political, economic, diplomatic, spiritual and religious, cultural, humanitarian and media instruments.
Indeed, since October 1, 2022, Morocco has held the presidency of the Peace and Security Council of the African Union as part of the Kingdom’s second three-year term within this decision-making body of the pan-African organization. This re-election for a second three-year term after that of 2018-2020 illustrates the strength of his soft power within the African Union. The signing of an agreement between Morocco and Nigeria in 2022 on the gas pipeline project supposed to link Nigeria to Morocco to Spain, intended to transport gas along the Atlantic coast and connect a dozen countries of this Moroccan soft power.
The British firm “Brand Finance”, which ranks countries according to their influence, published its “Soft Power Index 2023” report, ranked Morocco 50th in the world (46th in 2022) ahead of Egypt (38th in the world ) and South Africa (40th worldwide). Thus, through an energetic and dynamic soft power, Morocco relies on the latter as a geostrategic tool to serve its interests in Africa. The African continent constitutes an obvious geoeconomic and geostrategic stake in the current international chessboard and polarizes the attention and the unbridled competition of several powers with a certain withering of the so-called traditional colonial powers.
The irruption of emerging powers such as China, Russia, India, Brazil on the African scene, and the growing interest of the United States and Japan for the continent have profoundly disrupted the monopolies of European countries which, considered Africa to be part of their “natural preserve”. Notwithstanding the offensive of regional powers such as South Africa and Nigeria, Africa is expanding its partnerships and improving its diplomatic and economic attractiveness to new countries such as Turkey, Malaysia, Indonesia and Gulf countries. Africa’s wealth in natural and agricultural resources, which qualifies it as one of the world’s main suppliers of food, energy and minerals, puts it in a situation of covetousness from several actors. Africa contains 60% of the world’s uncultivated arable land (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), 30% of the world’s mineral reserves, 10% of the world’s oil reserves and 8% of the world’s natural gas (African Center for Natural Resources). All these indicators reflect the promising future of investments in Africa and explain, to some extent, Morocco’s determination to regain its place on the continent, which represents access to a market of 55 countries representing one billion consumers and 60% of global GDP.
In this movement, Morocco deploys on the African continent an important device of power with regard to the geoeconomic, geopolitical and geostrategic stakes around which revolves its soft power. (El Khayat, 2016) considers that the continent is seen as Morocco’s new economic and geopolitical frontier. The deep historical, religious, cultural and even commercial dimension only reinforces the idea that the continent is naturally an area where the country can establish itself and develop to ensure its economic future and its long-term prosperity.
Morocco thus has a historical, cultural and symbolic heritage, which constitutes a major asset for its soft power in Africa. Indeed, from 1631, Moulay achérif imposes his authority in the region of Tafilalet. In 1957, Mohammed V was the instigator of the first conference of heads of state of independent African countries. On his initiative, the “Charter of Casablanca” was adopted, which can be considered as the first step in the creation of the Organization of African Unity founded in 1963. The Constitution of (2011) underlines its African identity and puts emphasis on its deep country roots on the continent. By rejoining the African Union in 2017 and obtaining the agreement in principle to join ECOWAS during the same year, Morocco has taken a new step in its history with the continent.
Our article aims to analyze the approaches and tools that shape Moroccan soft power towards Africa and to take stock of them and open up to the prospects. Our problem is as follows: what is the assessment of Moroccan soft power to strengthen its influence in Africa and what are the prospects?
The Moroccan strategy in terms of soft power is interesting because in comparison with Algeria (75th rank) in influence, a fierce competitor of Morocco in terms of African leadership, despite the colossal means it deploys, it still does not ahead of Morocco (50th in the world rank). Soft power is a crucial vector for serving the primary national cause of its territorial integrity. Its presence in several supranational organizations is an opportunity to defend its interests. According to the Minister of Foreign Affairs, African Cooperation and Moroccans Living Abroad, around 40% of African states have opened consulates in Laâyoune and Dakhla (August 2022). An important motive that pushes Morocco to use its soft offensive, which helps to maintain influence and peaceful relations, especially with its periphery, which allows its economy to develop, helps to ensure a secure supply of energy and offers opportunities for Moroccan companies.
To answer the research question, the documentary methodology is based on a review of an analytical literature of a set of official studies as well as those of researchers who have been interested in the question of Moroccan soft power in Africa.
- Hard, soft and smart power
Nye (2004) in his book “Soft Power, the means to success in world politics” defines soft power as “the ability to form the preferences of others through the attraction of one’s values, culture and policies”. Soft power is getting others to “want what you want”. (Nye, 2007) adds that Soft Power anticipates action through mediation and persuasion, which involves the adoption of strategic principles that combine symbolic or cultural reference elements with political or ideological values that reinforce leadership. .
Considered as a means of influencing the other in such a way that the relationship is not a binding relationship (hard power) but a desirable relationship desired by the other (soft power) according to (Pelletier, 2010). Soft power is the ability to attract co-optation rather than coercion. In other words, soft power is about shaping the preferences of others through attraction.
Tools of soft power include, for example, culture, values and foreign policies. China, for example, has gained a lot of soft power with its “five no” policy in Africa. Brand Finance defines Soft Power as the ability of a State to influence and steer international relations in its favor by a set of means other than coercive (threat or use of force), processes which are for their part hard power, or power of constraint.
It is often contrasted with hard power, which is getting others to want what you want through coercion or motivation. Hard power combines military force with economic power since one can threaten and incite other states by imposing economic sanctions or even economic isolation.
According to our analysis, Nye’s definition of soft power has broadened. The weight of attraction of the economy, trade flows, direct investment, transfer of technology, the number of visits by senior officials, the presence of the media of a country of influence far outweighed the others potential sources of influence, such as direct military threats, narrow the line between soft power and hard power.
Feklyunina (2016) indicates that soft power is likely to be used more effectively when the two states involved have some degree of common identity. “Actor B’s interpretation of their interests”, “is likely to be more compatible with the interests of actor A. Soft power, is more likely “to be present in a relationship between actors who widely seen as part of a single socially constructed reality. According to Sindjoun (2008), soft power is one of the characteristics of strategically mature states. Both material and immaterial, cultural power is a set of material and symbolic means allowing a State to achieve its geopolitical ambitions.
- Soft power: mixed indicators
The Institute for Government and media company Monocle created the first attempt to measure soft power using a composite index in 2010. The measures were organized according to a framework of five sub-indexes including culture, diplomacy, education, business/ innovation, and government (McClory, 2010). The Global Soft Power 2023 published by Brand Finance is based on three indicators: familiarity, reputation and influence. The intervening factors generally relate to political, economic, social, cultural and informational dynamics in the target country, which play a decisive role in determining the degree of influence that an external actor will have.
Furthermore, some of the most powerful economic tools for exerting influence are tourism, foreign student exchange programs and FDI, interest groups, NGOs and supranational organizations. The success of soft power depends on the reputation of the actor within the community as well as the flow of information between the actors.
Popular culture and the media are also identified as sources of soft power, along with the dissemination of a national language.
- Assessment of Moroccan Soft power in Africa
With more than 1,000 agreements concluded with the African continent “Between 1956 and 1999, 515 agreements had been signed, whereas since 2000, there have been 949 according to the Royal Institute for Strategic Studies (2012), Morocco remains a model in the South-South cooperation according to the report of the African Development Bank (ADB) and the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa.
- The security, peace and development nexus
Morocco’s foreign policy strives to settle international disputes by peaceful means and works to strengthen international cooperation and develop friendly relations between States, based on equality, mutual interest and non-interference in internal affairs. (Abourabi, 2020) in her book “Morocco’s African policy: role identity and power projection“, describes this approach as a “golden mean or middle way”. Initially known as a philosophical expression, then a religious one, the notion of “middle way” acquired political value in the discursive field of Moroccan decision-makers. It refers to Morocco’s desire to be recognized in its moderation, its promotion of peace, its tolerance, dialogue, openness, mutually beneficial cooperation, stability and solidarity.
Contrary to the approach of Western countries, which have always adopted a mixed policy towards Africans, Morocco is relying on soft power based on a diplomatic strategy favoring South-South cooperation and a win-win approach. The Moroccan values of benevolence and respect earned by virtue are of particular interest in the win-win era. Non-intervention and preventive diplomacy has proven its effectiveness in the search for peaceful and lasting solutions to crises on the African continent. In its peacekeeping efforts, Morocco participates actively and regularly with Moroccan troops in Peacekeeping Operations (OMP) under the aegis of the United Nations, making the Kingdom the third French-speaking country in the world to contribute to these operations. United Nations behind France and Senegal ».
- Economic diplomacy
In 2000, Morocco canceled the debts of African Least Developed Countries (LDCs), and proceeded to open Moroccan borders to export products from these African LDCs. In 2001, Morocco joined the Community of Sahel-Saharan States (CEN-SAD), thus concretizing several bilateral cooperation projects and for the benefit of several African countries, in all socio-economic fields. In 2008, a trade and investment agreement was concluded with the West African Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA). Morocco has become, since 2004, one of the main investor countries in Africa (figure).. The partnership agreements with the various countries of the continent were crowned by the signing by Morocco of the African Continental Free Trade Area (ZLECAF) agreement in 2018. Morocco has made its foreign direct investment (FDI) a considerable instrument of its African policy, in particular by becoming one of the first intra-African investors in 2016 (AfDB, 2017). Moroccan investments in Africa are growing and diversifying into a variety of sectors, namely financial services, telecoms, real estate, distribution and even the chemical industry with an average annual growth rate of 8.3 % thus 6.8 billion DH injected into the continent in 2019. This sectorial diversification has made Morocco one of the first African investors in the Economic Union of West African States (UEMOA) and the Community of Central Africa (CEMAC). The presence is also confirmed in East, Central, and Southern Africa. Indeed, West Africa alone captures 55% of Moroccan investments in Africa. North Africa holds 25% of flows against 15% for Central Africa and 5% for Southern Africa.
Figure: Evolution of the flow of Moroccan FDI in the ECOWAS zone 2008-2016
Source: Morocco – ECOWAS Regulatory framework and evolution of foreign trade (trade and investment). Exchange Office. Morocco
According to the Department of Economic Studies and Financial Forecast, the value of Morocco-Africa trade exchanges evolved by 9.5% on annual average during the period 2000-2019, to stand at nearly 39.6 billion dirhams (MMDH) in 2019, representing about 6.9% of the total value of Morocco’s foreign trade against 4.3% in 2000. From the year 2015 Morocco’s trade balance becomes surplus. Moroccan exports to the continent experienced an annual average rebound of 11% to 21.6 billion dirhams in 2019, thus representing 7.7% of Morocco’s total exports against 3.7% in 2000(Figure).
Figure: Morocco’s trade with Africa (in billions of dirhams)
Source : DEPF-MEF. Policy Bief
Beside to the launch of the Adaptation of African Agriculture initiative, known as “Triple A”, Morocco has signed more than 38 agreements related to food security with 18 African countries. The Office Chérifien des Phosphates (OCP) is committed to the development of fertilizer production units in Ethiopia, Ghana, Nigeria, Zambia, Rwanda and Gabon, in addition to a number of training for farmers.
Priority has also been given to the development of regional strategies in the field of the environment with the aim of improving African resilience in the face of climate change (blue financing of the “Lake Chad” of the Congo Basin, blue belt) contribute to strengthening its leadership role on major environmental and food safety issues. Morocco has also invested in its geographical location to position itself as a logistics hub for the continent through the Tanger-Med container port, which provides weekly connections with nearly 35 ports in West Africa.
- Religious soft power
The mobilization of symbolic resources linked to the spread of moderate Islam is one of the pillars of Moroccan religious and spiritual soft power in Africa. According to El Khayat (2016), the profound influence of Morocco on Sub-Saharan Africa is essentially religious. According to Barre (1989), the zawiyas, allowed Morocco to introduce Maliki Sunni Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa. Through the practice of rites such as Malikite the expansion of brotherhoods of Moroccan origin such as the Tidjaniya and the Qadiriya Boutchichiya. The zawiyas of Moroccan origin (Tidjaniya and Qadiriya Boutchichiya) play an important role in the fight against extremist deviations, insofar as they participate in the spiritual and sometimes social framework.
The League of Ulemas of Morocco and Senegal has existed for thirty years. The Tidjanyia pilgrimage or the construction of mosques in Africa also contribute to the influence of Morocco in religious matters.The training of imams, of which there are 1,500, is the responsibility of the Mohammed VI Foundation of African Ulemas created in 2017.
- A humanized migration policy
Regarding the migratory aspect, the new immigration and asylum policy adopted in 2014 by Morocco constitutes a new turning point in its migratory policy, which aims to guarantee migrants’ access to fundamental rights and services. African migration represents 14% of the total population of international migrants. Many facts demonstrate Morocco’s willingness to build an efficient migration policy such as the Rabat Process or the co-presidency of the Global Forum for Migration and Development, but also the designation of the King as “leader of the African Union for Migration” and the official inauguration of the African Observatory of Migrations in Rabat in 2020. Beside those efforts, the Law No. 02-03 has been revised. In parallel Morocco undertook an institutional reform through the creation in 2004 of the Department of Migration and Border Surveillance. In 2017, the validity of the residence permit increased to three years instead of one year. After this period, migrants can apply for a ten-year residence permit. Foreign citizens also have the option of applying for citizenship after five years of permanent residence in Morocco. There is also a new bill in parliament pending to amend the nationality code to allow foreigners married to Moroccan women to be naturalized. The first regularization campaign for irregular migrants carried out in 2014 and resulted in the regularization of 23,096 migrants, then the second in 2017 with 26,860 regularization requests. In addition, 4,277 refugees registered in Morocco by UNHCR since 2016 (1,910, mostly from sub-Saharan Africa).
It should also be noted that Morocco has adhered to international standards for guaranteeing the rights of migrants and has ratified international conventions to guarantee non-discrimination between migrant and national workers.
The importance of the diaspora and its positive effect, both for the host countries and for the countries of origin, is such that it is rightly attributed the name of the “sixth region of Africa”. This diaspora plays an increasingly important role in promoting socio-economic development, particularly through remittances.
- Education- training- culture
Moroccan cultural diplomacy encompasses a set of actions undertaken to promote the Moroccan model beyond borders. Moroccan cultural diplomacy encompasses a set of actions undertaken to promote their Moroccan model beyond borders. The Moroccan Agency for International Cooperation (AMCI) grants more than 6,000 scholarships for foreign students. The policy of welcoming African students, which has intensified since 2000 to welcome around 15,000 students, including 7,000 scholarship holders from the Moroccan government. More than 72% of foreign students pursuing their studies in Moroccan universities and institutes come from around forty sub-Saharan African countries.
The creation of the Institute of African Studies specializing in research on Africa reinforces the tendency to anchor Moroccan soft power. Morocco has also joined several African scientific and technological organizations such as the African Regional Center for Technology (ARCT), the African Regional Center for Space Science and Technology (CRASTE) or the African Academy of Sciences (AAS). Private higher education institutions in Morocco have also developed their internationalization strategy in Africa. Thus, the International University of Rabat has concluded a partnership agreement with the Ministry of Higher Education aimed at promoting university exchanges with the possibility of granting scholarships to African students. The African Energy Academy (ACAFE) was created to train African operators in the field of refining.
In the field of culture, Morocco has initiated several actions such as the publication of the magazine Les Afriques, the financing by the Moroccan Cinematographic Center (CCM) of several African projects and assistance in the co-production and post-production of African films. The organization of festivals whose vocation is to best represent African culture and the continent’s heritage is developing in Morocco, in particular through the promulgation of the 1st edition of the African Theater Festival, the African Short Documentary Film Festival, the International Festival of the African Cinema of Khouribga, the African Book Festival of Marrakech etc.
World Africa Day, celebrated on May 25 each year, offers the opportunity to highlight the Kingdom’s African commitment and its solidarity with the countries of the continent.
- The media
The Atlantic Federation of African News Agencies (FAAPA) was created in 2014 and works under the coordination of the Moroccan agency MAP. This federation is funded by the Moroccan state, as is the African Center for Journalist Training, which was created at the same time. The two new entities have their offices in the premises of MAP. In recent years, media groups have created subsidiaries abroad, such as Hit Radio, or the Eco Media group.
- Humanitarian aid
Morocco is stepping up its humanitarian aid, particularly following natural disasters, conflicts or accidents: direct donations, and consists of donations of foodstuffs, medicines, tents and blankets, and field operations in various countries of the continent. To fight against the coronavirus, Morocco has sent medical aid to 15 sub-Saharan countries.
The African continent faces diverse challenges in an ever-changing global environment, and dares related to climate change, food security, outbreak of war in Sudan as well as the fallout from the war in Ukraine. These factors shape Morocco’s relationship with African countries and its soft power approach. At the same time, Morocco is facing increased competition on the African chessboard. The major world powers are also seeking to establish themselves and increase their presence on the continent, such as China, Turkey, Russia, Iran and India, and in particular France. As mentioned earlier, China has significantly increased its presence in Sub-Saharan Africa in recent years and has benefited to some extent from the “first mover” advantage in some countries. However, China is even less present in French-speaking Africa than in English-speaking countries. Nevertheless, Morocco, by enrolling in the spirit of South-South cooperation based on co-development, acquires an undeniable competitive advantage, in particular by enrolling in the logic of Agenda 2063 and the entry into force of the Continental Free Trade Area (ZLECAf).
The Global Soft Power 2023 published by Brand Finance noted that Morocco must improve its influence, particularly for the following headings: Business and trade, governance, international relations, cultural heritage, media and communication, education and science, people and values, and in last place sustainability. To create the good-neighbor effect, Moroccan soft power can develop on several levels. Economic diplomacy is the backbone and this in sectors presented as having a common interest mainly in the field of agro-industry, industry, finance. Other sectors have an important role to play, namely education and training, cultural diplomacy, innovation as well as science and technology.
These efforts must combine the efforts of several public, private and civil society stakeholders to mobilize their contributions to the development of the Morocco brand. Efforts must also be continued with the private sector, foundations, non-governmental organizations, civil society organizations and universities.
- Diplomatic governance
L’adhésion du Maroc à des organisations internationales est susceptible de renforcer sa présence auprès des instances africaines en particulier au niveau de l’UA, la ZLECAf, de l’Agence de développement de l’UA/NEPAD et du Conseil Economique, Social et Culturel de l’UA (ECOSOCC), UMA, CEDEAO. Selon Le CESE (2020), le Maroc pourrait gagner en influence avec un suivi rigoureux de ses accords de coopération avec les pays africains.
- Economic diplomacy
Despite the efforts made, the level of Morocco’s trade with African countries, which does not exceed 4% of all its trade, does not reflect the real potential that exists in terms of economic cooperation. According to (Moisseron and Daguzan, 2019), the Moroccan private sector is still fully aware of the opportunities and challenges that SSA represents. The African Continental Free Trade Area (ZLECAf), operational since January 2021, which Morocco joined in 2019, for an intensification of intra-African trade in goods and services with a potential market of 1.2 billion consumers would offer new export opportunities for Moroccan products, thanks to the development of the Dakhla-Atlantique port and logistics platform. The implementation of the (ZLECAf) will enable Morocco to strengthen its position thanks to the elimination of customs barriers between all African countries. The World Bank estimates that the implementation of the ZLECAf could increase regional income by 7%, to 450 billion dollars by 2035. Morocco would be in the Top 10 beneficiary countries (9th), with an increase expected 8% of its income.
Morocco can also capitalize on its traditional sectors of influence such as banking, insurance and finance, in which it has a clear competitive advantage and can open up to new niches such as Fintech, green finance, the stimulation of entrepreneurship among young Africans. The agreements and conventions signed with several African countries are also opportunities for strategic partnerships to boost the export of Moroccan products, know-how and conquer new markets promoting “co-development” and “joint ventures” stimulating Morocco’s World Trades. Especially since the investment charter, that has just been promulgated gives advantages to the investment of Moroccans abroad and in particular in Africa.
Indeed the trades of the world of Morocco must find within the framework of the African market the opportunity to develop in particular agro-industry, green chemistry, green electricity, the pharmaceutical industry, the blue economy, the textile, the automotive industry, the aeronautics industry, tourism, logistics and transport, and ultimately crafts and culinary arts. Infrastructure and economic projects capable of strengthening inter-regional integration in Africa. For example, the Nigeria-Morocco Gas Pipeline project and the Atlantic port of Dakhla will certainly play a crucial role in improving economic integration in Africa. The Nigeria-Morocco gas pipeline is one of the flagship projects linking the two countries through several West African countries. The strategic Nigeria-Morocco gas pipeline project will run along the West African coast from Nigeria, passing through Benin, Togo, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Guinea- Bissau, Gambia, Senegal and Mauritania to Morocco. It will be connected to the Maghreb-Europe gas pipeline and the European gas network and will supply the landlocked states of Niger, Burkina Faso and Mali.
Soft power through tourism can be boosted by a specific offer for Africans.
- Education – Training and culture
To strengthen its presence in the African academic and scientific field, the Moroccan University has an important role to play in this register, particularly within the framework of cooperation in science and technology. This involves the implementation of research programs in partnerships between centers of research excellence in African countries. This strategy involves facilitating the mobility of teachers and students in both directions through the establishment of dynamic exchange programs like the European Erasmus program. On this subject, the ESEC (2020) recommends the mutual recognition of diplomas between African countries, which will be a considerable asset for educational and professional integration. He also recommends making it easier to obtain work permits for African graduates.
The promotion of the cultural industry by taking initiatives on the anchoring of the African identity of Morocco. On this register, a great communication and media work must be undertaken. The design of programs for African cultural visitors. Cultural exchanges between Morocco and Africa can be a representative example of how it can extend its soft power. The establishment of cultural institutes like the Confucius institutes. The movement of artists is considered to have a great impact in this regard, facilitating the circulation of artists and the implementation of a cultural and creative industry presents a sector with high growth potential in Africa.
The integration strategy would benefit from increasing the involvement of civil society and strengthening the activity of think tanks, which are real tools. The strengthening of soft power would ensure development by moving Morocco out of its comfort zone and opening up to countries by identifying potential niches favorable to export or investment.
According to MIT Technology Review, Morocco is a leader in green energy in Africa. Morocco recently became the fourth member state of the African Circular Economy Alliance (ACEA). The African Circular Economy Alliance is the leading institution for business cooperation, knowledge economy and technology transfer. For its leadership position in sustainability, the African Development Bank (ADB) expressed its desire to extend the Moroccan model to other Africans countries. Climate change, food security, green energies, can constitute an opportunity for Morocco to position itself in terms of support and development of projects in Africa. Blue economy, green hydrogen and clean electricity, water and waste management, could be sectors for the expansion of Moroccan soft power.
Morocco-Africa relations are complex. Despite these efforts and the positive results achieved, endemic obstacles obstruct the development of soft power, in particular the closing of the borders between Morocco and Algeria and the status quo in Libya. The spin-offs from the partnerships have not yet achieved all the targeted objectives and clearly fall short of the opportunities offered by regional integration in terms of economic development.
The fallout from the war in Ukraine, the outbreak of the conflict in Sudan, the intensification of the presence of powers in the continent are factors that will put Moroccan soft power in front of real challenges.
Morocco can further strengthen its presence on the African continent, especially since there are still a number of avenues to explore in order to strengthen Moroccan soft power on African territory. The hopes are immense with regard to the implementation of ZELCAF, the promising objectives of Agenda 2063 and above all an awareness of Africa of itself and its emancipation and above all its hopes placed on South-South collaboration.
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 Namely: not to interfere in the search by African countries for a path of development adapted to their national conditions, not to interfere in African internal affairs, not to impose our will on Africa, not to attach any political condition to our aid to Africa, and not pursue selfish political interests in our investment and financing cooperation with Africa