Research studies

Digital citizenship and its teaching in The Egyptian Educational System and Curriculum


Prepared by the researche

  • Mohammed Gamal  – Department of Curriculum and Teaching Methods, Faculty of Education
  • Samia Gamal – Department of Curriculum and Teaching Methods, Faculty of Education

Democratic Arabic Center

Journal index of exploratory studies : Fourteenth Issue – June 2024

A Periodical International Journal published by the “Democratic Arab Center” Germany – Berlin

Nationales ISSN-Zentrum für Deutschland
ISSN 2701-9233
Journal index of exploratory studies

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This article examines the implementation of digital citizenship education within the Egyptian educational system and curriculum. It focuses on the significance of fostering digital literacy, ethical online behavior, and responsible digital engagement among students. The paper explores the current landscape of digital citizenship education in Egypt and proposes strategies for enhancing its integration into the academic framework, Digital citizenship is broadly viewed as the ability to participate effectively in online communities. Since information and communications technology is pivotal to societal participation and development, the role of digital citizenship is significant. Formalizations guiding learning and practice for digital citizenship foster ideals and concepts that are essential to development and participation, Based on the results of the current study, the researcher recommends the necessity of informing curriculum specialists about contemporary concepts of curricula such as digital citizenship, reconsidering the weaknesses and poverty in the curricula in Egypt in light of digital citizenship and strengthening the strengths, and working to build and develop curricula in light of various international standards such as Concepts of digital citizenship in light of the requirements of the digital age.


   The introduction sets the stage by highlighting the growing importance of digital citizenship in the era of pervasive technology. It delineates the critical role of educational institutions in equipping students with the necessary skills and knowledge to navigate the digital realm responsibly. By emphasizing the context of the Egyptian educational system, this section underscores the urgency of incorporating digital citizenship education into the curriculum.

  Digital citizenship and related programs have at their core the goal of changing or shaping youth behavior, encouraging positive and respectful online behaviors while preventing negative behaviors, such as cyberbullying (Finkelhor, Walsh, Jones, Mitchell, & Collier, 2021)

     Digital citizenship refers to the responsible use of technology by anyone who uses computers, the internet, and digital devices to engage with society on any level. As the rate of technological advancement continues to increase, the world as a whole is becoming even more dependent on the internet for day-to-day activities. That makes digital literacy and citizenship a crucial topic to teach today’s students. Good digital citizenship for students engages them and shows them how to connect with one another, empathize with each other, and create lasting relationships through digital tools. Bad digital citizenship, on the other hand, entails cyberbullying, irresponsible social media usage, and a general lack of knowledge about how to safely use the internet. Fortunately, almost all of the requirements to be a good digital citizen can be taught in the classroom.

     The concept of digital citizenship is considered one of the new concepts emerging from the developments of the modern digital era, and by referring to the basis of the concept of digital citizenship, we know the homeland as the place where the individual lives and belongs, and patriotism is the individual’s feeling and feelings towards the homeland, and it manifests them in the form of socially, religiously and morally acceptable behaviors, which are represented in: Love of the homeland, land, and civilization and pride in them. With technical development, the communications revolution, the emergence of globalization, and the involvement of peoples and societies, the concept of citizenship emerged, which is a broader concept than the individual being good within his community and homeland. Citizenship is a person’s contribution socially and politically to participate in building the land and taking control of it. Citizenship aims to provide the individual with the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values ​​that make the individual a responsible member and an active participant in his group, fully aware of his rights and duties, loyal to and belonging to his homeland, and has a positive attitude toward political authority. Obedient to laws and social norms, and engaged in serving his country.

  1. Literature review:
  1. The concept of digital citizenship:

     the concept of digital citizenship has evolved from one of the first definitions of digital citizenship written by Ribble and Bailey (Ribble & Bailey, 2007), which focused on technological aspects and digital competencies, to the one proposed by Emejulu and McGregor (Emejulu, McGregor, 2019), which highlights the commitment to social justice and to emancipatory and alternative technology. In the same vein, Pangrazio and Sefton-Green (Pangrazio, Sefton-Green, 2021). point out that early conceptions of digital citizenship were concerned with the individual’s right to access and participate online to bridge the digital divide. Currently, the relationship of citizenship with the digital world has become much more complex around collective identities and in the context of social networks with ample possibilities.

     This trend and the recent conceptual process of the category of digital citizenship show the diversity of approaches and perspectives, whether educational, social, political, etc. For example, Law, Chow, and Fu take into account up to three curricular or pedagogical perspectives digital citizenship, such as digital competence, as an integral part of information culture and a final perspective related to preparation for civic engagement and politics. Similarly, Ryland. classifies different approaches and definitions of digital citizenship into four groups: digital literacy, digital access, digital personhood, and civic engagement. Not surprisingly, the latest publications call for an urgent redesign and redefinition of digital citizenship to include the latest contributions of the most advanced, critical and global concepts, as well as consideration of broader contexts and state-of-the-art educational practices (Carr, Hoechsmann,, Thésée, 2018, Heath, Marcovitz, 2019).

      In a study by Ribble (2015), all the states of the concept of digital citizenship were analyzed, which he then separated into nine dimensions: “Digital Access, Digital Trade, Digital Communication, Digital Literacy, Digital Ethics, Digital Law, Digital Rights and Responsibilities, Digital Health, and Digital Security.” As technology has become essential in our daily lives, it is important that it is used safely and effectively. Digital citizenship refers to the ability to use technology correctly and appropriately rather than merely using it. As technology gains more importance, the digital citizenship concept will also become more important. An examination of the studies conducted in this field reveals that most of them focused on citizens and their privacy, security, accessibility by everyone through technology as well as their communication possibilities and their health and ethical dimensions

     “Digital citizenship” is the ability to participate in society online. What, however, does it mean to invoke the notion of citizenship in relation to the use of a technology? More than half a century ago, British sociologist T.H. Marshall defined citizenship as endowing all members of a political community with certain civil, political, and social rights of membership, including “the right to share to the full in the social heritage and to live the life of a civilized being according to the standards prevailing in the society”. Information technology, we argue, has assumed a secure place today in the civilized life and prevailing standards of society. In much the same way that education has promoted democracy and economic growth, the Internet has the potential to benefit society as a whole, and facilitate the membership and participation of individuals within society. We contend that digital citizenship encourages what has elsewhere been called social inclusion (Warschauer, 2003).

     According to Ribble (2008) digital citizenship involves preparing individuals for a society full of technology, by providing them with various technological skills, and preparing them to adhere to standards of acceptable behavior while using technology, this contributes to preserving the country’s national identity and strengthening the ties between members of society. Alberta Education (2014) demonstrates that digital citizenship requires following ethical principles, and finding a balance between enabling individuals to use technology and being responsible for the benefit of the digital community. Further, it requires participation from local and regional communities to prepare youth for effective participation in these societies.

      Al-Dahshan (2015) adds that digital citizenship is defined as the standards and principles adopted in all uses of digital technology, which are represented in the set of rights that the individuals should possess while using technology. Further, it is represented in the duties or obligations that they should adhere to while using technology.

     In addition to all these qualifications regarding the concept of digital citizenship, the use of rights in the digital environment that hides itself in definitions must be effectively put into the scope of digital citizenship. Digital citizenship will then turn into a citizenship type who uses both the technology and the internet effectively, knows the responsibilities and rights of the online world, and can benefit from the various political, social and economic opportunities online. Thus, the scope of digital citizen identification which only refers to those who use the internet effectively and responsibly in online environments will expand.

  1. Key Principles of Digital Citizenship Education[Original Blog]

     One of the main goals of digital citizenship education is to help students develop the skills, knowledge, and attitudes that will enable them to participate in the digital world in a responsible, respectful, and safe manner. Digital citizenship education is not only about teaching students how to use technology, but also how to use it wisely and ethically. Digital citizenship education is based on some key principles that guide the curriculum and pedagogy of this field. These principles are:

  • Respect: This principle involves respecting oneself and others in the digital environment, as well as respecting the rules and norms that govern the online community. Respect includes elements such as digital etiquette, digital access, and digital law. For example, students should learn how to communicate politely and constructively online, how to avoid cyberbullying and hate speech, how to respect the privacy and intellectual propertyrights of others, and how to comply with the legal and ethical standards of the digital world.
  • Educate: This principle involves educating oneself and others about the opportunities and challenges of the digital world, as well as developing the skills and competencies that are necessary for effectiveand critical use of technology. Educate includes elements such as digital literacydigital communication, and digital commerce. For example, students should learn how to find, evaluate, and use information online, how to collaborate and communicate with diverse audiences and purposes, and how to engage in online transactions and activities in a safe and informed manner.
  • Protect: This principle involves protecting oneself and others from the potential harms and risks of the digital world, as well as promoting the well-being and security of the online community. Protect includes elements such as digital rights and responsibilities, digital health and wellness, and digital security. For example, students should learn how to protect their personal data and identity online, how to balance their screen time and online activities with their physical and mental health, and how to prevent and respond to cyberattacksand threats.

     These three principles of digital citizenship education are interrelated and complementary, as they aim to foster a positive and productive digital culture that benefits both individuals and society. By following these principles, students can become more aware, engaged, and empowered digital citizens who can contribute to the development of a more democratic, inclusive, and sustainable digital world.

  1. digital citizenship elements

       A concept that proves fruitful for describing how DC is implemented in the classroom is the nine-element model (Ribble, 2015). This model’s popularity and broad scope make it an interesting framework in this analysis. In it, three main domains are structured into three subdomains each: respect online (digital access, digital etiquette, digital law), educate for online environments (digital communication, digital literacy, digital commerce), protect in online environments (digital rights and responsibilities, digital safety and security, digital health, and wellness).

      Another DC framework is DigComp 2.1 (Carretero et al., 2017), whose broad implementation in Europe makes it an important reference. In DigComp 2.1, five areas of digital competence are defined:

  • Information and data literacy: browsing, searching, filtering, evaluating, and managing data, information, and digital content.
  • Communication and collaboration: interacting, sharing, engaging in citizenship, collaborating, and communicating through digital technologies.
  • Digital content creation: developing, integrating, re-elaborating content, copyright and license management, and programming.
  • Safety: protecting devices, personal data and privacy, health and well-being, and the environment.
  • Problem-solving: solving technical problems, identifying needs and technological responses, creatively using digital technology, and identifying digital competence gaps.

      Specifically, the elements of citizenship are defined in the following:

  • lement 1: digital communications: which refers to the electronic exchange of information. Social networks and smartphones have changed the means of communication in societies; students can easily communicate around the world. Accordingly, educational institutions have developed a set of policies and laws for digital communications; some see that adopting digital communication tools in schools and classrooms provide various learning opportunities, while others are against using such tools
  • Element 2: digital commerce: which can be defined as selling and buying goods electronically. Furthermore, it is known as the combination of technologies and services to accelerate the performance of commerce exchange operations . It is often considered the most difficult element for educators to address in the classroom, as teachers may believe it is not their responsibility to teach students to be careful consumers, though, online purchasing has become an important aspect of students’ lives.
  • Element 3: digital access: which means full electronic participation in society, as the use of technology requires equal opportunities for all individuals.
  • Element 4: digital literacy: which refers to the process of learning about technology and the use of technology, as understanding how technology works is considered one of the most important aspects of it so that it can be used in the most appropriate manner. Despite the importance of this aspect; it is often overlooked; the focus is on learning the technology itself, with little time to discuss what is appropriate or inappropriate.
  • Element 5: digital etiquette: which refers to the electronic standards of conduct when using e-mail, social networking sites, chat rooms, newsgroups, and other technological means of communication. It can be defined as the set of rules that a digital citizen must follow while using the Internet, such as avoiding publishing false statements or disturbing others by sending unwanted emails, in large quantities.
  • Element 6: digital laws: which refers to the digital responsibility for actions and deeds. Technology has made it easier for users to share information, but users often overlook what is appropriate or inappropriate, or even illegal when publishing information on the Internet.
  • Element 7: Digital rights and responsibilities: this element describes the requirements and freedoms extended to individuals in the digital world, which allow them to access various technologies. As the digital citizen has a for Research and Studies The Degree to Which Secondary School Students set of rights, such as sharing personal opinions under legitimate frameworks and blocking suspicious sites, these rights are associated with a set of responsibilities, such as the ethical use of online resources, including citing sources and requesting permissions, and reporting cyberbullying and threats.
  • Element 8: Digital health and wellness: many technology users, especially youth, are at particular risk of developing internet addiction due to excessive Internet use; these users need to be aware of the health risks inherent in the use of digital technology, as experts often recommend resisting this type of addiction by avoiding its cau.
  • Element 9: Digital security: which are the procedures for ensuring electronic data protection. The idea of protecting what we have is not foreign to anyone; people put locks on the doors of their homes, and install security systems to protect their possessions, it is also imperative in the digital community to protect your data, by installing and updating antivirus program and backing up data.
  1. How can help student tbecome a good Digital Citizen?

     First, as adults we need to become good Digital Citizens. student are always watching, and they’ll learn from how you conduct yourself online. When it comes time for them to have access to technology and the internet independently, they’ll have a strong role model to model their own relationship with digital content on.

    Always engage with the digital world responsibly, positively, and critically. Create safe passwords, understand your digital footprint, share personal information appropriately, and be alert and actively aware of possible phishing emails.

     Next you can begin purposefully introducing your student to elements of Digital Citizenship. This list by Common Sense Media for parents of student 0-21 years old is a great place to start:

  • Choose real people and real world over screens: Ask yourself: Instead of turning on the television or handing my child the phone, is there another way I can encourage them to play on their own? Can an older sibling play with them? Is there a simple activity I can set up?
  • Watch and play together, and talk about it: Ask yourself: When my young child is watching a TV show or video, or playing an app, is there a sibling or adult who can watch or play with them? Ask them questions about what they’re watching to engage their brain for digital health.
  • Choose short and simple TV shows, videos, or apps: Ask yourself: Is the TV show, video, or app fast paced or loud? Does it have lots of distracting features? If so, avoid these shows or minimize them in favor of quieter, shorter ones so they can avoid becoming entranced by the screen for long periods.
  • Think about your own habits: Ask yourself: Am I distracted by my phone or the television when playing with my child? What are some ‘tech-free times’ I can set for myself and for my family? Remember that your children will learn by your example.
  1. Digital Literacy in the Classroom 

      All school-age kids today are what we might call digital natives. They have been raised online, giving them a foundational understanding of technologies that their parents and teachers may not have had themselves.

     This experience gives many young people a high level of digital literacy, which is defined by UNESCO as “the ability to access, manage, understand, integrate, communicate, evaluate, and create information safely and appropriately through digital technologies.” But students can further improve their digital literacy in the classroom, acquiring new skills and competences that will enable them to connect with others and engage in a range of useful tasks online.

     A distinction can be drawn between digital literacy and information literacy. Knowing how to navigate digital applications and workflows does not automatically equip young people with the skills to analyze the huge amount of information they encounter on a daily basis. Teachers therefore have a responsibility to show their students how to critically assess online content and discern between reliable and unreliable sources.

  1. Teaching Digital Citizenship in STEM 

     Digital citizenship can seem like an overwhelming topic for educators, especially since today’s students can have a greater aptitude for technology than their teachers. Fortunately, there are several online resources that teachers can use to integrate the principles of digital citizenship into their lesson plans.

     Teachers can teach digital citizenship concepts in a variety of ways. Activities could include a role play session where students practice how to engage with one another politely and constructively in an online environment, designing a poster or brochure relating to data privacy and online safety, or a challenge in which students must assess certain online sources in terms of their reliability.

  1. The Importance of Teaching Digital Citizenship:

     One of the key aspects of digital citizenship is education. Teaching digital citizenship is not only about informing students and educators about the safe, ethical, and responsible use of technology, but also about empowering them to become active and engaged participants in the digital world. Digital citizenship education can help students develop the skills, knowledge, and attitudes that are essential for living and working in a datafied society, where their personal information, online behavior, and digital footprint can have significant implications for their rights, opportunities, and well-being.

     Some of the benefits of teaching digital citizenship are:

  • It fosters a culture of respect, empathy, and collaboration among online users. By teaching students how to communicate effectively, respectfully, and responsibly online, digital citizenshipeducation can help prevent or reduce cyberbullying, hate speech, and misinformation. It can also promote positive online interactions that support learning, creativity, and social inclusion. For example, students can learn how to give constructive feedback, acknowledge diverse perspectives, and collaborate on projects with peers from different backgrounds and cultures.
  • It enhances critical thinking and media literacy skills. By teaching students how to evaluate the quality, credibility, and bias of information they encounter online, digital citizenship education can help them become more discerning and informed consumers and producers of digital content. It can also help them develop a sense of curiosity and inquiry that drives them to seek out multiple sources, verify facts, and challenge assumptions. For example, students can learn how to identify fake news, recognize propaganda techniques, and cite their sources properly.
  • It supports data protection and privacy By teaching students how to protect their personal dataand respect the privacy of others online, digital citizenship education can help them understand the risks and benefits of sharing information online, as well as the rights and responsibilities they have as digital citizens. It can also help them develop habits and practices that safeguard their online identity and reputation. For example, students can learn how to create strong passwords, adjust their privacy settings, and avoid phishing scams.
  • It prepares students for future opportunities and challenges. By teaching students how to use technology effectively, creatively, and responsibly for various purposes and contexts, digital citizenship education can help them acquire the competencies and mindsets that are essential for lifelong learning and careerreadiness in the digital age. It can also help them explore their interests, passions, and talents through digital platforms and tools that enable them to express themselves, showcase their work, and connect with others who share their goals. For example, students can learn how to create digital portfolios, blogs, podcasts, or videos that demonstrate their learning outcomes or showcase their skills.

     Teaching digital citizenship is not a one-time event or a separate subject. It is an ongoing process that requires the collaboration of educators, parents, students, and other stakeholders. It is also a dynamic concept that evolves with the changes in technology and society. Therefore, it is important to keep abreast of the latest trends and developments in the digital world and to adapt the curriculum and pedagogy accordingly. One of the resources that can help educators design and implement effective digital citizenship education is the digital Trust Ecosystem Framework (DTEF), which will be launched by ISACA later this year . The DTEF is a business framework that has been carefully designed by a global team of practitioners to support an entire enterprise. By focusing on organizational success in the digital economy, the DTEF provides methods of creating and maintaining trusted , meaningful, and mutually beneficial relationships, interactions, and transactions . The DTEF covers six domains: Strategy & Leadership; Governance & Compliance; Culture & Ethics; Data & TechnologyRisk & AssuranceQuality & Performance.

  1. The most important digital citizenship practices that Egyptian school and university students should have

Dimension 1: Respect Yourself/Others

  1. believe that everyone has basic digital rights, such as privacy and the right of expression and speech.
  2. believe that basic digital rights must be addressed, discussed, and understood by digital technology users.
  3. need to be taught about the inherent dangers of overuse of digital technologies.
  4. believe that creating destructive worms or viruses, creating Trojan Horses, and sending spam are digital crimes.
  5. understand the health and well-being risks surrounding the overuse of digital technologies, such as addiction and stress.
  6. believe that hacking into others’ information, downloading illegal music and movies, plagiarizing, or stealing anyone’s identification or property is unethical.
  7. In an online digital environment, I always respect others’ opinion and knowledge.
  8. In an online digital environment, I always respect others’ feelings.
  9. In an online digital environment, I always make sure not to interrupt others when it is their turn.
  10. believe that digital technology users also have responsibilities, such as respecting others’ basic digital rights.
  11. immediately delete emails from a suspicious source or sender.
  12. When I feel unhappy or uncomfortable in an online digital environment, I try to express my feelings in a very rational way.
  13. use email service to communicate with others.
  14. believe in the importance of maintaining good physical and psychological health in this digital world.
  15. do not save any important information on public computers.
  16. believe that understanding digital rights and responsibilities helps everyone to be productive.
  17. believe that everyone should take responsibility for his/her online actions and deeds.
  18. believe that the use of digital technologies must be a compromise between earring and negligence.
  19. Digital communication tools allow me to build new friendships in other parts of the world.
  20. have antivirus and Internet security protection on my computer.
  21. do not provide any unknown online parties with my personal information, such as bank accounts or credit cards.
  22. In digital communication, I respect others’ human rights, cultures, and right to expression.
  23. Digital communication tools allow me to communicate with my friends easily.
  24. In an online digital environment, I try to make sure that everyone has an equal opportunity for speech and discussion. (Al-Zahrani, 2015)

Dimension 2: Educate Yourself/Others

  1. Electronic commerce gives me better choices.
  2. Electronic commerce gives me more reasonable prices.
  3. always buy legal goods.
  4. do some research before buying anything from online stores.
  5. Electronic commerce does not conflict with my society’s regulations.
  6. love using electronic commerce tools (e.g., eBay and Amazon).
  7. prefer electronic commerce over going to the market.
  8. spend some time on social networks, such as Facebook and Twitter.
  9. use digital communication to express my opinion, learn, and share expertise.
  10. have been taught the new educational skills associated with digital technologies for the 21st century.
  11. only practice electronic commerce for goods that I cannot buy from or find in the market.

Dimension 3: Protect Yourself/Others

  1. always back up important data in a safe or external hard drive.
  2. always protect personal and important information in password-protected files.
  3. regularly change my passwords to protect my privacy.
  4. always read the privacy statement before installing new software.
  5. always do quick maintenance to remove unnecessary files and programs from my computer.
  6. have been taught about the possible threats when using new digital technologies.
  7. always visit trusted and harm-free websites.
  8. When I notice strange things happening to my computer, I take it right away to the maintenance center.
  9. always find support when I encounter issues in using new digital technologies in my learning activities.
  10. have been trained on how to integrate new digital technologies in my future teaching activities.
  11. do not open any unknown or untrusted files. (Jones and Mitchell, 2016).
  1. Why Teach Digital Citizenship with Technology in the Classroom?

     The benefits of digital citizenship for kids extend far beyond the individual. When we help students develop healthy practices on the Internet, we’re also creating a better space for everyone they interact with. If your students use technology in class, digital citizenship curriculum is one of the best ways to help everyone make the most of their time online.

     Because technology is so prevalent in schools, teachers often have to worry about how to prevent cyberbullying, cell phones disrupting class, and plagiarism.[1] Teaching digital citizenship can be one of the best ways to decrease these and other inappropriate behaviors at school.

     As they become good digital citizens, students can use the Internet with a greater sense of self-awareness and better understand how to best use technology.

Teaching digital literacy and other citizenship skills can also help bridge digital equity gaps (or the “digital divide”) between students.

     Not all students have the same level of access to technology at home. Students from under-resourced or marginalized communities often have fewer digital experiences in comparison to their peers. When digital literacy is a core part of their education, the technological resources and lessons in school can help these students catch up with their classmates. (Ribble, Bailey, and Ross, 2004).

  1. The role of the school in integrating digital citizenship into the curriculum:

      The school plays an effective role in integrating digital citizenship into the school curriculum, as it is considered an implementation tool. As the most important tool in shaping awareness, through the following:

  • The school’s awareness of its role in preparing the digital citizen.
  • Developing students’ awareness of the changes of the modern era, how to keep up with them and deal with them, and benefit from their positive effects and avoid their negative effects.
  • Developing students’ ability to establish positive relationships with others.
  • Developing students’ ability to think critically, which enables them to distinguish between what is good and what is bad.
  • Paying attention to the Arabic language, and encouraging students to adhere to it.
  • Paying attention to consolidating religious and moral values ​​in the hearts of students.
  • Opening the door to discussion and dialogue between students, teachers, parents, media professionals, legislators, preachers, and others, and researching how to link home, school, and society to achieve the desired goal.
  • Achieving the principle of equal opportunities among students by providing adequate care for those with special needs and the necessary equipment for them, which enables them to benefit from the program.
  • Determine the process of connecting students to the Internet at school, so that it is limited to what serves the educational process.
  • Determine the process of students’ communication with their personal devices within the school, so that it is under supervision.
  • Holding seminars and meetings for parents and community members to introduce them to digital citizenship, its importance, and how to play their role in the child’s initial upbringing.
  • Providing resources for teachers to help them understand the foundations and strategies for teaching digital citizenship, along with resources for parent education. Examples of this include creating specialized websites on the Internet, publishing some information on the school’s official website, making introductory brochures, making posters, and holding conferences using video conferencing.
  • Providing psychological counseling services within the school, which in turn contributes to directing students to the right path and correcting their path.
  • Attracting clerics and other specialists to educate students about digital citizenship and its role in preparing a good digital citizen who is aware of his rights and responsibilities.
  1. Conclusions:

In conclusion, this article underscores the significance of digital citizenship education in the Egyptian educational system and curriculum. It advocates for a holistic approach that embeds digital literacy, online ethics, and critical thinking skills into educational practices. The conclusions drawn provide actionable insights for fostering a culture of digital responsibility and empowerment among students, thereby preparing them for active participation in the digital society.

all the studies we have analyzed have used scales in order to reveal levels of digital citizenship. Additionally, the researches were generally conducted with students. According to the results of the researches, when training was provided to the participants, they were more informed about digital media and they used this knowledge to achieve their educational aims and these results contributed to the future studies to be used in terms of multiple scales and resources. As people encounter digital media frequently and such forms of media eliminate all the limits related to communication and exposure, the formation of the digital community can be regarded as a very important step. In particular, teacher candidates are faced with digital generations who are exposed to the rapidly changing technologies and exposures, which may cause the candidate teachers to experience problems with regard to technological proficiency and awareness. The frequent use of those media brings together the need to evaluate the program contents as well as need to consider the current state to ensure that students develop a suitable level of digital citizenship awareness.

There is no doubt that the concept of “digital citizenship” is closely related to the education system. The ease and speed with which students can access and communicate about information sources makes the main goal of education not merely to provide basic knowledge and sciences, as they are available everywhere and at any time. Rather, preparing them and enabling them to deal with all forms of technology and helping them to choose good information, and adhere to the behaviors, rules and principles regulated to this, to prepare a digital society that embodies the values of citizenship. All this must be achieved through the curriculum system. Accordingly, there is an important and vital role that falls on institutions Education is represented in the need to spread the culture of “digital citizenship” in society, by teaching its principles and skills to students in schools, within an integrated approach to digital education.

On the Arab level description, education on digital citizenship is still a topic that has not received sufficient attention, while developed countries such as the United States of America, Britain and Australia have been keen on preparing the digital citizen by launching initiatives and including digital citizenship in their educational curricula. Digital literacy requires a very specific set of knowledge and teaching skills compared to other goals currently under the umbrella of digital citizenship.

fostering digital citizenship and online safety in EdTech is a crucial aspect to consider:

      By incorporating these perspectives and insights, educators can create a comprehensive approach to fostering digital citizenship and online safety in EdTech. It is crucial to prioritize the development of responsible digital behavior, critical thinking skills, online safety measuresdigital literacy, and collaboration with parents and guardians to ensure a positive and secure digital learning environment.

  1. Recommendations:
  • It is necessary to hold training courses at the level of teachers, supervisors, and educational officials to raise awareness of what digital citizenship is, the importance of it, and how to teach it.
  • Including content on digital citizenship in the curriculum, especially subjects such as social studies and computers, to enable learners to make optimal use of technology.
  • Holding seminars and training courses for learners and parents to learn about practical digital citizenship aspects and their applications in our daily lives.
  • Cooperating with other educational institutions to raise community awareness of the problems resulting from the use of technology and the role of digital citizenship in addressing them.
  • Shedding media light on the concept of digital citizenship and what it includes by holding a number of events.
  • Those responsible for writing school curricula must reconsider the mechanism of presenting traditional curricula and search for means or alternatives that keep pace with the digital revolution.
  • Conducting further studies on the topic of digital citizenship and approaching it from different angles, such as analyzing the content of the curriculum, the teaching methods used, and the suitability of the school and classroom environment to promote the concepts of digital citizenship.
  1. Suggestions:

      In light of the results of the current research, the researcher suggests conducting many studies and research in this field, for example:

  • Developing a proposed vision to include the dimensions of digital citizenship in various school curricula in Egypt.
  • Studying the obstacles to implementing digital citizenship on the ground.
  • Studying the extent to which teachers are able to apply the learning process via digital technologies as a basic step for digital citizenship.
  • Studying methods that can be used to help develop the dimensions of digital citizenship among citizens in general and students in particular.
  • Comparative studies between the curricula of different countries and Egypt and the extent to which they include the dimensions of digital citizenship.


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