Research studies

Valorization of local products in Morocco, “figs, and grapes doukkali” and their rool in local development

 

Prepared by the researcher

Abdelwahed Hafid – Student researcher in the doctorate,  Specialization Geography, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, University of Ibn Tofail Kenitra, Morocco

Abdelkhalek Ghazi – Professor in Faculty of Arts and Humanities, University of Ibn Tofail kenitra, Morocco

Democratic Arab Center

Journal of Afro-Asian Studies : Tenth Issue – August 2021

A Periodical International Journal published by the “Democratic Arab Center” Germany – Berlin

Nationales ISSN-Zentrum für Deutschland
ISSN  2628-6475
Journal of Afro-Asian Studies

:To download the pdf version of the research papers, please visit the following link

https://democraticac.de/wp-content/uploads/2021/08/Journal-of-Afro-Asian-Studies-Tenth-Issue-%E2%80%93-August-2021.pdf

Abstract

 Local products are considered among the agricultural products to which the State has attached particular importance in recent years, distinguishing them by a set of projects within the framework of solidarity farming. It aimed to improve the conditions of their production and marketing, as well as to organize the groups producing and grouping them within the framework of professional organizations. This attention came to major considerations and objectives, among which we mention: reducing the gravity of socio-economic differences within rural areas by diligence, and diversifying the incomes of agriculture … However, the diagnosis of its reality shows a group of imbalances that still suffer from it, such as: poor productivity and production and the difficulty of marketing it. This poses the problem of their promotion in the light of the presence of many challenges which limit their contribution to territorial development in the region.

       In this context, this study aims to diagnose the reality of the Doukkala terroir[1] Products, by highlighting the capacities available in development and the constraints that prevent their development.

  1. Introduction

    Grapes and figs are among the most important agricultural products in doukkala that deserve attention and care, in addition to the possibilities and qualifications they have, which make them promising producers to contribute to achieving territorial development in the region. Given the historical and heritage value they have and the special place they have in the local population, the guardian interests of the sector have made it possible to think about ways to make them contribute, along with other economic activities, to improving the conditions of static living and achieving sustainable local development. In this context, a number of attempts have emerged, such as: the establishment of agricultural cooperatives and the organization of some awareness-raising and other campaigns, the most prominent of which have been to protect the product and ensure its continuity and market presence. However, it remained modest and lacking in effectiveness. As an attempt to overcome these imbalances, the concept of valorization agricultural products has emerged as a substitute for previous interventions and a new strategy to restore consideration for agricultural products, especially the “Products terroir”, by increasing its productivity and improving its marketing and competitiveness conditions among the rest of the products[1].

  1. study Area

           the fig Below shows the study area covering the provinces of el Jadida and Sidi Bennour.

Fig. 1. Localization of study area

  • The problematic

    The study tries to diagnose the realities of the fictional products in a manner and to highlight their qualifications and constraints. The problem of the study has been formulated as follows:

What is the reality of valorization of local products in Doukkala? What is its contribution to local development?

  1. Study methodology

 For a holistic approach to the subject of the study, the following curricula and approaches have been adopted:

  • Descriptive method: it will enable us to diagnose the field of study;
  • The statistical approach: It will allow us to collect statistical data and process them statistically and cartographically.
  • The coordinate approach: it will enable us to highlight the interactive relationship of a person with his field.

In addition to the theoretical and applied parts, the theoretical part was found in which references, articles and studies dealt with the field products in general and the producers of grapes and figs in particular. As for the technical part, we have dedicated it to field visits and interviews with various actors.

  1. Study objectives

The study aims to:

– Introducing local products in Doukkala, by diagnosing their reality, and by highlighting their production and marketing methods.

– Explaining the paths the valuation and the constraints it faces.

– The reality of valuation of fictional products in terms of current, challenges and future prospects.

– The prospects for dirt development and the challenges facing achieving this goal.

– The capabilities and opportunities offered by the local products to contribute to the territorial development.

  1. Study Results
  2. Fig and grapes stand out as the most important local products in Doukkala

a.Figs: There are many varieties of figs in the region, in which we distinguish between local varieties and imported varieties. The results of the field work enabled us to take stock of the following items[2]:

Picture 0l: Local and Imported Figs In Doukkala

     Many of the aforementioned varieties dominate in the region of Had oulad frej, so that we find the region’s farmers especially the producers of figs, who have intermarried between the local and imported varieties, with the aim of diversifying the product and meeting consumer demand for some varieties such as “Nabot, Ghodan and White Amber …” some producers confirme through our interviews that they were impressed with some of the varieties produced in different regions of Morocco, especially the Wazzan region, which is well-known at the national level for fig production. [3].

  1. Grapes

  Grape seedlings represent 33% of the national area with a production of 27% of the national production. The boreal fields in Doukkala account for 98% of the production, which is mostly exploited in traditional methods. The average production yield is 35 quintals per hectare in the mullet and 125 quintals in the irrigated field. Grape product has benefited from the coding mark of luxury products[4].

Doukkala peasants produce many varieties of grapes some of which are local, such as the Doukkali grapes, and some of them are imported, but the Doukkala grape variety remains dominant over the rest of the other varieties due to its adaptation to the natural environment of Doukkala [5].

                       Fig.2.: Localization of Local Product in Doukkala

  1. The production and marketing of grapes and figs in Doukkala go through a set of stages:
  2. Production of grapes:

    The production of grapes goes through a bush in several basic stages before being marketed in which the producers use the local know-how and the techniques known in production. In this context, we will review the results reached during the field research:

Traditional methods dominate the production of grapes in a broom.

Most peasants employ the know-how and knowledge inherited through generations.

Plowing and fertilization operations vary from one farmer to another.

The renewal of seedlings is taking place slowly. The majority of peasants take advantage of the use of new seedlings granted by the Regional Office for Agricultural Investment because they do not match with the local cultivar “Doukkali grape – العنب الدكالي”, or because the harvesting stage is late, because the maturity of the newly planted grape tree requires at least two years to pass.

– About 5% of the producers have good technical knowledge in producing grapes in the region and market their products outside the production field at an important price.

Protecting the grape tree from climatic pests and diseases is a major concern for farmers, especially as they consider it a cultural heritage that must be protected.

– Most of the producers who were interviewed stated that they did not benefit from the training courses designated for them by the peasant authorities, the guardian of the sector.

Weakness of innovative solutions to ward off climate hazards such as dry arid winds, which cause great damage to the production of grapes in the absence of watering water, as well as their eruption coincides with the last stage of ripening of grapes.

– The draining of grapes remains very weak due to the fact that the majority of farmers prefer to sell their product fresh to take advantage of its profits directly. It is also mostly restricted to the remaining dry grapes during the end of the harvest season[6].

Picture 2:  Some Grape Production Processes

  1. Production of Figs

   Doukkala peasants, especially the Had Oulad Farej, employ a group of know-how in the production of figs and care for their trees, starting with preparing the soil and fertilizing it through the use of fertilizers, through removing weeds, using pesticides, and caring for the product regularly until the maturity period. The aforementioned phases of the farmer require good preparation and timeliness to take care of his product and monitor it continuously to avoid being infected with fungi and diseases that cause severe damage to his product if he omits it and leave the opportunity to reproduce.

Picture 3:  Some ¨Figs Production Processes

  1. The Marketing of Grapes and Figs Passes Through a Group of Stakeholders

Marketing of grapes and figs goes through several stages, which are illustrated in the following diagram:

Fig. 3: Stages of Marketing Grapes and Figs

It appears through the simplified diagrams above that the path of marketing grape and figs product passes through several marketing paths, starting from the producers and passing through to the wholesalers, intermediaries and installments sellers until the consumers. It is also noted that the real returns from the profit of the grape product do not directly benefit the producers, and explain This involves the intervention of non-essential actors in the marketing path, especially the brokers who benefit from an important profit margin compared to the producers[7].

Picture .5: Diversified marketing of fig product

   The photos above show the marketing of fig and grape products, which take many forms, as follows:

Marketing in the local market near the weekly market;

 -Wholesale marketing in the weekly market;

 – Marketing in-place to wholesalers or intermediaries who are flocking to the fig fields to purchase it directly;

  -Marketing for the emulsification laboratories, especially the Al-Baraka jam factory, which has an on-site assembly unit that is purchased during the harvest period;

 -Marketing in installments that remain weak;

    Generally, the brokers remain the main beneficiaries of the fig and grape intake. This affects the profits of the producers profits and wastes important profits on them.

Fig.4: Distribution of the Sale Price Along the Harvest Season

  It appears through the graph above that the price of selling grape products varies according to the harvest season, so that it rises at the beginning of the harvest and lowers it in the middle, then returns to the increase at the end of the harvest. This difference is due to the relationship between demand and supply, so that whenever the demand for the product is large and the supply is small, the price is high and vice versa. The table below shows the difference in selling price of a product:

 

Period Production Price (DH)
July 25 4- 5
August 55 2- 5
September 20 4 – 5

Table . 1: Distribution of the Sale Price Along the Harvest Season

    Some producers resort to marketing their product outside their region in the direction of the major markets in Morocco such as Casablanca and Marrakech … The goal behind this is due to the high price of selling the product compared to selling it inside the region[8]. The map below shows some of the marketing trends of grape product

Fig. 5. Marketing Trends for Local Products

3.The Effects of Grapes and Figs on Local Development

  1. The Direct Effects of Grapes and Figs

      Grapes and Figs occupy an Important local labor:

  Providing the appropriate conditions for the production and marketing of grapes and figs requires the presence of an important labor force. The peasants of the region depend mostly on the local labor force (men, women), which can be divided into the hands of a scientist from the family members, or from within the circle or from the neighboring districts, or from the nearby groups … It was also found that some mediators and wholesalers use the labor force Local or family members of the field owner.

It is also worth noting that some students and students take advantage of the job opportunities offered by the production of grapes and figs, especially during the weekend. This enables them to cover some tuition fees or help their families and save pocket money.

  • Creating a commercial boom in the region during the year-end period stimulates the commercial dynamism of farmers and provides additional income that revives the farmer
  1. Indirect effects of grapes and figs

– Maintaining and continuing the production of grape and fig products.

– Building valorization units.

– Organizing exhibitions.

– Maintaining ecosystems through a lot of tree planting.

– Bring in investors from outside the region.

– Proving rural people in their geographical area.

– Create a competitive edge within the rural world.

– Improving the standard of living of farmers and their children.

– Training of farmers in the agricultural field.

– Tourism promotion of the region and the definition of the production area.

  1. Coercion of valuation of fictitious products in the region

      In spite of the importance that domestically produced products have on the part of the local population, and also the role they play at the socio-economic level, some natural and human constraints hinder their valuation and reduce their potential to contribute to territorial development [9]. In this context, we will review some of them through the following fig:

              Fig. 7. Marketing  Related Constraints

 In addition to the constraints of production and marketing, there are climatic challenges:

Fig. 8.Climate Constraints

Picture . 06.  The Effect of Hot, Dry Winds on Grape Products

     Each year, producers suffer from hot winds, leaving a huge loss in grape production. This is noticed through the image above[10].

Conclusion

   We conclude from the above that local products with stock have important capabilities to contribute to earthy development, but their performance of this role remains subject to overcoming the valuations constraints that limit their economic and social effectiveness, by helping the farmer by framing and searching for spaces to market his product, and also by organizing continuous local training courses motivate him to attend in order to improve his production methods and to answer the constraints facing him.

REFERENCES

 [1] Ministry of Agriculture and Maritime Fisheries. (MAPM,   2014): Terroir products from Morocco, national catalog, 2014 and 2019 edition.

[2] Fellah Conseil. (2011a): Identification et développement des produits de terroir dans la région de Doukkala- Abda : Rapport final de la première phase : identification et caractérisation des produits de terroir et délimitation des terroirs de leurs et détermination du niveau d’organisation des acteurs du secteur. P : 135-136.

 [3] Abdelwahed Hafid, Abdelkhalek ghazi 2019, Valorization of local Products in Morocco and a Stake in Local Development “The Grape Production Series in Doukkala as a Model”. International Symposium, Khouribga 2019. The Faculty is interdisciplinary.

 [4] The Regional Office for Agricultural Investment, Doukkala years 2016-    –   2017- 2018.

 [5] – [6]- [7] -[8] – [9]- [10]  Fieldwork years years 2016 – 2017 – 2018 -2019

– UNESCO World Wide Web site, (Visited the site July 2020 )

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