Research studies

Impact of green intellectual capital on the environmental performance of business


Prepared by the researcher  

Dr. Ali Aboudi Nehme Al-Jubouri, Imam Al-Kadhum Collage (IKC)

Dr. Sanaa J. Mohammed, Technical Institute of Kufa, Al-Furat Al-Awsat

Democratic Arab Center

International Journal of Economic Studies : Twenty-Second Issue – August 2022

A Periodical International Journal published by the “Democratic Arab Center” Germany – Berlin

Nationales ISSN-Zentrum für Deutschland
ISSN  2569-7366
International Journal of Economic Studies


The current study sought to find out the impact of green intellectual capital and green human resources management on the environment for every form of green hotel in Iraq. The data was collected using a questionnaire applied to a sample of 140 employees selected from a community of 390 employees. The results revealed that green human resources practices (training, green development and green discipline management) from the point of view of the study sample members are important indicators of green intellectual capital, and a positive contribution to the commitment of senior management. The results also demonstrated that the behavior of pro-environmental staff plays an important role in enhancing the environmental performance of hotels and that the green commitment to senior management and green intellectual capital has had a direct impact on green human resources management. The study explicitly contributes to a new line of research to understand the critical role of green human resources management practices to improve hotel environmental performance. The results of the study therefore assumed that green training and development was an essential practice for building intellectual capital and could help managers in their efforts to build it, which facilitated the generation of pro-environmental behaviors. In order to deal with the growing environmental concerns of the hotel industry, we suggest that managers must maintain green discipline by punishing or fining employees for failing to take into account hotel environmental policy.  In our study, a long-term online survey of most hotel workers was used. The theoretical and practical implications were discussed. Identify future constraints and areas of research


We assume that green intellectual capital, as a combination of knowledge in different positions in the organization, staff, relationships and management systems (i.e. human, relational and structural capital,  ), sees intellectual capital as one of those rare and specific resources that is difficult to imitate at the organization level  which helps it in gaining a competitive advantage.  This line of research indicates that competitive advantage depends not only on the valuable resources you have, but also on the external environment in which these resources are acquired and exploited.

Operations have recently begun to improve environmental performance, not only in the use of green products, the adoption of waste reduction and management policies, and the use of water recycling, but also in greening human resources management (Ragas et al., 2017). This is important because regulatory members are ultimately responsible for enacting green policies. It is widely known that the support of the senior management team for environmental issues leads to a positive perception of green work among employees, which in turn leads to sustainable environmental performance. Due to the local influence of senior executives within the organization hierarchy, the commitment of the senior management team to address environmental problems is not only valuable, but also rare, costly to emulate, and irreplaceable. The concept of environmental concept integration with IC (Green IC) was introduced by Chen in 2008 and has not yet emerged as an important area. (Kamasak, 2017) noted that the contribution of regulatory resources, such as IC, to the impact on the organization’s environmental performance has not been well studied in academic research. The environmental performance of the organization reflects its commitment to the preservation of the natural environment. The organization’s environmental performance is measured by a series of metrics such as pollution reduction, recycling efforts and waste reduction. Almost all industries have recently adopted environmental management practices and have shown increased efficiency through effective waste treatment and rapid disposal of hazardous materials. In general, this is because of the global awakening of the 1970s, which recently gained momentum in ASEAN countries and forced companies to become environmentally conscious. In this research, green intellectual capital (GIC) is an important factor leading to environmental performance for the following reason: packages of strategic resources to achieve superior performance (Barney et al.1991) Environmental hotels. In addition, to achieve a higher level of environmental performance, organizations should also use human resources to embrace green goals, thereby linking environmental performance and human resources management. Thus, the concept of green human resources management (GHRM) has been formulated as a response to the urgent need to expand the role of human resources management in environmental monitoring. They defined it as a phenomenon related to understanding the relationships between organizational activities affecting the natural environment and the design, development, implementation and impact of human resources management systems. Including when senior management is committed to the environment and green intellectual capital, it is expected that it will lead ghrm’s implementation by attracting, developing and retaining environmentally interested employees. In this research we will learn about the green of human resources and intellectual capital to see how much they affect and whether they are in a state of interdependence through the results of the research.

First:  Methodology


 The world faces the challenges of climate change and the depletion of natural resources. The ever-increasing rate of consumption has put considerable pressure on natural resources. As a result of this global challenge, many governments, communities, organizations and companies are struggling to meet the growing needs and requirements of the current generation while ensuring that natural resources are preserved for future generations as well. As a result of these challenges, we see a lack of resources such as water and food, high levels of poverty and severe natural disasters. The challenge of climate change and the depletion of natural resources is a global challenge for society. It is everyone’s responsibility to monitor their carbon footprint and to preserve our limited natural resources. This will benefit current and future generations. Governments, organizations and individuals play a role in this global battle. Some sectors such as the automotive industry and in some departments such as marketing and supply chain research and product development have taken it upon themselves to do something and find solutions to this global challenge. The Human Resources Management Section has been delayed in taking responsibility, and green human resources management still does not exist in many sectors and organizations, such as sectors and organizations where resources such as energy, water, transport, paper, etc. have been misused and wasted. For example, to the extent that significant strides have been taken in research in this area of green human resources management, there is a dearth of research in terms of its implementation and application in organizations on a daily basis. Most human resources practitioners still do not see the importance of environmental management, so there is indifference and resistance to the full adoption and application of the concept to their daily activities.

 2- Questions

1-What is the level of awareness and understanding of the concept of green human resources management by human resources practitioners?

2- How can human resources policies, strategies and activities be used to move towards sustainable and green practices in the organization.

3-To what extent can regulatory theories of change, culture and learning provide useful tools for establishing green and sustainable human resources practices in hotels?

4-What are the potential benefits of managing the organization’s green human resources and what challenges can be met in the quest to become a green and sustainable organization?


  This study aimed to carry out the following objectives:

1-Investigating the level of awareness and understanding of the concept of green human resources management by human resources practitioners

2-Investigate green human resources policies, strategies and activities that the organization can use to move towards sustainable green practices

3-To determine how prevailing organizational theories of change, culture and learning can provide useful tools for including green and sustainable human resources practices in the organization

4-Investigate the potential benefits of the organization and the challenges that the Human Resources Unit can face in the search for green and sustainable environmental performance institutions.

  4-Data Collection Iraqi hotels

The researcher collected data from hotel staff with at least one year of work experience in Iraqi hotels. In the first phase, the researcher received a list of 10 hotels. In the second phase, the researcher contacted the senior management or managers of the human resources departments of these hotels. The researcher also asked a short question about training or education programs in hotels to protect the environment to check whether hotels had implemented GHRM practices in the pre-existing periods. In other words, the researcher called on hotel workers who have begun green human resources management practices. The research classified the hotel as green if it had obtained any kind of green hotel certificate and non-green hotels operating without a green certificate but with GHRM practices. In short, due to ineligible hotels and refusal to participate, the researcher reduced 10 hotels to 6 hotels (3 green hotels and 3 non-green hotels).  The number of employees ranged from 35 to 95 and the average was 65, the number of rooms ranged from 77 to 260 and was on average 54. In the third phase, the researcher designed the questionnaire online. In the last phase   Hotel staff voluntarily participated in the questionnaire and answered questions using self-management technology. The online questionnaire consists of four parts. Part 1, introduction to the survey, dealt with the purpose of the investigation, the procedures for replying, the confidentiality of the defendants and confidentiality. The second section asked an inspection question about the duration of staff work. The survey automatically removed the replay of those who worked less than one year. The third part randomly evaluated the elements of the search scale, managed each scale to reduce the bias of the common method, and included four questions regarding the social desire used to diagnose the potential. The last section requested that respondents’ age, gender, educational level, jobs and career role be determined.

To enhance data validation, the researcher handled many cases. To prevent respondents from aligning, and automatically prevent respondents from conducting the survey more than once.  Out of 6 hotels, 140 employees completed their studies with 73%. After removing responses that did not meet the above-mentioned examination, the researcher retained 130 valid answers (90 employees in green hotels and 40 in non-green). For more statistical analysis. The respondents’ brief demographic profile and other job-related characteristics are described here. With regard to the gender of respondents, female employees (green hotels: 66%); non-green hotels: 34% larger than males in terms of age distribution, the majority of employees were in their 20s or 30s, and green hotels: 80%; non-eco-friendly hotels: 60% received a bachelor’s degree at their educational levels. The length of service of respondents in the green hotel sample ranged from one to twenty years and was 4.8 (SD = 3.2) years on average, while the sample of non-green hotels ranged from one year to fifteen Years were 3.9 (SD = 2.2) years on average.


The first hypothesis: Green employment is largely associated with green intellectual capital.

Hypothesis II: Green training and development are largely linked to green intellectual capital.

Hypothesis 3: Green discipline management is highly linked to green intellectual capital.

Hypothesis 4: Green-bonding capital is positively linked to the competitive advantages of organizations

Hypothesis 5: The impact of green intellectual capital on the environmental performance of business organizations.

5-A set of questions for employees

  1. Competitors’ strategies can be predicted by analyzing information obtained from distribution outlets.
  2. Learn about competitors’ tactics by analyzing the information available to the company
  3. The company uses marketing information to avoid competitors’ surprises.
  4. Information from distribution outlets contributes to identifying competitive advantage sources among competitors
  5. The company is able to identify the strengths and weaknesses of competitors
  6. The company continuously obtains data on competitors through market research
  7. The company has the potential to expect the feedback of each competitor
  8. The company’s management is interested in developing new products that are competitive in the ever-changing industrial environment. Continuous development of distribution outlets to keep up with market requirements
  9. The company takes advantage of its competitors’ products to develop its products and achieve competitive advantage
  10. The speed of product development and market delivery is an advantage for the company compared to its competitors.
  11. The company is interested in after-sales services that enhance the competitiveness of the company’s products.
  12. The company uses an appropriate strategy to price its new products in a way that leads to increased competitiveness in the market.

Secondly: Terms definition

 1- The concept of green human resources management

 There is no single universally accepted definition of green human resources management, as many scientists know it in many different ways. Although many definitions of the concept differ in word selection and wording, the good thing is that in the end they all end up in the same sense. Here are some definitions of the term in the body of knowledge in the specialization of human resources.

Green Human Resources Management is defined as using human resources policies to promote sustainable use of resources within business organizations, and more generally to promote the cause of environmental sustainability. Mandip, 2012) Another definition is that green human resources management includes all activities aimed at helping the organization implement its environmental management agenda and reducing its carbon footprint in areas related to human resource inclusion and acquisition, extrapolation, performance management, learning, development, compensation and reward management. Prasad, 2013, is directly responsible for creating a green workforce that understands values, practices green initiatives and maintains its green objectives throughout the human resources management process to recruit, train, compensate and develop the human capital of organizations. (Mathapati, 2013). Although the wording differs in the definitions above, the important thing is that it is from a number of sources so the researcher can select the main definition that specifically explains what the subject of green human resources management is. In this case, for the purpose of this research, the researcher will use the comprehensive definition of green human resources management (the use of human resources policies, practices and systems to promote the sustainable use of resources within organizations through human resources activities and processes to recruit, recruit, train, compensate and develop the organization’s human capital).  Human Resources Management is referred to as all activities involved in the continuous development, implementation and maintenance of a system aimed at making the organization’s employees environmentally friendly. It is an aspect that is concerned with turning ordinary employees into environmentally friendly staff to achieve the environmental objectives of the organization and finally making a significant contribution to environmental sustainability. It refers to policies, practices and regulations that make the organization’s staff environmentally friendly for the benefit of the individual, society, the natural environment and work. The purpose of green human resources management is to create, promote and maintain greening within each employee of the organization so that he or she makes the maximum individual contribution to each of the four roles, i.e. maintaining work, preserving the environment, non-polluting, and the institution. The best description of the 21st century is the century of culturally diverse markets that grow geographically widely around the world. Green HRM has become vital today for many reasons, such as the introduction of many negative environmental conditions. In addition, organizations use natural resources to manufacture products that lead mainly to pollution, waste, and damage to the surrounding environment. Furthermore, environmental imbalances, pollution and global warming are observed as by-products for the additional use of natural resources used as essential materials.

In developing countries, such as Bangladesh and Malaysia, interest in green practices has become widespread. One reason is that developing countries have begun to use natural resources and more energy in recent years and have therefore contributed significantly to environmental degradation (2020 Hickel & Kallis, ). For example, Malaysia had average CO2 growth rates slightly above 7% per annum, almost 8.32% behind the People’s Republic of China (the second largest country in the world). Most former scientists argue that the process by which green human resources management practices can be strengthened is often studied by referring to the series containing all human resources management events, such as job analysis and description, selection and employment, performance evaluation, training and development, and reparations Alam et al., 2021). Recent research discusses green human resources methods and individual human behaviors, along with new theoretical guidelines and multi-level dynamics. Scientists have suggested that human resources management can contribute significantly to enabling the transition to green human resources management by selecting employees based on honest criteria, by providing training and development to strengthen employees in environmental management, and by providing an appropriate performance and reward assessment system. Green practices in human resources management begin now of the staff member’s appointment and continue until his last day in the organization. However, sustainable third-party supervision, i.e. people, producers and the process in developing markets, is not easy, and organizations must always develop a sustainable plan to make the most of the philosophy of “label sharing” and mind sharing. General practices in human resources management and green elements have been combined; therefore, the word “green” has been included in human resources management practices to avoid misunderstandings. ( Alam etal.,2021) Green HRM plays a vital role in supporting other functions to maintain the competitive advantage of the organization in different ways. The direct impact of environmental performance on competitive advantage has been higher for organizations with lower human resources practices. Organizations with reputable human resources practices gain a very balanced competitive advantage through a significant combination of better environmental and regulatory performance. Green human resources practices tend to support organizations in supporting environmental elements of their own sustainable development measures.

  Green human resources requirements must be determined. There are four categories of green human resources requirements, i.e. green competencies, green attitude, green behaviors and green results. Although these key types of green human requirements are linked, they can be clearly addressed. Shows Figure 1 These requirements and dimensions are relevant to what is required of the employee to have sufficient knowledge and skills in terms of greening and without this knowledge and skills (competencies) the employee cannot become an environmentally friendly employee.  The staff member also needs a correct attitude towards greening. The correct attitude means appropriate beliefs (cognitive), feelings (emotional) and intention to act (behavioral) with regard to greening, and must be identical to the belief in Figure 1. It doesn’t matter what the job or the employee’s field of specialization is. What matters is that he must have the right attitude towards greening. An important requirement of green human resources is green behaviour, one of which is green regulatory citizenship behaviour, which is defined as the extent to which an employee participates in positive actions aimed at helping the organization as a whole achieve greening. These actions do not become part of the requirements of the official function. They primarily represent voluntary green actions.

Cherian, J and Jacob, J (2012), “A Study of Green HR Practices and Its Effective Implementation in the Organization: A Review”, International Journal of Business and Management, 7:21, pp. 25-33.

The conduct of the green official is the third dimension of green conduct and is defined as the extent to which the employee participates in the official duties assigned to him by the President in relation to greening. Such participation is not voluntary and is a formal requirement that must be met by the staff member. These duties may include specific procedures that an employee must follow to reduce waste and remove waste(Al-Jubouri,2020).

 Green results are environmentally friendly results or outputs. Green results are defined as the extent to which an employee has achieved green results. Green results have the following two dimensions:

1-Green Innovations: New Environmental Initiatives, New Solutions to Reduce Waste, and Reduce Pollution.

2-Green results: the number of working hours with natural light or the minimum number of light bulbs, the amount of reducing electricity consumption, the amount of reduction in the current level of input waste, and the degree to which specific environmental performance targets are achieved. (Al-Jubouri,2021)

Given the green human resources requirements mentioned above, a new concept has been introduced: the performance of the green employee for the job. It is defined as the extent to which a particular employee has participated in behaviors (actions and activities) and produced results in regard to greening over a given period of time. Green competencies and the green attitude are seen as green employee inputs, green behaviour and green results are seen as a green employee’s job performance, contributing to green regulatory performance that largely meets corporate social responsibility. (Al-Jubouri,2018)

  2-Green intellectual capital

First, we know intellectual capital, its inclusion and classification, which is the total stock of all intangible assets, knowledge and capabilities of an organization that can create competitive values or advantages to achieve its excellent objectives.  Another definition as the total inventory of all intangible assets and capabilities in the organization can create competitive values or advantages and another definition as the group’s total knowledge, information, technology, intellectual property rights, experience, organizational learning, efficiency, (Al-Jubouri,2020)collective communication systems, customer relationships and brands capable of creating values for the organization. (Chen,2008). There are therefore two types of intellectual capital studies: intellectual capital management and intellectual capital measurement. Studies on intellectual capital management have focused on how to manage intangible assets, knowledge stocks, and the organization’s ability to create competitive value or advantages. Intellectual capital measurement studies on the collection, classification, analysis and evaluation of non-financial information to measure the organization’s intangible assets that are insufficient in financial statements (Roos and Roos, 1997). Thus, the demonstration of intellectual capital as supplementary information for financial statements can be counted as an integral part of organizations, with structural capital being the infrastructure supporting human capital (Bontis,1999). In this sense, this research proposed a new structure for green intellectual capital, and we explored its positive impact on the competitive advantages of organizations. Most organizations always try to avoid environmental protection investments and believe they not only benefit the organization, but also hinder their future development. The research assumed that green intellectual capital was worth developing and cultivating because it could bring more competitive advantages to organizations. (Al-Jubouri,2019)  Under the new economy, intangible assets have become an important determinant of competitive advantages and equal market value of the organization to its financial capital as well as intellectual capital. However, in an age of knowledge economy, the organization’s intellectual capital is always greater than its financial capital. In addition, with the mainstreaming of the Internet and service industries, the gap between market value and the organization’s book value is constantly increasing; therefore, the true value of the company is no longer valid in its financial statements. Since traditional accounting systems are no longer able to properly express the market value of the company at present, The valuation of the real value of the company must go from the previous valuation of tangible assets to the expression of intangible assets. Recent intellectual capital research has therefore recently attracted considerable attention on how to assess the true value of companies.  (Al-Jubouri,2020)

Research on intellectual capital has received considerable attention from scientists, and the importance of international cooperation in management research has been emphasized. However, international cooperation includes environmental concepts, i.e. green IC was introduced only by Chen in 2008 and has not emerged as a critical school field until recently. Environmental IC and GREEN IC tariffs are rare in management research. In particular, Derkzen,2017) described green intellectual capital as “the full inventory of all types of intangible assets, capabilities, relationships, knowledge, etc. in relation to green innovation or environmental safety at the individual and regulatory level within an organization.” Villiers & Sharmac,2020 suggested green intellectual capital as “the comprehensive knowledge stock that the company can use in the environmental management process in order to gain competitive advantage.” Intangible resources can be considered frightening and cannot be easily imitated. The prevailing belief is that competencies and intangible assets contribute significantly to higher performance and maintenance of tangible assets. They play a vital role in the survival of enterprises in ever-changing market environments. In addition, green intellectual capital makes it easier for companies to meet the required international environmental rules, to comply with increased environmental awareness among consumers, and to add value to regulatory processes. Research has found three dimensions that generally integrate the green intellectual capital category:( Alam etal.,2021)

1-Green human capital

2-Green regulatory structural capital

3-Relational green capital.

  In this research, we referred to the intellectual capital classification adopted by Johnson (1999) and Wentis (1999) to classify green intellectual capital into green human capital, green structural capital and green relational capital in order to explore whether the three types of green intellectual capital have positive effects on the competitive advantages of organizations. In the face of stringent environmental trends for consumers, these environmental trends can turn into momentum that drives them to implement green intellectual capital and thus create concessions. Companies often believed that these environmental trends were obstacles to their future development, so many companies evaded or fought these environmental trends. This study focused on finding the right assessment and attitude to these environmental trends and proposed a new concept – green intellectual capital,(Al-Jubouri,2021) in accordance with these environmental trends for competitive advantages.

Thirdly: The practical aspect

 1-Green Human Resources Management

The researcher derived the green human resources management scale of six elements of the Human Resources Management Scale for Corporate Social Responsibility (Shen and Benson, 2016) and the Green Intellectual Capital Component from the Hsiao et al,2014 scale. The elements of the sample were the hotel’s adequate training to promote environmental management as a core regulatory value;

2-Environmental performance of hotels

The researcher built a seven-element hep scale based on inputs from Paillé et al. (year and page) Sample elements were described (environmental management within the hotel reduces purchases of non-renewable materials, chemicals and components) (in-hotel environmental management maintains water use) (and in-hotel environmental management has maintained energy use).

3-Data analysis

The researcher used two sub-samples (green and non-green hotel staff) and a combined sample for all analytical research processes. According to the formula (equation) for the lower sample size in the modeling of the common contrast-based structural equation (Westland,2010), the researcher calculated the sample size recommended at 130 employees. The researcher used structural equation modeling for partial micro-squares (PLS-SEM) that allowed a small sample to analyze the structural model and smart PLS version 3 was used to analyze the correct data. Specifically, in the first phase, the researcher produced three to four fragmented indicators of preliminary measurement elements based on previous studies (Liang et al., 2007; Little et al., 2002). In the second phase, the researcher discovered CMB in various ways proposed by Podsakoff,2003, calculating the average extracted variability (AVE), compound reliability (CR) and alpha kronbach transactions for each construction to examine the validity of the construction (compatible and discriminatory validity) and the reliability of the scale. In the last phase, the pls-SEM researcher conducted to verify the hypotheses put forward in this research.


   The common bias method in behavioral sciences

 Collecting data from different sources is the most ideal research portal to avoid CMB. However, this entry has some drawbacks. First, the researchers must collect and archive the special information of the respondents (e.g. employee ID; name) to integrate binary data (Podsakoff et al., 2003) because forecasters and results are measured from different sources, each of which must link an individual response (i.e. employee) to a simultaneous response response measured by others (i.e. supervisor). Secondly, this application also reduces respondents’ willingness to participate in surveys because they tend to feel that the researcher cannot guarantee anonymity. Not only to improve response rates but also to comply with identity confidentiality, the survey for this research did not adopt the method of different sources. However, the results may not be free of CMB effects because this research measured all variables of the same resources with self-management under a browser search design. However, the researcher applied procedural remedies to mitigate CMB by using several techniques to ensure that the defendants’ identities were not disclosed and confidential; Furthermore, to discover a potential CMB, the researcher used three statistical techniques. First, in harman’s single-factor test, the researcher conducted a major component analysis using the undrectional solution. The results show that they did not extract only four factors based on values (more than 1.0) But the general factor also represents 41% of the total variation of measurements. This result is the first indication that the fundamental variation in the common way was not at a serious level of research. Secondly, the researcher analyzed the PLS model using the underlying method factor (the so-called tag variable) that guarantees four elements of social desire. As reported in liang et al., 2007, the researcher designed the PLS chart so that each indicator has a first-class latent variable, first-class latent variables associated with each second-class structure, and then a mark variable directly associated with all underlying first-class variables. The results of the converted PLS model indicate that the primary CMB was not a major problem because the average method variation by tag variable was only ,3% (−0,078).  ≤ φ ≤ 0.059), while the average contrast shown by the search structures was 65.8% (0,722 ≤ φ ≤ 0.622). Third, the researcher tested a complete overlapping linear relationship of a model   PLS, the results indicate that the PLS model was CMB-free because all variance inflation factors (2,256 ≤ VIF ≤ 1.331) were lower than the standard values (3,2) proposed by Kock,2015). Based on the above results.

 validity  and reliability

 Table 1 shows the results of reliability and convergence of metrics. Alpha Kronbach transactions were between 0,624 and 0,754 in the green hotel sample, and between 0,775 and 0,432 in the sample of non-green hotels. Similarly, building reliability values (CR) fluctuated between 0,765 and 0,653 in the hotel’s green sample, and between 0,564 and 0,871 in the sample of non-green hotels. The results show a satisfactory level of internal consistency of metrics not only in the data collected but also in both green and non-green hotel settings. This research used the average contrast extracted (AVE) to test the converging validity. Ave values in green and non-green hotels and collected samples respectively were 0,689, 0,876 and 0,432 for GHRM; 0,545, 0,676 and 0.7 64 for ECO; 0,564, 0,500 and 0,600 for EEB; 0,700, 0,733 and 0,676 for HEP. This means that the underlying variables of this research have a high affinity validity because all AVEs were higher than the 0.30 standard recommended by Fornell and Larcke,1981). The researcher confirmed the validity of differentiation using two methods of comparing AVEs square root values with graded correlation coefficients and examining the heterogeneous ratio of associations (HTMT). Discriminatory validity occurs either when AVE square root values exceed corresponding correlations between combinations (Fornell and Larcker,1981) or when HTMT ratios are below the standard (Henseler et al., 2015). As listed in Table 1, AVEs square root values ranged from 0,689 to 0,878 in green hotels, from 0,676 to 0,787 in non-green hotels, and from 0,787 to 0,789 in the sample Combined, the corresponding correlations ranged from 0,120 to 0,789 in green hotels, from 0,567 to 0,907 in non-green hotels, and from 0,676 to 0,987 in the combined sample. Smaller AVEs square root was much higher than the highest link.

Table 1 Reliability Results

Alpha Kronbach Reliability values CR   AVE    GHRM ECO EEB HEP Sample
0,624 0,765 0,689 0,545 0,564 0,700 Green Hotels
0,754 0,653 0,876 0,676 0,500 0,733
0,775 0,564 0,432 0,764 0,600 0,676 Non-green hotels
0,432 0,871

Source: spss23 data

Six criteria for evaluating the structural model were proposed using PLS-SEM. In the first phase of evaluating the structural model, address the underlying overlapping linear relationship problems. Also, it is important to assess the importance and appropriateness of the structural model relationship by assessing the level of variation shown to the dependent variable (R2), the level of impact size (f2) and the predictive importance (Q2). It is also important to evaluate t values corresponding to track transactions using 130 samples. Through the above results we present results on our direct hypothalasts, and in support of the first forecast, GRC was found significantly and positively linked to green human resources management (β = 0.208, t = 2.161, p <0.031), and in terms of impact size

(f2), GRC’s positive impact on green human resources management can be considered minimal. Similarity was found with regard to the second GSC prediction of any significant relationship (β = 0.103, t = 1.186, p <0.236). For the third forecast statistical analysis revealed that there is a morally positive relationship between GHC and Green HRM (β = 0.274, t = 3.754, p <0.000), In terms of impact size (f2), they can be considered small. In the case of the fourth hypothesis, statistical analysis showed a positive moral relationship between EMP and Green HRM (β = 0.277, t = 3.589, p <0.000), and showed the magnitude of the effect (f2 = 0.100). Small effect.  As shown in Table 2

Table 2 Results of Hypotheses

Hypotheses OS/Beta SM T P  value Resolution
H1: GRC -> Green HRM 0.208 0.193 2.161 0.031 important
H2: GSC -> Green HRM 0.103 0.114 1.186 0.236 It is not important.
H3: GHC -> Green HRM 0.274 0.274 3.754 0.000 important
H4: EMP -> Green HRM 0.277 0.279 3.589 0.000 important
OS: Original means; SM: Sample illustration

Source: spss23 data

Furthermore, the Green HRM intermediate effect was found to be as important as value (β = 0.081, t = 1.975, p <0.049, LL = 0.0.0 012, UL = 0.168) where the p value is less than 0,005 are both positive and this means that zero (0) is not between them confirming the effect of mediation (Preacher and Hayes,2008). Similarly, the green HRM intermediate effect was found to be statistically significant as the value (β = 0.048, t = 2.102, p <0.036, LL = 0.014, UL = 0.100) as the p value is less than 0,005 and the results are both positive, which means that zero (0) is not between them, confirming the mediation effect. However, the Green HRM intermediate effect did not show a significant relationship as the value (β = 0.017, t = 0.469, p <0.639, LL = -0.0.0 057, UL = 0.086) as the p value is higher than 0,005 and the LL value is negative and UL is positive and this means zero (0) between LL and UL which confirms that there is no mediation effect. We also show the results mentioned in Table 3.

Table 3 Mediation Result (Indirect Effect)

 Table 3 Mediation Result (Indirect Effect)

Hypotheses OS


LB UB T P Resolution Intermediate variable
H1: GRC -> EMP -> Green HRM 0.081 0.012 0.168 1.975 0.049 important partial
H2: GSC -> EMP -> Green HRM 0.017 -0.057 0.086 0.469 0.639 It is not important. The intermediate variable is not important.
H3: GHC -> EMP -> Green HRM 0.048 0.014 0.100 2.102 0.036 important partial

Source: spss23 data


Analysis of research data predicts that the practice of environmental management has a significant impact on the relationship between green human capital and green human resources management, green interconnection capital and green human resources management. Surprisingly, the practice of environmental management does not play any important intermediary role between green structural capital and green human resources management. In addition, green human capital and green bonding capital have a significant direct impact on green human resources management. However, green structural capital has no significant direct impact on green human resources management.

These findings suggest that developing countries need to adopt environmental management practices to take a synergistic step in obtaining green bonding capital and green human capital.  Today’s business landscape is very different from ever because of resource constraints, technological progress, emerging markets, environmental degradation and the challenges new organizations pose to traditional organizations. Increased environmental awareness has made the concept of greening a focal point for many organizations. Green drivers such as the green commitment to senior management and green intellectual capital are important for achieving a high level of environmental performance. In addition, green human resources management plays an intermediate role in linking these green impulses to the hotel’s environmental performance.

The research contains some limitations that must be recognized when interpreting their results, and these restrictions indicate a number of things to investigate in the future. First, this research was conducted in a particular national context, the hospitality industry in Iraq; therefore, the results cannot extend to other industries or cultural contexts. The results should therefore be viewed with caution when circulating them. To validate the proposed model, future studies in other industries in other countries may test it. Secondly, we assume that all proposed relationships are one-way. The research therefore ignores the organization’s ability to influence directly or indirectly. Feedback and learning may play a role in this complex process.  It may therefore lead to an increased commitment of senior management to the environment. Third, the current research only ensures environmental performance as a result. Future studies may also explore the triple outcome of sustainability, i.e. economic, social and environmental performance.


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