Research studies

Media And Applied Linguistics


Prepared by the researcher  – Doctorant chercheur :  Muna Jumaa Ali,College of Language , Baghdad University , Baghdad / Iraq

Democratic Arab Center

Journal of cultural linguistic and artistic studies : Twenty-fifth Issue – September 2022

A Periodical International Journal published by the “Democratic Arab Center” Germany – Berlin

Nationales ISSN-Zentrum für Deutschland
 ISSN  2625-8943

Journal of cultural linguistic and artistic studies

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Through     this paper we review the role    of the media    in applied linguistics   to help learners teach language in particular , and its role in communicating with others in the field of education in general. Media help increase the linguistic knowledge we use to convey     information and methods to analyze    and improve our multimedia products, production , and reception  processes. This knowledge     acts as a  catalyst for the development of education as we work to find solutions to the communication challenges resulting from digital transformation. This       knowledge  also helps to increase the  communicative ability and  competence  of learners , in order  to keep   pace with developments    in the  field of    education..

So , Language  we   shed   light   on the media    because it is one    of the most     important ways to improve  language ability through practice and communication    through it.


The attempt to describe the functions of mass media is not only to  understand their characteristic properties, directions      of effect, but also to define and     refer to their exceptional     character    between other means of social communication. The functions of mass    media are understood    as activities, missions   , mutual     dependencies ,relationships, and    also positions,   or duties. The authors of the dictionary of media terminology define them as “at least the missions to be     performed by    them, the target they should    achieve, or the result of their    actions.

  And    considered for    some people    ,that media  worthless and useless to many recipients, as they    would   not be able to make proper use of it. This educational function    goes far beyond   using the    means of mass communication in pedagogy and school education. The    impact of mass media in this regard is rather a part of the concept    of long life learning, because it focuses on the,     mature, well developed and     shaped recipient .The     proper   definition of mass media functions reflects the effects of  research on the use and satisfaction from the media. The traditional     approach of these     studies dealt with the impact of mass media on recipients in its direct form.

So, the choice of     media and media content is generally     rational and calculated  for    certain specific      purposes and      satisfaction ( the audience is therefore     active and its        creation can    be       explained     logically    ), – Members    of the     audience are aware     of their needs in         relation to media that    arise        from     personal (individual),    and     social (shared) circumstances, and can express     them through    their      motives, In general, usability     is a more    important  factor in     shaping     the audience     than aesthetic,     or    cultural factors,    All or most of the factors shaping the       audience    (motives   , perceived ,    or received    benefits   , media choices, social variables) are      generally     measurable  . This  paper    dealt with     several media      channels, whether      they are visual or    audial, and their role in influencing    language  education.

Aim of the study

The study aims at the following :

  • Explaining characteristics and functions of media .
  • Identifying and classifying the media according to auditory and visual.
  • Finding out the most dominant role in teaching process.

Limitation of the study

This paper tries to describe what is meant by media ,and  it role that plays in foreign language teaching.

The Significances of the study

It’s hoped that this research could help students and researchers of language to understand that  this  study  clarify  the  history of media use, and usefulness of media , and how media  is constituted the important factor  in education ,  with respect to objectives and curricula and the role played by FLT.

The research Question

  1. What is media in applied linguistics?
  2. What are the functions of the mass media and their characteristic?

1.1.What is media ?

We can  define media as all aids which may be used  by teachers and learners to achieve certain educational objectives .

We can noted that  (Schilder,1977.p.45)  clarify in his  study of the  history of media use, there  was a consensus as  to the  usefulness of media , and  the developments  that  have taken place  have  changed  little  in this field. These developments  are attributed  to the technological innovations which continued  to expand  the range of reliable  and accessible media from one hand , and  changes  in linguistic, psychological and didactic insights on the  other hand. ( Macht & Schlossbauer ,1978 .p56).

also we have important factor is constituted by the changes in education itself, for instance  with respect to objectives and curricula and the role played by FLT (foreign language teaching) , we  can identified media  in different methods             , according to Erdmenger  (1979,p.24)   , lists  a number  of  points of view that can be considered media , the nature  of  the information transmitted by the media        (( linguistic and non-linguistic information )). The  channel of  information               (( visual , auditory,  and , audiovisual media ))

The process of teaching and testing ((  are they used for the repetition , presentation , and  exploitation of  learning  material  for testing )) . The education function ((are they used to , to transmit information , motivate learners, and  ,to stimulate free language use )) (Mindt ,1978.p.34)

the degree of accessibility and adaptability. The possibilities for supporting, supplementing, or  replacing  the teacher , and use of media by individuals or in groups .(Heaton ,1979.p.39).

1.2.Channels of  Media

The most of the channel of information for Media that involves:-

1.2.1.Auditory media

 In this sense , the positive role of  in foreign language teaching  ,  and  we can noted to any new points of  view have  been advanced  in the  last few years . There is  agreat variety  of auditory  media  available in  this period , that technical qualities are  excellent. also considered  oral  skills feature prominently in foreign language teaching  objectives , it unsurprisingly ; that such  media as  radios , tape recorders, televisions , gramophones  and video recorders  receive considerable attention . And these  media requires a certain kind of course  training. ( Freudenstein ,1981.p.53)

In this period the use of technological media in education a lot of materials were developed by the teachers themselves, it is a fact that the construction of high-quality course training requires a long of time and experiments and that depend on experts in cooperation with teachers.

Considered  that problems organizational and financial . Because of the expenses included equipment and software are often not bought and one often finds that the available media are not employed or  inadequately , either because the requirements  is lacking in flexibility or because of lack of maintenance or because appropriate software is not sufficiently  available. One of the clearest examples of a wrong policy of media use in schools is the language laboratory .

Even though  these  problems it can be concluded that  there are parts of the teaching programme which  benefit  from the  use of  auditory media , but  other parts could not be employed at all without them . And from the most of the advantages auditory media offer to learners the opportunity to practice with spoken materials without the teacher and  can even be done outside the classroom at home ,considered as fixed model for missions involving frequent repetition, in for instance pronunciation correction, resolving difficulties in understanding spoken texts, and providing feedback in pattern drills. The model may be presented as frequently as necessary without any change in quality , in this principle , sounds of many native speakers can be presented in class, with any desired difference with respect to age, clarity of diction ,rate of speech, situational context and type of language use , and media  can record sound make it possible to check learners utterances, which allows a certain degree of objectiveness in testing and evaluation to be achieved, after that  recorded utterances are then also available for later use, for instance for subsequent evaluation by external judges. (Macht ,1979.p 56)

These characteristics do not apply to all  kinds media in the same method will become clear in the following paragraphs , where we will indicated to each of the auditory media separately.

  • Tape recorder

Included the cassette recorders, play a supporting role in the use of radio programmes . The tape recorder is auditory medium that most widely usable . It can be used in all stages of the cycle of teaching or learning activities, can both reproduce and record spoken language. can be emplyoed for individual as well as for group work, because  it is flexible, and it is not very expensive.  Also a large quantity of course materials suitable for the tape recorder is available, and it is  easy to develop one’s own materials for it. The technical qualities of most tape recorders are such that high quality recording und reproduction, which are indispensable in foreign language teaching . Freudenstein (1981b:274)

Even though speech contains a lot of redundant information which a trained listener does not need to be able to understand what is being said, in foreign language teaching most learners are not trained listeners. Language learners, and especially initial learners, will have to be able to receive all of the information as fully as possible .The same requires of technical excellence also apply to microphones, head phones, speakers and tapes.

  • Radio

The radio is an important source of high – quality materials. News broadcasts ,interviews, quizzes , which make an enormous variety of language material available which is very useful in teaching, even though it has not been specifically designed for teaching , but  it can to be edited for classroom use, while the advantage is that because it is topical and authentic, learners generally find it motivating. The amount and variety of topical and authentic material the teacher may record from radio broadcasts could never be equaled in commercial publishing . The flexibility of the radio as a teaching aid may be increased significantly. and a considerable degree of editing and preparation by the teacher becomes possible, if radio programmes are not presented directly as they are broadcast, but recorded on tape. The great advantage of tape-recorded material is that especially repetition and exploitation can be arranged more flexibly. The main function of radio programmes in foreign language teaching , is that they can be used in training listening proficiency, as a basis for conversational activities, and as a means to improve cultural background knowledge. (Epting & Bowen,1979.p.76)

  • Language laboratory

In these days language laboratories occupy a position within the all range of audiovisual media which is rather variant from what it was a few decades ago. in 1960s , and a subsequent relatively general rejection of this medium ,language laboratories were again discussed in a strikingly large number of readers and monographs in the 1970s . In the last few years, we find predictions of a resurrection of language laboratories, albeit in a somewhat variant form and under somewhat different circumstances. We shall first of all give a brief description of the different language laboratory types, then a survey of the history of this medium, and lastly a discussion and summary of the possibilities of language laboratory use in present – day foreign language teaching . For a discussion of research into the effectiveness of language laboratories in foreign language teaching. (Freudenstein ,1971, p.43) .

Language laboratory types:

  • Audio-passive (AP)
  • Audio-active (AA)
  • Audio-active-comparative (AAC)

1.2.2.Auditory Media in the Teaching

In this respected auditory media can only be employed successfully and efficiently, if particular conditions are fulfilled. These first of all concern the equipment itself (such technical aspects as ease of operation and reliability), organizational aspects (such as accessibility and maintenance) and financial aspects. Secondly, teachers are needed who know how to use media efficiently. Thirdly adequate language learning materials which are geared to the objectives in general and to specific teaching and learning tasks in particular, must be sufficiently available. These conditions, which also apply to other media, are frequently emphasized in the literature. (Freudenstein ,1981.p.270)

Several disappointing experiences with auditory media, and ,especially with language laboratories, can be attributed to a failure to fulfill the conditions mentioned above. So the failure to do so will lead to misuse of media. The role of the teacher is central in this connection ,there is no empirical proof of the fact that media use per se accounts for more motivation, interesting teaching, or better learning results, nor will there ever be. Machines can always only be as good and helpful as the individual teacher thinks they are teachers must first of all be (familiar with the possibilities and limitations of the media which are used in foreign language teaching , an awareness of the possibilities and impossibilities may prevent some disappointments. Such awareness enables teachers to judge the relevance of the Chief functions of auditory media (objectification, individualization, intensification and enrichment) for his own teaching. (Dakin,1973.p.65)

And auditory media can be used for repetition, presentation , and exploitation, for training listening and speaking skills, but also for dictation, spelling exercises and various other aspects of writing, as well as for the testing of these skills. Whether they are used or not will depend, as we have argued earlier, on the objectives of the teaching programme. An auditory medium like the tape recorder is not maximally useful for the teaching of meaning, if it is not sup. ported by visual media, but it is eminently suited for the presentation of spoken texts, for repetition exercises, for pattern drills, and for guiding oral productive language use. (Beile ,1979.p.43)

Compilers of materials for foreign language teaching in which media use plays an important role have no casy task. They have to strike a balance between what has been laid down in the objectives and the possibilities and limitations of auditory media contain surveys of suitable exercises. Dakin gives innumerable examples of the uses language laboratories can be put to, including free conversation practice. Several authors express the opinion that especially in the later stages of the teaching or learning process the media should be in the hands of the learners’. The possibilities of the language laboratory, for instance, with regard to recording and reproduction, monitoring and correction, and of evaluation and assessment will then become more transparent for the learners take over tasks from the teacher, and provide a first step towards real communication. It is hardly surprising, given its history, that the language laboratory should often be associated with what (Dakin ,1973) calls  (tum-te-te-tum drills ). Language laboratory work need not, however, be limited to practicing by means of structural or contextualized drills. In the last few years many other suggestions for the use of language laboratories have been put forward. The suggestion of using the language laboratory for a variety of learning tasks simultaneously is an especially interesting one, which for instance prevents the learners from automatically associating language laboratory work with a particular type of learning task.

Missions which can be carried out simultaneously by individual learners or by groups of learners with the aid of a language laboratory are , for instance , dictation exercises , grammar – and vocabulary exercises, listening comprehension exercises, pronunciation exercises, and oral proficiency tests. Comprehension exercises can also be based on written texts, in which case the language laboratory can serve as a means to allow learners to work in groups more easily during the exploitation phase. They can communicate through the headphones and record both their discussions about the text and the outcome thereof, and evaluate them later, either together with the teacher or the entire class. (Hunziker , 1977.p.51)

Even though this kind of language laboratory work is only relevant for a part of the curriculum, and although there are learning tasks for which the language laboratory cannot be usefully employed, the language laboratory can be a very useful medium, especially for those learning tasks which can be carried out individually or in small groups. In this connection it is useful to divide learning tasks up into modules which can be presented as independent units. Most proposals for learning activities incorporate some visual support for the auditory media. ( Macht & Schlossbauer ,1978 .p34)

1.2.3.Visual and Audiovisual Media

There is no strict separation among visual and audiovisual media with respect to their use in foreign language teaching. However, television, video and film are usually regarded as the audiovisual media proper, because of the combination of sound and image in these media. All  of visual media, therefore, can in principle be combined with all auditory media .(Griffin ,1981.p.7 )

  • Visual Media

Consider that the visual element has long played an important role in foreign language teaching. Schilder (1977.p.14) has shown that as long as a century ago a surprising number of visual media, such as prints, drawings, and maps of cities and countries was used in foreign language teaching , in fact, long before such auditory media as we have discussed in the preceding paragraphs came to be employed. The various in approach to the use of visual media in foreign language teaching that the last few decades have witnessed, cannot exclusively be attributed to the fact that modern technology has enabled us to produce a rich variety of such media , a development which has taken us into an age in which  (the visual component is an increasingly important dimension of communication ). And even more important factor has been the extension of the functions of visual media. They are no longer just a means of making foreign language teaching more lively, to intensify it, and add some frills to it ” mainly to motivate the learners  “. but they have now also acquired the function of didactic intermediary  in the sense that they can be used to provide prestructured guidance of the learner’s use of an ( L2) structure through a visual representation of that structure . (Wipf , 1978 .p 11 – 12 )

There is considerable agreement in the literature on the positive effect which the use of visual media has on foreign language teaching. But it is also generally agreed that a number of conditions must be met if the use of visual media is to be effective Some of these conditions will be mentioned in our enumeration of visual media below. A number of visual media could be grouped together as  (non-technical teaching aids ) These include aids such as blackboards, magnetic boards and pegboards, pictures, charts, scrolls, flashcards, word – and – picture pocket books, photographs, and cartoons. They are all easily available and adaptable ,that is to say, a large variety of such aids can be bought because they are relatively inexpensive, which in turn makes them more flexible for use in foreign language teaching. (Weiand ,1978.p.22 )

Emphasizes Schilder (1980 ,p.344) that the use of media should be structured in such a way that learners can choose from a rich selection of aids for a considerable number of learning tasks, initially, with the teacher’s help, and later, independently. This also creates possibilities for differentiation, in that learners can work individually or in small groups. Another important aspect of visual aids of this kind is that they do not date very quickly, which makes them rather more usable than other types. Many of such aids can be made by the teacher himself. The difference is that some technical device is needed. This group includes slides, transparencies, films, filmstrips, videotapes and the technical equipment needed for projecting them. Non-technical aids may also be projected with the help of, for instance, a video camera and a monitor. The most flexible device is the overhead projector  it is very easy to produce transparencies for it, which can be easily adapted to all sorts of learning tasks. Slides are much less flexible , while films , TV and video are least flexible, and  are very difficult to adapt. ( Celce,Murcia ,1979 .p.64)

  • Audiovisual Media

The combination of sound and image and the use of rather expensive equipment characterire audiovisual media in the narrow sense of the word , namely films, TV and video The presentation of moving pictures is one of the most important differences among these and other media. This makes it possible to achieve a considerable degree of contextualization, Le presentation of authentic language use in real situations. (Ayton & Morgan ,1981.p.83)

One of the main disadvantages of this type of material is, however, that it dates very quickly as a result of technical, political and cultural developments. In foreign language teaching, films are losing ground to TV and video. This can be largely accounted for by problems inherent in the use of films: they are difficult to operate, the equipment is usually rather noisy, the sound quality is often poor, and the classroom has to be darkened. Films, furthermore, often contain too much language material to be usefully exploited in the classroom. There are only very few films especially designed for foreign language teaching, and it is hardly possible to produce such films oneself. TV and video suffer much less from these disadvantages There is, however, one important barrier to an optimal use of the possibilities offered by video the existence of many different video systems which are not interchangcable. In so called multi-media systems a great number of media are employed. (Hinz ,1979.p.13)

Characteristic of multi-media packages is the functional division of the various media over the various parts of the course and the different phases of the teaching or learning process. Sometimes the media are used separately, sometimes in combination with each other. In many cases, for instance in the Feoll project in the Federal Republic of Germany use is made of radio and TV broadcasts, which play an important role especially in the presentation phase. For the repetition and exploitation phases, as well as for additional activities  for example (for the teaching of cultural background), auditory and visual material is made available, such as slides, tapes for use in groups and individual use, flashcards, transparencies, readers, workbooks and wall charts.

According to the multi-media approach, therefore, textbooks retain their central function of setting out the structure of the course, and of providing the link between the media. This role is especially important in view of the not inconsiderable danger that the media will dominate the teaching programme. In this context, a lesson can be drawn from the Berlin multi – media instruction room, intended as an experiment and equipped with an abundance of auditory and visual media, which could be used at any given moment. voiced the following criticism , fortunately, this concept has not become common practice. If it had, it would have been a perfect example of the dehumanizing effect of media use without consideration for actual instructional needs. (Gutschow ,1980.p.87).

1.2.4.Audiovisual media in the Teaching process

 In this principle we have put much emphasis on usability, flexibility and adaptability of audiovisual media in order to make it clear that the use of such media can only be effective if they are in all respects  ( user – friendly ), Ifthey are not, media use is bound to meet with irritation on the part of both learners and teachers. Media are generally said to have two main functions: they serve to make foreign language teaching more lively, and they are an integral part of the teaching or learning process These two functions may be reflected in a large number of practical measures, on the use of audiovisual media in the classroom such as visual and audiovisual media mostly provide additional information.

For example involved furnishing the classroom with wall charts, notice boards, posters, maps, pictures,  or providing visual or audiovisual support for parts of the teaching programme, for instance, the cultural background part. Especially useful for this purpose are series of slides with an accompanying prerecorded commentary, films, TV and video. It is usually quite easy to obtain up – to – date material from TV programmes. This material does, however, nearly always require adaptation, which necessitates the use of a video recorder. Adaptation is very time-consuming. especially if one wants to keep one’s stock of materials up to date.

We can see some of the main problems in using films and TV for foreign language teaching are that the non – linguistic information generally far exceeds the linguistic information, that the linguistic information is usually pitched far above the level of proficiency of the learners, and that, as a consequence, these media are used less for actually teaching the learners than for entertaining them. With respect to the second function it should be observed that the actual use of media largely depends on the particular phase in the cycle of teaching or learning activities in which they are used.

According to Downes ( 1980.p.130 – 31 ) states an example of a multi-media approach in which the use of a particular medium is always linked to a particular aspect of the teaching or learning process,  ( lashcards to present main lexical items; filmstrip and tape recording bring lexical items into context) cassette recordings of conversations printed in pupil’s book give listening practice with good quality sound , pupil’s book exercises and workbook exercises give explanation and practice of structures used; language laboratory gives intensive practice through contextualized drills , television brings together the above into visual, living contexts , colour slides give high quality photographs for detailed study.

 According to the visual media ((flashcards and filmstrips)) provide the visual support for the acoustic memory and aid the semantization of the language material which has been presented auditory. We can see that the next step in the above example is bringing the language material into context. Linguistic communication is not exclusively verbal behavior. Such elements as paralinguistic signals ((gestures and facial expressions)) are also relevant. Furthermore, the meaning of language is also determined by the situation in which it is used, which is constituted by a number of factors, involving the speaker, the behavior of the conversation partner before, during and after the linguistic exchange, and the environment. We use our eyes and our ears to register different aspects of the language use situation. It is, therefore, often advisable to make use of visual media, certainly where aspects of the language use situation are concerned which are strongly culturally determined. It is very important to adapt the visual material for use in the presentation phase. Drawings, presented through textbooks, slide projectors, flashcards, and overhead projectors are eminently suitable. Pictures, films and television are less suitable, especially in the initial stages of the teaching or learning process.  A teacher with even the most rudimentary drawing skills can easily adapt the materials to suit the needs of the learners. In the repetition phase, visual media may be used to aid the internalization of rules and to correct pronunciation . ( Maley & Duff ,1976.p.87)

 In exercises they may serve to initiate and guide practice. They make it possible to work quickly and efficiently, without resorting to LI . Especially conversational practice can be initiated quite easily by means of visual aids. For this purpose not only the simple visual media are useful, but also the more complex audiovisual media such as TV. In the above example, both auditory ((language laboratory)) and visual (TV & colour slides) media are used in the repetition phase. In the exploitation phase media are especially important because they can provide stimuli for free conversation. Both auditory, visual and audiovisual media are relevant in this connection, as discussion may be prompted by verbal, visual, and situational stimuli. Spontaneous language use on the part of the learner ceases, however, at the point where knowledge and skills are no longer adequate to react to such stimuli. This means that the material which is intended to provide the stimuli must be adapted to the level of the learners.   (Borel, 1970.p.54)

For instance  (Downes ,1980) there is a gradual build – up towards free conversation, which may exploit all audiovisual media or any combination thereof. This building – up stage, which is aimed at helping learners who tend to adhere too closely to the learning materials to work independently of them, can also be implemented by the learners themselves in small groups. They should be given the opportunity to listen to and watch the stimuli carefully and to take notes. Written instructions, to set up question , and answer game for instance , would be very helpful in this connection. The last step towards free conversation is in this way introduced through a form of guided conversation.

1.3.Education Techniques

By education techniques we mean tools which is capable of storing and presenting learning materials, and of automatically processing learner responses. Tools with these features can be used for those parts of a language course which can be programmed, that can be classified  into a number of more or less predictable and ordered stages. The history of education techniques has stated that they are ill – equipped to handle appropriately all portions of a language teaching progranme. In fact ,education techniques are often designed particularly for a particular learning missions. Examples of such teaching machines are the (Suvog Lingua ), a tool for pronunciation correction , the conversation Visualizer , and the Language Master, which can be used for simple learning missions in a stimulus – response frame-work . Differ these tools , computers voice to be capable of guiding or supervising all  range of learning missions. Particularly speaking  the development of teaching machines was stimulated by a desire to individualize and intensify the teaching or learning approaches, however , it happens as a bit of a surprise to find that computers are particularly found to be most useful as a medium of instruction when they are collected into the normal classroom schedule , even thoughcompute – tutors were  primary target, it is now clear that the computer is most possible to be useful as a supplement to class –  room instruction.  (Guberina , 1973.p.32 )

Computers  considered as one medium of instruction  among many others. We have results to expect that the computer will become more common as a medium of instruction in foreign education techniques than other machines  as the Suvag Lingua and the Language Master, not just because computers also can do what these and other machines can do, but because they can carry out other missions,

such as administering and evaluating learner performance. The best describe of the present situation and some well-founded views on future developments  , can be discover in( Marty,1981, 1982). Marty is related with Plato  ( Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operations ) , a ( CAI ) system of Control  Data Corporation, which has been in operation for some 20 years . Plato  is a macro system that a central computer controls a large number of terminals.

 The characteristics of this system are its large memory capacity , the wide chose of learning programs and exercises it offers, its state of operation, and its certain computer language instructor, which is suitable for programming language lectures. Fundamental defect is that the costs involved for the user are very expensive. The installation of mini – or micro – computers could possible solve this problem in the foresecable future. Therefore , the necessary software,  computer languages and learning programs is not  available. (Howatt ,1969 .p.228 )

Assumed  the developments in computer technology  that the range of possibilities for (CALI) can be extended . Whereas most existing (CALI) programs deal with grammar and vocabulary, and programs for improving listening comprehension, reading comprehension and translation skills. Certain fields of pronunciation, intonation and evidence speech could also be taught by means of a (CALI ) system, so that the teacher can refer to a greater proportion of the class time to something which is beyond the ability of any current or future computer, the development of creative free expression . Essential advantages of (CALI) are that it can individualize the learning approach by taking into consideration the primary skills and the learning average of each individual learner, and by giving selections with respect to type and amount instruction and experience . And it can intensify the learning approach and reduce learning time, it can submit immediate feedback, give random access to programs and exercises, and, finally, it can increase desire precisely because programs can be tailored to the requirements of the individual, and also because of the intrinsic attraction of the machine, the studies agree on the enthusiasm that learners reflected in working with computers. (CALI) still leaves a lot to be motivated, However, (Marty,1982.p.5 – 7) , who mentions some fields for improvement the computer can just submit partial error analyses of the language happened by learners, since groups of errors fed into the computer cannot be exhaustive ,one has to do with a group of predictable errors. Nevertheless, the provide groups could be improved in a number of methods. And the propositions for review must be modified in order to prevent, for example, learners repeating too short and long, or incorrectly. And there is a require for modification of computer languages and computer programs in order to work it possible, for example, for some of the assignments to be established    automatically. ( Leidy et al, 1980,.p.13)

Moreover, (CALI) can be modified by adding a visual component to the computer. Visual support of computerized instruction by device of slides and micro- fiche is may be at the moment. More advanced instruments , as vidcodiscs which can both record and reproduce sound, is still being developed. The computer does not sound to have much to offer in the field of creative writing. Quite apart from the considerable problems included in the automatic linguistic analysis that this would need, the computer cannot monitor the actual content of what the learners do. Another field in which substantial modification sounds differ is oral interaction with the computer. ( Marty 1982, .p.17 ) explain  it is pure fantasy to think that one day we will have devices which can understand the kinds of badly formed sentences foreign language learners are apt to create and that those devices will submit the students with a correction.” To sum up, the computer has most to offer in the field of written skills, with the prediction of creative writing, and least in the field of oral productive skills. Although some progress has been made also in this field, it is similar that, in the near  property, the computer will continue to be baffled by conversation to a great extent It seems realistic to aim for a rather modest role for  (CALI ) for the time being. This modesty is motivated not just by submit expectations with consider to technological developments, but by last experiences with media, the costs included, and the as yet determined expertise in designing and using computerized learning materials. This last problem may also result a widening of the gap among the technical and the didactic fields of (CALI) , which possible hardly to bridge. (Roberts ,1981.p.54)

1.4.  Educational  Function  of  the  Media

We can noted  ,that the attempt  to  describe the functions  of mass media is not only to  understand  their  characteristic   properties , directions of effect, but also to define and refer       to their     exceptional       character  between other    means      of social communication    . The functions of mass media are understood as activities, missions, mutual        dependencies relationships, and also  positions or  duties .   The authors of the Dictionary of Media Terminology  define them as, { at least the missions to be  performed  by them, the target  they should  achieve, or  the  result of their  actions. }.

Whereas , attempt to classification  the  functions  of mass  media , it is worth taking into  account their  essential  division into their  desired   functions and   undesirable (( dysfunctions )) ones , while the desired  functions or the poor of them, may be both on the sender and the recipient  side, and at the same time they can be in convergent , or divergent   communication   processes  (  H. Lasswell ) , as one of the first scientist , was  working theoretical considerations on the functional   dimension of  mass  media and  mass   communication , stated that social  communication functions are a prerequisite for  keeping a society’s existence , continuity , integration and  social order , with the reservation that mass communication can also discover  the  dysfunctional  consequences.  (Lasswell, 1948, p. 32-51)

In this respective , the main functions of mass media defined by  ( Lasswell ) indicated to  supervision of the surrounding, correlation of the group reactions in a  community on its  surroundings,  transmission of cultural heritage { D. McQuail } collected the  suppositions of  { H. Lasswell, C. R. Wright’s achievements } as well as the results of his own research and proposed a typology of the functions of mass media in a community Information function.  Correlation function.  Continuity function ”  heritage transmission”  Entertainment function. Mobilization function (M. Mrozowski )  in his review of the typology of functions of mass media  and  mass communication . Also , draws attention to the catalog of functions formulated  in 1948 , by ( P. F. Lazarsfeld ) ,  and ( R. K. Merton) . This typology is perhaps  less   important from the  point of view of these considerations, however, it is an  important  complement to the  categorization of mass media functions. (McQuail, 2007, p. 111-112)

So,  the  classification of ( Lazarsfeld )   and Merton recognized the functions of the media not so much from the perspective of their tasks as   from the consequences of their operation and it consisted of two functions and one dysfunction. They involve   the following ( Mrozowski, 2001, p. 114-115 ) .The   function of assigning status   associated with the focusing of social attention and giving importance to public issues   , people and   organizations.  – The function of strengthening social norms – mass media reduce the discrepancy be-tween private and public morality, strengthening the norms and values on which public morality is based .Addiction dysfunction – based on the progressive addiction of recipients to mass communication , which can absorb more and more time , is the  result of replacing direct  contact   with reality with  artificial  and superficial  one, and participation  in social  life is replaced by passivity and apathy. In modern  typologies, there are also other  functions of mass communication  media, such  as  persuasive ” propaganda “, cultural , or  educational  ones. ( Pisarek, 2006, p. 62)

We can  noted the educational  function of mass   media includes , to some extent, some of   the    previously mentioned  functions. It is based on providing information  about   the  surrounding   world , presenting  facts that enable shaping knowledge  , showing   the truth, communicating content that shapes skills and competences.  From this point of view, modern   mass media carry out an important task of    teaching the recipients     about the world.. So , the educational function, however, refers no    t only to providing information, as information deprived of commentary and embodiment  in a certain context { and thus mass communication without a correlation function }, would be worthless and useless to many recipients, as they would not be able to make proper use of it. This educational function goes far be-yond using the means of mass communication in pedagogy and school education. The impact of mass media in this regard is rather a part of the concept of  long life  learning  , because it focuses on the, mature, well developed and shaped recipient .The proper definition of mass media functions reflects the effects  of  research on the use and satisfaction from the media. According to the traditional approach  of these studies dealt with the  impact of mass media on recipients  in its direct form, trying to answer the question: what do mass media  do with   people,  or how they       shape them, change  and educate them. A more recent approach  reverses the problem, what  do  people   do with mass  media and how do they use them? This research perspective, according to  ((T. Goban-Klas )) , is most marked  in  two intensively  practiced  fields of study  in  the studies of the so called uses , and  gratifications and in the socialization research of mass media functions.

In the basic  assumptions of the   theory of  uses and gratifications are as follows (( Goban-Klas, 1999, p. 253 )).  The choice of media and  media content  is generally rational  and  calculated for certain specific  purposes and satisfaction { the audience is therefore  active and its creation can be explained logically } , Members of the audience are  aware of their needs in  relation to media that arise from personal “individual” and  social ”  shared  ” circumstances , and  can  express them through their motives , In general , usability is a more important factor in shaping the audience than  aesthetic, or cultural factors , all or most of the factors shaping the audience { motives, perceived or received  benefits,  media choices, social variables } are generally measurable.


From  this   study we can say   that  the use of media  , in  some  form or other, is generally considered useful and important for all  types of foreign language teaching . In this respective ,    we    have    argued  that in foreign     language  teaching   a    specific use of media is     both    possible    and desirable. .

Moreover   , If    media are intended to support, supplement, or replace the teacher with     respect to a number of tasks, then one should    first of all ask the question whether     and in     how far media   should be used, for which task  , and at which certain  stage     in the teaching – learning process.

We can noted ,  that the  media do not necessarily  become   more effective as they become  technically    more    advanced. So  , the results of complex media  systems also  depend  on the  quality      of  the learning     materials  used..  Sometimes it  would  be  wrong to attribute didactic value a priori     to any one medium. Flashcards may, under certain   circumstances , be more effective than computers or television.


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