Research studies

Psychological pressure between physiological theory and neurobiological nature


Prepared by the researche : Dr CHIBANI Leila , Dr ALLALGUA Samira – MIRA Abderrahmane University of BEJAIA – University of Constantine2

Democratic Arabic Center

Journal index of exploratory studies : Fourteenth Issue – June 2024

A Periodical International Journal published by the “Democratic Arab Center” Germany – Berlin

Nationales ISSN-Zentrum für Deutschland
ISSN 2701-9233
Journal index of exploratory studies

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     There is no doubt that determining the cause of psychological stress and knowing the exact source of the necessary things for future treatment, although sometimes difficult to determine the source because of the many situations experienced by the individual in his daily life, may turn into disorders that threaten the well-being of a long time, The psychological stress arises in the individual as a result of the suffering facing the individual, where the subject interested many researchers interested in the field of physiognomy psychology and the interpretation of psychological phenomena biological explanation and physiology in order to determine the pain and access to treatment methods, so we will try Saleet light on the interpretation of physiological stress.


In all stages of his development, man is exposed to a series of daily stressful situations which he sometimes encounters and sometimes avoids in accordance with his abilities and cognitive abilities. On the other hand, he is forced to deal with them in order to reduce the severity of his situation by employing a group Of the methods and strategies available according to the situation and the effectiveness of the individual in dealing with it. The physiological, psychological and social nature of the individual dictates to him to respond to and interact with the different attitudes that are apparent through his behavior, against the background of a set of personal, intellectual and cognitive constructs that are explained to the particular and specific man (Wadad Wali, 2015, p. 110) Modern problems that have attracted the attention of psychologists and public health doctors since the beginning of the twentieth century, focusing attention on the study of psychological pressure of the physiological and hormonal effects on the negative physical health of the individual, and limited research applications on stress in the interpretation of physiological changes that occur Although the beginning of research in the concept of psychological stress was based on the physiological aspects, linking the stressful positions (external or internal) and the individual’s response to the changes in the physiological hormonal, and the resulting Physical diseases, neglecting the role of the individual in the psychological interaction with him and the difference in individuals in their responses to stressful situations, where the individual faces in his daily life many of the positions that stand in the way and threaten the future, and exposure to the balance of psychological and physical to the imbalance and anxiety and tension and impede in the performance of its functions, The psychological stresses that have become the most important modern topics that have a significant impact in our current society, due to the negative effects, most notably the inability of psychological compatibility of individuals, which generates many mental disorders and that due to the multiplicity of sources of stress and its impact on the psychological and physical life of the individual ( Belkacem Makhlouf, 2013, p. 10) As the individual lives daily stressful events causing him fatigue and exhaustion, require him to adapt his abilities to agree with them, and the adoption of several methods of different types and directions, which led us to talk about this concept in detail from the theory Social psychological and physiological theory in the interpretation of psychological pressure.

research goals

    Through this research, which focuses on the physiological theory and the neurobiological nature of psychological stress, we try through the content of the research to clarify and explain the following:
Try to explain the psychological pressure from the physiological point of view.
– To provide neurological explanations for the mechanism of stress and changes in the nervous system.

Research concepts


It is defined as a natural response to a physical or emotional challenge, and occurs when the balance between demands and resources of adaptation is lost. In one of the scales, psychological stress presents the challenges that make us ready, while in the other hand, stress is the situation in which individuals are unable to meet the demands And eventually suffer physical and psychological breakdown (Fayza Ghazi Al-Abd Allah, 2015, p. 22).

Physiological theory: It is defined as the direction that gives a description and explanation of physiological and functional changes occurring in the body or in a member of the body (Abdel Hakim Ahmed Sharif, 2000, p. 4).

Neurobiotic nature

Known as the trend that explains phenomena based on the nervous system, is an explanation of the relationship between activity and neurons (Siham Ibrahim Kamel Mohammed, p. 6).

A historical overview of the evolution of the concept of pressure

     The term pressure is used in many fields such as medicine, engineering, and natural sciences, to occupy a very important position in psychology, so that the use of the term pressure has undergone several developments over successive periods of time. In the fourteenth century it was a general concept describing everything related to hardship and distress, The 17th century was commonly used by Robert Hook to describe the severity and engineering difficulties. In the late 17th century, the latter defined its use in its design works as bridges, for example, resulting in pressure, similar to the pressure of the organism that requires confrontation or flight. Then in the Physiological, medical, social and psychological, and in the late eighteenth century used to refer to strength, tension or stress, and in the twentieth century defined the concept in foreign dictionaries in the sense of narrowness and strength, to mean at the present time all the complex events sources leading to the feeling of tension and discomfort (Wadad Wali, 2015, p. 111).

Concept of psychological stress

     It is defined as a natural response to a physical or emotional challenge, and occurs when the balance between demands and resources of adaptation is lost. In one of the scales, psychological stress presents the challenges that make us ready, while in the other hand, stress is the situation in which individuals are unable to meet the demands And eventually suffer physical and psychological breakdown (Fayza Ghazi Al-Abd Allah, 2015, p. 22).

Physiological theory in the interpretation of psychological stress

     The “Sealy” theory of a Muslim perceives that pressure is a non-independent variable in response to the pressure factor where a person distinguishes and makes it based on the response of the stressful environment and that there is a response or patterns of responses that can be inferred Of them, a person is under an annoying environmental impact. “Hans” is a response characterized by the degree of exposure to the compressor and that the symptoms of physiological response to the pressure is high and its goal to preserve the entity.

    Sealy has identified three phases of pressure and these boilers represent the general stages of adaptation:

  • Panic: in which the body shows changes and responses characterized by the degree of initial exposure to the compressor and as a result of these changes less resistance to the body may occur death when the collapse of resistance to the body and the compressor is strong.
  • Resistance: It occurs when the exposure to the compressor is consistent with the adaptation disappear changes that appeared on the body in the first stage and show other changes and indicate adaptation.
  • Stress: The stage of tracking the resistance in which the body has adapted but the necessary energy has been exhausted and if the defense responses are severe and continuous for a long time may result in diseases of adaptation (Farouk Sayed Osman, 2001, p. 98)

Physiological and psychological nature of psychological stress

Among the brain structures that contribute to the regulation of stress, cerebral cortex is the limbic system.

The brain cortex: where its approximately 10 billion neurons are found, which is the last stop of most of the rising excitement of the ocean. Here, the situation is evaluated and behavior is programmed. The interconnected areas of the frontal, temporal and temporal lobes play a special role in the development of pressure.
The limbic system: It consists of evolutionary differential devices, the oldest part of the cerebral cortex, the hippocampus and the ganglion, and is built under cortical as well as the hypothalamus and the cytoplasm.

Neurophysiology of psychological stress Occur according to the following physiological pathway:
– The transfer of information in the form of flashes motivating from the sensory organs to the cerebral cortex through the neurotransmitter routes.

Transfer of this information from the cortical cortex to the brain through brain connections.
These messages are neurotransmitters transmitted through the nerves, whether hormonal messages in the sense of hormones separated by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland, and transmitted through the blood. These messages have the effect of mobilizing and activating certain receptors Muscles, skin, etc.) belonging to the nervous system, the “self-system” and related to the relational life with the external environment and all these mechanisms to put the membership in a state of alert and defense.
– Then came the research of Hans Sealy 1982, where he pointed out that the pressure occurs on four levels of axons are as follows:

The first nerve axis: This neural axis connects between the sea horse, the symbiotic system and the adrenal gland, which when activated activates the immediate release of norepinephrine in the blood, leading to increased heart rate and high arterial pressure. It also leads to high blood sugar, as well as the transfer of a large amount of blood from the organs Peripheral to the core organs also works on induction of caution and attention and all these previous effects last about 15 minutes.

The second nerve axis:     It is a neurotransmitter specific to the transfer of adrenal cortex and connects the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland and the adrenal gland. When activated, it releases a large amount of glucocorticoids, which form the so-called muscle glycogen from lipid proteolytic compounds. For a significant consumption of glycogen and this activity lasts about two hours.
– Third nerve Axis:    It is a neurotransmitter that is used to release peptides such as: Methotrofen is excreted from the endothelium of the anterior pituitary gland and the beta-androfen frontal cortex, an analgesic of emotional response, particularly fear response.

The fourth nerve axis:    It is an immunosorbent axis where the level of depth of the defense activity in the case of exposure to pressure, and works cortisol to sabotage the lymphatic tissue and a crack in the defenses of immunoglobulin and glucotecoide at the same time the role of contradictory, on the one hand provides us with an urgent defense in the case of compressor position and on the other hand Dilute the overall capacity of membership (Najia Dayli, 2013, pp. 48-49)

Theory of Charles Spielberger (1990) Tcharez Speilberger

    The understanding of Spielberger’s theory of anxiety is a necessary introduction to his theory of stress. His theory of anxiety has been based on the distinction between two types of anxiety: anxiety as a condition and anxiety as a feature, and two concerns: anxiety, anxiety or chronic anxiety, A natural or behavioral trend that causes anxiety to be based primarily on past experience. Concern as a condition or objective and suspense concern depends primarily on stressful circumstances. Therefore, Spielberger connects pressure and anxiety as a condition and considers pressure from a particular compressor to cause anxiety, As a feature where the personality of an individual is concerned Originally. In the frame of reference of his theory, he is interested in determining the nature of the pressing environmental conditions and distinguishes between the resulting anxiety situations and interprets the relationships between them and the defense mechanisms that help to avoid those pressing aspects (suppression – denial – drop) or evasion behavior. Spielberger distinguishes the concept of pressure and the concept of anxiety. An emotional process refers to the sequence of behavioral cognitive responses that occur as a response to some form of pressure and begins with an external stressful compressor. It also distinguishes between the concept of pressure and the concept of threat. With some degree of objective risk, and the word threat refers to self-assessment and interpretation.

The theory of “Henry Murray”

     Murray considers that the concept of need and the concept of pressure are fundamental and equal concepts in the interpretation of human behavior and their separation is a dangerous distraction in a dynamic dialogue that appears in the Thema concept. Murray means an interactive “behavioral unit” that includes motivation, It also links pressures to people or subjects that have direct connotations of an individual’s attempts to satisfy his or her needs. Murray was able to distinguish between two types of pressure:
A – beta pressure: the implications of the environmental issues as perceived by individuals.
B- Alpha pressure: the characteristics of environmental issues as they exist.
Murray also presented the most important pressures as follows:
– Pressure of lack of family support: is the sense of tension and distress resulting from the lack of satisfaction of the need to belong, as well as the dissatisfaction resulting from the existence of environmental issues that make the individual feel the loss of the family group, loss of bond and partner in the middle and domestic instability and the sense of discrimination between brothers, Loses support within the family, and becomes a marginalized individual who is then disappointed, which makes him vulnerable to psychological pressure and incompatibility within his family.
– Stress, loss and vulnerability to disasters: the feeling of tension and anxiety caused by the lack of fulfillment of the need for achievement, as well as the dissatisfaction resulting from the presence of environmental issues and people make the individual feel the pressure of lack of material resources, and the sense of loss of property and demolition of homes and loss of functionality and a sense of resentment of the ill health And exposure to disease.

-Pressure of aggression: is the sense of tension and the lack of satisfaction of the need for aggression, as well as the feeling of dissatisfaction resulting from the existence of environmental issues and people do not facilitate the achievement of ridicule on others and disobedience when the difference with them and the desire to retaliate when standing against the achievement of the goal.

– Congestion pressure: the feeling of frustration resulting from not satisfying the need to get pregnant, as well as the sense of tension resulting from the existence of environmental conditions and people who refuse to surrender to others and surrender to them.

– The pressure of belonging and friendship: is the sense of tension and conflict resulting from the lack of satisfaction of the need to get together, as well as the frustration resulting from the existence of environmental conditions, social and people who prevent approaching and enjoy cooperation with other important.
– The pressure of abandonment and lack of attention: is a sense of frustration and discomfort resulting from the lack of satisfaction of the need for motivation, as well as the sense of conflict resulting from the presence of people, and environmental issues showing lack of interest in others and their lack of appreciation for the individual and continued reprimand, criticism and punishment.
– Sex pressure: The feeling of frustration and failure to satisfy the need for sex and distress because of the lack of people, and environmental conditions are not going to establish and develop relationships and appetite for sexual relations, where we note that the individual needs to satisfy the biological need through contact with the other individual, and this meets his needs , And lack of satisfaction of this need lead to falling into psychological pressure.

-Stress the request of emotion from others (the request of compassion): It is the sense of frustration and conflict resulting from the lack of satisfaction of the need for Istnajad, and tension due to the existence of environmental conditions and persons facilitate the departure of others from the individual, which always leads to try to redress their sympathy and compassionate participation and request for compassionate treatment, Depression.

-Compression of inferiority and contempt: the feeling of frustration and anxiety resulting from the presence of environmental issues, and people who increase the sense of vulnerability and show the lack of respect for others and the value of the value of the value of its work.

-Pressure on others (tolerance): The result of the presence of people and environmental conditions do not facilitate the realization of the individual’s desire to help others who have problems, and to prevent him from visiting patients and sympathy.

-The pressure of deception and evasion: is the sense of anxiety resulting from the lack of satisfaction of the need for understanding and knowledge.

-The pressure of schizophrenia and competing peers: the frustration and discomfort of environmental conditions, people who do not please the successful individual in peer competition in life, and the increased distrust of their ability to pursue and achieve their goals.

– Pressure of control and prevention: is the sense of tension not to satisfy the need for control, and the existence of environmental conditions and persons imposes on the individual to do undesirable work, and the control of others on the performance and leadership of their behavior and the decisions of his opponent.
– Compression of detention and the issues of restraint: The lack of satisfaction of the need for independence and the sense of discomfort of the presence of individuals and environmental attitudes do not facilitate the individual to disclose feelings, and feeling. Murray has been subjected to a number of pressures, as he has sought all the aspects that are causing him. That he was finally drawn to the pressure of detention that the individual felt abhorrent, and not to give him full freedom because of the presence of individuals or environmental positions constrained (Ada Majouja, 1012, pp. 24-25).

The Psychological View of Stress by Walter Cannon

       In 1929-1943, Walter Cannon made an important contribution to talking about psychological stress. He was the one who paved the way for the dual-mind (body-mind) in their interaction. The first introduced the concept of psychological stress in human experience, A disturbance of the biological equilibrium under conditions of hypoxia, cold, heat, and low blood sugar. He also emphasized the role of the nervous system during the turbulent periods and described in detail how the body responds to external disturbances or threats and is the first to introduce the term Confrontation or escape (Fight and Fight) in the stress response, Canon has observed physiological changes occur in the body. The individual is expected to stand up and face the event or the compressor position, or to escape the situation.
It was also explained that immediate response, which spontaneously appears as a reaction to the perception of danger, drives and expands the pupil’s pupil and so on. Pulmonary acceleration, increased breathing, muscle spasm and high blood pressure all occur as a result of the release of the pituitary gland to the adrenocorticotropic hormone, which in turn excludes the adrenaline gland to secrete the Corticostteroid and Epinephrine hormones. The stress at Canon was biological physiology and therefore its definition of stress was a response Physiology of the body to external hazards or threats and the accompanying physiological response from clinical manifestations (Badia wakli, 2013, p. 108).

– Providing psychological training workshops on effective skills to relieve stress.
– Preparation of treatment programs dealing with the nervous side of psychological pressure.
– Attention to modern research with modern nervous current explanation of mental disorders in general and psychological pressure, especially with a view to access to effective treatment methods.
In light of what has been presented, and despite the various theoretical models explained psychological pressure, it can be said that the psychological pressure on the individual and the suffering suffered by it is a burden and suffering can not be realized by the fact only the patient, so the practitioners must understand the nature of the response For situations that generate stress and provide the individual with methods of coping with stress and achieving mental health.

List of references

– Badia wakli (2013): coping strategies of the depressed, doctoral thesis, Setif.

– Belkacem Makhlouf (2013): strategies to deal with psychological stress and its relation to optimism and pessimism among students who are on the baccalaureate exam, Master Thesis, Chlef.
– Siham Ibrahim Kamel Mohamed, Essay on the concept of the nervous trend, Center for Studies and Research of the Disabled, Cairo University.

-Farouk Al-Sayed Othman (2001): Anxiety and Stress Management, First Edition, Arab Thought Publishing House, Cairo.

-Fayza Ghazi Al-Abd Allah (2014): strategies to deal with psychological stress and its relationship to parental treatment methods in adolescents in Damascus city schools, doctoral dissertation, Damascus.
– Abdel Hakim Ahmed Sherif (2000): The Role of Sports Physiology in Improving the Quality of Life for Older Persons, Article by the General Bureau of the Ministry of Youth and Sports, Cairo.
– Aliya Majuja (2012): Strategies to cope with the psychological pressure of working women, Master Thesis, Ouargla.

-Najia Dayley (2013): Psychological pressure of married women working in the field of education and its relation to anxiety, Master Thesis, Setif.

-Widad Wali (2015): coping strategies for adolescent delinquents, MA, Faculty of Social Sciences, Oran.

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