Research studies

Artificial Intelligence in Asia Historical Aspects and Future Prospects


Prepared by the researcher : Habib Al Badawi, Ph.D. Professor – Lebanese University – Faculty of Letters and Human Sciences (B.I) – History Department, Beirut, Lebanon.

Democratic Arab Center

Journal of Afro-Asian Studies : Sixteenth Issue – February 2023

A Periodical International Journal published by the “Democratic Arab Center” Germany – Berlin.

Nationales ISSN-Zentrum für Deutschland
ISSN  2628-6475
Journal of Afro-Asian Studies

:To download the pdf version of the research papers, please visit the following link


According to “Britannica”, artificial intelligence is the ability of a digital computer or computer-controlled robot to perform tasks commonly associated with intelligent beings. Artificial intelligence is defined as a simulation of the human brain in carrying out some of its complex functions, such as learning, reasoning, planning, speech discrimination, problem-solving, rational, and logical thinking. It mostly provides services in the fields of technical, medical, educational, and service applications.

Artificial intelligence will be the engine of progress and prosperity over the next few years due to the tremendous and accelerating scientific development that the world is witnessing in terms of critical transformations, especially in the era of the technological boom.

The goal of artificial intelligence is to allow machines to perform all kinds of complex tasks that require a human presence. Therefore, it will dominate the various applications used. The most prominent example of this is the use of flying drone systems, in which human presence is no longer required.

This manuscript expands on the prior research conducted and published, entitled Advantages and Risks of Artificial Intelligence on the Labor Workforce in the Developing Countries, by the Russian University of Transport (RUT–MIIT), while taking different scientific approaches by focusing on the governmental momentum reaction towards artificial intelligence.

In this study, I will present the historical chronology of the development of artificial intelligence, its fields, its mechanisms of action, the national goal of its dissemination, and a simplified strategy to promote artificial intelligence in developing countries in Asia.

“In this era of profound digital transformation, it’s important to remember thatgovernment, has a role to play in creating shared prosperity, not just prosperity. After all, the same technologies that can be used to concentrate wealth and power can also be used to distribute it more widely and empower more people.” — Erik Brynjolfsson, Director of the MIT Initiative on the Digital Economy


            Artificial intelligence (A.I.) (Kavanagh, 2019) represents the foremost successful outcome of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (Diesen, 2021) due to its multiplicity of implications in the military, industrial, and economic realms. As well as its larger impact, it is also focused on technical, medical, educational, and service applications. It is expected to open the door to limitless innovations and lead to more industrial revolutions in a way that will radically change human life. Industrial intelligence (Lasi, 2013)  will be the engine of progress and prosperity over the next few years because of the tremendous and accelerating technological development the world is witnessing in terms of transformations under the Fourth Industrial Revolution.

    1-Historical Background of Artificial Intelligence

            In Greek mythology, machines were depicted as warnings(Shashkevich-Stanford, 2019), but their appearance as artificial intelligence arose from scientific research conducted at Dartmouth College in 1956(Veisdal, 2019), by John McCarthy, Marvin Maine Ski, Allen Newell, Arthur Samuel, and Herbert Simon(Moor, 2006). They were able to solve problems in algebra and prove logical English-speaking theories(History of artificial intelligence, 2019). The historical sequence of artificial intelligence at the global level can be listed as follows:

–  In 1822, Charles Babbage designed the world’s first calculator(Bullock, 2008).

–  In 1854, George Boole invented the theory of algebraic logic based on the two values of “zero and true one”(Burris, 2019).

–  In 1921, the term robot was used for the first time in the Czech play “Universal Graphic Robots”(Jordan, 2019).

– In 1940, attempts began to create simple electronic networks that mimic neurons in a primitive way(Caroline Clabaugh, Dave Myszewski, and Jimmy Pang, 2020).

– In 1948, the scientist “Alan Turing” came up with the first idea of machines with the ability to think like human beings (Shyamasundar, 2014).

– In 1958, the scientist “John McCarthy” invented the programming language “lisp”, which is the preferred language in the field of artificial intelligence(Wand, 1984).

– In the 1980s, artificial intelligence research witnessed an awakening through the commercial success of “expert systems” that simulate human experts(Gill, 1995).

– In 1985, the profits of artificial intelligence research reached more than one billion dollars, and governments began to fund this research (Anyoha, 2017).

– In 1987, the lisp machine market crashed. One of the programming languages and artificial intelligence research witnessed a setback (Newquist, 1994).

– In 1988, artificial intelligence achieved substantial success in the fields of logistical, data mining, and medical diagnosis (Fei Jiang, 2017).

– In 2018, the Japanese government announced that artificial intelligence would also become an official part of its “integrated innovation strategy”(Yelizarova, 2021).

     2-Artificial Intelligence Fields and Applications

Artificial intelligence is used in the military, industry, economy, technology, medicine, education, and many other fields. The goal of artificial intelligence is to allow machines to perform all sorts of complex tasks that require human presence. As a result, the human presence behind the wheel is no longer required in autonomous vehicles and drone systems. Automated robots are designed to perform motor and verbal tasks thathumans perform in critical fields such asoperating nuclear reactors, laying wires, repairing underground wire installations, exploring mines, and car manufacturing. The nonlinear control system operates in the rail control field, with smart devices that check industrial designs, monitor processes, and takedecisions. Using cognitive stimulation to test hypotheses on how the human mind recognizes faces, sounds, and handwriting, as well as processing images, extracting data, and retaining information.

While AI will be widely adopted in the medical field, it is expected to perform clinical diagnoses and performsurgeries in hospitals. On the other hand, the benefits of AI will help to streamline and optimize stock exchange data processes in the fields of economics and finance. This is because it will develop trade systems that require precise and fast monitoring systems that are more efficient than a human being.

Gaming is considered one of the first examples of artificial intelligence (AI) that is not a recent invention. It was developed in the 50s and early 60s of the last centuryuntil computers began to compete against humans in chess games and video games.

          With the increasing number of websites on the internet, the most common search engines, such as Google, often give a long list of search results clusters that can help users find the results on their devices connected via the InternetArtificial intelligence. Search engines are also concerned with special applications for learning different natural languages, rules for understanding written and spoken languages automatically; answering questions with pre-programmed answers, and automatic language translation systems for languages in real-time. Due to the agent’s ability to perform tasks in a manner similar to that of human experts, it can make decisions accurately based on a set of logical operations to arrive at a correct decision or a set of logical options. The infinite implications of AI can be seen in all aspects of human life.This is evidenced in the applications of smart home services, smartphones, smart TVs, and hundreds of other apps.

      3-The Motives of Nations’ Direction to Activate Artificial Intelligence

Nation’s relentless pursuit of new technologies of the Fourth Industrial Revolution is characterized by artificial intelligence, which is the language of the future, and cannot be separated from curbing illiteracy, and strengthening public health, education, and other key sectors.

            Developing Asian countries proceeded to establish specialized scientific competencies and local capabilities in artificial intelligence and to organize specialized training courses for government employees in data science. The aim is to create a cultural awareness of artificial intelligence among societies.This will facilitate the spread of such applications based on technology, and a digital citizen who can deal with these applications.

 In order for the community to receive the benefits of artificial intelligence, governments, education, and media institutions must join forces and establish research centers that contribute to the development of various sectors, focusing on raising community awareness of the fundamentals of this field.

Most countries seek to activate artificial intelligence to increase productivity in many major sectors, such as the industrial sector, which is considered a primary sector in the economy at a global level (Anton Korinek, 2021), as it moves aggressively todiversify its sources of income. This sector affects the state’s economic position, and this requires supplying this significant and vital sector with the outputs of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, most notably artificial intelligence techniques (James EAGER, 2020). This is considered a necessity due to the dependence on the health, education, and service sectors (O’Shaughness, 2018).

Whether it will serve other vital sectors such as transport through unmanned airplanes, autonomous cars, flying taxis, metros, and all land and sea transportation is still a controversial matter (Vallance, 2019). Because of its ability to assist medical staff in diagnosing and treating diseases, prescribing drugs, conducting surgeries, and better accessing patient files with voice commands, artificial intelligence has become indispensable in many fields, including health to the extent that patients can book appointments through it (Khan, 2022).

 There is a possibility for self-education and development in artificial intelligence through learning, reasoning, self-correcting, and self-programming machines (Artificial intelligence and inclusion, compendium of promising initiatives, 2020)as A.I. contributes to achievement in interactive education (Chassignol, 2018). The education system will change as a concept because of the principles of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, as it will focus on sensory education to meet the requirements of the industrial sector and artificial intelligence (Artificial intelligence in industry: intelligent production, 2022).

Artificial intelligence implementations in the legal field contribute to the provision of legal advice (Brooks, 2020) and are used in the security and military fields (Cummings, 2017). In times of natural disasters, artificial intelligence can reduce hardships and dangerous actions for humans in exploration and rescue operations that require muscle strength (Heteren, 2020). Expert systems are artificial intelligence systems that can be used in knowledge bases and face recognition (The Facts on Facial Recognition with Artificial Intelligence, 2022).It can create new job opportunities and provide services at a reduced cost (Johnson, 2021), as it contributes to maintaining security. It also provides mechanisms and solutions to confront challenges, including cybercrime (Marr, 2019).

    4-Mechanisms to Activate Artificial Intelligence Effectively

         The vast economic opportunities provided by artificial intelligence to many economic sectors around the world include its ability to achieve huge profits while using its applications and relying on accurate information and advice(Meltzer, 2019), as well as its positive effects on decreasing reliance on the human element and employment.This raises the quality of products and cuts spending; most governments have adopted many mechanisms not only to improve project performance but also to reduce the number of expatriate workers and amend the imbalance in the labor market structure and demographics(Dachs, 2018).

The implication of this approach of reducing the human element in multiple domains requires raising awareness and educating the public and minorities in society about the concept of artificial intelligence to facilitate the widespread use of applications that depend on this technology  (Reese, 2022). Refocus government, education, and media efforts on developing a digital citizen capable of coping with these technologies (Gurría, 2019). Increasing awareness among the leaders of institutions, managers, and employees of government agencies about the importance of artificial intelligence is crucial.

The adoptionof this technology in the work environment and the development of services arealso part of improving those agencies (Tim Fountaine, 2019). Formation of work teams with the knowledge of innovation executives in government institutions to study the opportunities and challenges facing these entities in developing their services and electronic systems by relying on artificial intelligence techniques, creating plans to implement them, and finding solutions to the challenges they will face holds major importance (Gerdon, 2019).

Working on the development of scientific competencies and local capabilities that are specialized in artificial intelligence, training and encouraging government employees to acquire computer science skills and engaging those employees in specialized data science courses are done in order to develop knowledge of how to utilize artificial intelligence techniques (Scherer, 2016). Launching several educational programs in universities to keep track of the expected change in future jobs is also part of this process (Pedamkar, 2022).

 A trend of educational institutions adopting virtual reality learning technology in order to stay in line with artificial intelligence (Aylett, 2001)has been devoted to separating this subject from artificial intelligence in schools and universities and consolidating its concept among students, as well as adopting everything that will contribute to increasing the number of outstanding students admitted to universities; those with sensory understanding and manual skills over the next ten years (Popenici, 2017).

Furthermore, establishing research centers to develop various sectors in developing countries and qualify them to receive the necessities of artificial intelligence (Weiss, 2020) would benefit the transportation sector and contribute to its development by offering all services provided by the authorities via artificial intelligence technologies such as flying taxis, metros, and all land and marine transportation modes (Rousseau, 2018).

Developing the services of some government departments by targeting the public relies on artificial intelligence techniques (Noordt, 2020). There is work to launch “Silicon Cities” globally (Brooke, 2014), and implement Watson system for cognitive computing (IBM cognitive – Get started with cognitive technology, 2020). An artificial intelligence laboratory is being created to help government agencies improve their services using artificial intelligence and cognitive computing techniques (Desouza, 2018).

Also, the launching of an automated engineer by Infrastructure Development in developing countries, which performs the tasks of an architect from design to implementation, as an alternative to the human engineer, should be implemented (Schober, 2020). Finally, a ministry for Artificial Intelligence within the government in its reformed ministerial structure should be established (Hirsh, 2018).

     5-The Future ofA.I.

The transitional decline ofthe Gross domestic product (GDP) (Callen, 2020)indeveloping countries is critical. To prevent this growing divergence, policymakers in developing economies will need to take measures to increase productivity and improve skills among untalented workers worldwide(Impact of artificial intelligence (AI) on the gross domestic products (GDPs) worldwide in 2030, by region , 2022).

The mission of developing countries’ governments is to advance AI research, education, policy, and practice to improve the living condition of their people. We can summarize the main points of the suggested strategy in the following manner:

  1. Governance:

     Using artificial intelligence for governance should move towards the creation of the state’s Artificial Intelligence council and work on building teams composed of chief executives for innovation in governments. An international protocol with leading governments in the field is being considered.By implementing this protocol, regulations will be enforced for the safe use of A.I., and periodic conferences will be staged to attract experts in various fields.

  1. Activation:

     Field visits to government agencies should be organized to understand artificial intelligence. This visit should support workshops in all government agencies, as well as organizing an annual global summit and launching government accelerators for artificial intelligence.

  1. Capacity Development:

    Senior government leaders should have capabilities in artificial intelligence and upgrade the skills of all technology-related jobs, besides supporting these capabilities by organizing training courses for government employees in the related field. Also, work on increasing the number of scholarships available overseas to study artificial intelligence is needed.

  1. Application:

      There should be a percentage of first-line services to the public through artificial intelligence that integrates them with a specific percentage of medical services.Also, work on increasing the number of scholarships available overseas to study artificial intelligence is needed.


               Based on those relevant factors, the strategy for artificial intelligence should aim to improve government performance by adopting artificial intelligence tools and techniques. Artificial intelligence investments create a promising new market with high economic value in the region, in addition to contributing to the primary world. They also support private sector initiatives to increase productivity. It should have a strong foundation built on research and development.

            This method targets several vital sectors, such as the transportation sector, which is expected to implement this strategy to reduce operational costs and accidents. In addition, the health sectorwill experience a decrease in the percentage of chronic and dangerous diseases.

     The field of renewable energy is going to benefit from this strategy through utility management, smart consumption, and the water sector would guarantee sustainability by conducting accurate analyses and studies to provide resources. Moreover, AI implementation could increase the percentage of afforestation.

     The technology sector can raise the proportion of production and public spending, while the space industry would benefit from this strategy by conducting accurate experiments and reducing the rates of costly errors. The education sector is among the major sectors, and it is the biggest beneficiary of this strategy by reducing costs and increasing the desire to learn.

      This strategy for artificial intelligence covers a range of services. It emphasizes the complementary nature of the future vision envisioned. This strategy mainly seeks to develop and organize AI tools to act as an integral part of government work systems worldwide. It would also contribute to dealing with rapidly changing conditions and achieving qualitative improvements in overall performance. This is done by constructing a comprehensive and interconnected smart digital system that addresses current challenges and provides practical and timely solutions that are both qualitative and efficient.

     Among the most significant future directions in the field of artificial intelligence, through the Ministry of Artificial Intelligence, is the trend to establish basic legislation, laws, and regulatory frameworks worldwide to govern artificial intelligence technologies. It encourages and expands qualitative investments in innovation, technological progress, and research and development. A comprehensive integration of artificial intelligence with health and security services is provided by all services provided through artificial intelligence.

They deploy artificial intelligence technologies and applications in all economic sectors, such as education, health, transportation, roads, and other sectors. Also, reaching and teaching one million programmers to program artificial intelligence agents should be part of the plan. Promotion and contribution to global efforts and partnerships in the field of artificial intelligence is vital, as is building expertise at the international level in cooperation with international businesses in order to attract talent and taking advantage of the unparalleled services provided by artificial intelligence techniques.Its purpose is to improve human life by extending it beyond geographical borders.

Statements and declarations

Contribution statement

The author confirms sole responsibility for the following: study conception and design, data collection, analysis and interpretation of results, and manuscript preparation.


Furthermore, the author did not receive support from any organization for the submitted work.

Data availability

All data analyzed during this study is included in the reference list of this article.

Financial, non-financial

Moreover, the author certifies that he has no affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest or non-financial interest in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript

Competing interest

The author has no competing interests to declare that are relevant to the content of this article has no competing interests to declare that are relevant to the content of this article.

[1]Artificial intelligence (AI)is the simulation of human intelligence in machines that are programmed to think and act like humans.The term can also refer to any machine that exhibits human-like characteristics such as learning and problem-solving.

[1][1]The Fourth Industrial Revolution (or Industry 4.0) is an ongoing transformation of traditional manufacturing and industrial practices using modern smart technology. Large-scale machine-to-machine communication (M2M) and the internet of things (IoT) are being integrated for increased automation, improved communication and self-monitoring, and the development of smart machines that can analyze and diagnose issues without the need for human intervention.

[1][1][1]Industrial intelligence refers to the use of artificial intelligence (AI) in industry. In particular, the use of “weak AI.” This kind of AI enables machines to perform certain carefully defined tasks by giving them narrow sets of human-like abilities. Tasks such as speech recognition or image recognition. In an industrial context, weak-AI development focuses primarily on equipping machines to process large quantities of data and on designing complex machine processes.

v[1]The official statement from the Stanford Institute for Human-Centered Artificial Intelligence reveals its scientific mission:

“Artificial Intelligence has the potential to help us realize our shared dream of a better future for all of humanity. At Stanford HAI, our vision is led by our commitment to studying, guiding, and developing human-centered AI technologies and applications.”

[1]Gross domestic product (GDP) is the total monetary or market value of all the finished goods and services produced within a country’s borders at a specific time.


  • Anton Korinek, M. M. (2021). Technological Progress, Artificial Intelligence, and Inclusive Growth. New Hampshire: International Monetary Fund. Retrieved from
  • Anyoha, R. (2017, August 20). The History of Artificial Intelligence, Can Machines Think? Retrieved from Sciences in News:
  • Artificial intelligence and inclusion, compendium of promising initiatives. (2020). Retrieved from
  • Artificial intelligence in industry: intelligent production. (2022). Retrieved from Siemens :
  • Aylett, R. &. (2001). Applying Artificial Intelligence to Virtual Reality: Intelligent Virtual Environments. Applied Artificial Intelligence. Retrieved from
  • Brooke, C. (2014). 7 Surprising Tech Hotspots Around the World . Retrieved from Business 2 Community:
  • Brooks, C. G. (2020, 1 13). Artificial intelligence in the legal sector: Pressures and challenges of transformation. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, , pp. 135-152. doi:
  • Bullock, S. (2008). Charles Babbage and the Emergence of Automated Reason. doi:10.7551/mitpress/9780262083775.003.0002
  • Burris, S. (2019). Boole’s Algebra of Logic 1874. Waterloo: University of Waterloo. Retrieved from
  • Callen, T. (2020). Gross Domestic Product: An Economy’s All. Washington: International Monetary Fund. Retrieved from
  • ttps://
  • Caroline Clabaugh, Dave Myszewski, and Jimmy Pang. (2020). Neural Networks: History from the 1940’s to the 1970’s. Retrieved from Stanford University – Computer Science :
  • Chassignol, M. &. (2018). Artificial intelligence trends in education: A narrative overview. Procedia Computer Science. Retrieved from
  • Cummings, M. L. (2017). Artificial Intelligence and the Future of Warfare. Chatham House, The Royal Institute of International Affairs. London: International Security Department and US and the Americas Programme. Retrieved from
  • Dachs, B. (2018). The impact of new technologies on the labour market and the social economy. Brussels: European Union. Retrieved from
  • Desouza, K. C. (2018). Delivering Artificial Intelligence in Government. Arizona: IBM Center for The Business of Government. Retrieved from
  • Diesen, G. (2021). Technologies of the Fourth Industrial Revolution: Towards national strategies. In Great Power Politics in the Fourth Industrial Revolution (pp. 21-42). London: I.b. Tauris . doi:
  • Fei Jiang, 1. Y. (2017). Artificial intelligence in healthcare: past, present and future. Stroke Vasc Neurol, pp. 230–243. Retrieved from
  • Gerdon, J. T. (2019). 5 challenges for government adoption of AI . Retrieved from World Economic Forum:
  • Gill, T. G. (1995). Early expert systems: Where are they now? MIS Quarterly, 51-81 . doi:10.2307/249711
  • Gurría, A. (Ed.). (2019). Artificial Intelligence in Society. Retrieved from OECD:
  • Heteren, A. v. (2020, July 14). Natural disasters are increasing in frequency and ferocity. Retrieved from World Economic Forum:
  • Hirsh, J. (2018). The Ministry of Artificial Intelligence . Retrieved from Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI) :
  • History of artificial intelligence. (2019, December 24). Retrieved from
  • IBM cognitive – Get started with cognitive technology. . (2020). Retrieved from IBM:
  • Impact of artificial intelligence (AI) on the gross domestic products (GDPs) worldwide in 2030, by region . (2022). Retrieved from Statista :
  • James EAGER, M. W. (2020). Opportunities of Artificial Intelligence. European Parliament. Luxembourg: Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies. Retrieved from
  • Johnson, R. (2021). Starting a Career in Artificial Intelligence. Retrieved from Best Colleges:
  • Jordan, J. (2019, July 19). The Czech Play That Gave Us the Word ‘Robot’. Retrieved from The MIT Press :
  • Kavanagh, C. (2019). Artificial Intelligence, New Tech, New Threats, and New Governance Challenges: An Opportunity to Craft Smarter Responses? Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
  • Khan, N. (2022, July 28). Medical Technology. Retrieved from Healthier Trajectory:
  • Lasi, H. (2013, December). Industrial Intelligence – A Business Intelligence-based Approach to Enhance Manufacturing Engineering in Industrial Companies. Procedia CIRP , pp. 384-389. doi:
  • Marr, B. (2019). The 10 Best Examples Of How Companies Use Artificial Intelligence In Practice. Forbes. Retrieved from
  • Meltzer, J. P. (2019). The impact of artificial intelligence on international trade. Washington : Brookings. Retrieved from
  • Moor, J. (2006). The Dartmouth College Artificial Intelligence Conference. AI Magazine Volume 27 Number 4. Dartmouth: AAAI Publications. Retrieved from
  • Newquist, H. (1994). The Brain Makers: Genius, Ego, and Greed In The Search For Machines That Think. NY: Macmillan.
  • Noordt, G. M. (2020). AI Watch Artificial Intelligence in public services. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. Retrieved from Construction Week Online
  • O’Shaughness, M. H. (2018). Accelerating Artificial Intelligence in health and care. London: The AHSN Network. Retrieved from
  • Pedamkar, P. (2022). Careers in artificial intelligence. Retrieved from EDUCBA:
  • Popenici, S. &. (2017). Exploring the impact of artificial intelligence on teaching and learning in higher education. Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning. Retrieved from
  • Reese, H. (2022). A Human-Centered Approach to the AI Revolution. Retrieved from Stanford Univercity:
  • Rousseau, O. (2018). The future of transport has flying taxis and smart metro lines. Retrieved from Construction Week Online:
  • Scherer, M. (2016). Regulating Artificial Intelligence Systems: Risks, Challenges, Competencies, and Strategies. Harvard Journal of Law & Technology. Retrieved from
  • Schober, K.-S. (2020). How to increase efficiency over the entire lifecycle chain. (R. Berger, Editor) Retrieved from
  • Shashkevich-Stanford, A. (2019, March 5). Greek myths have some scary ideas about robots and A.I. (Stanford University) Retrieved from
  • Shyamasundar, R. K. (2014, June 25). The computing legacy of Alan M. Turing (1912–1954). Current Science, pp. 1669-1680 . Retrieved from
  • The Facts on Facial Recognition with Artificial Intelligence. (2022). Retrieved from AWS:
  • Tim Fountaine, B. M. (2019). Building the AI-powered organization. Retrieved from Harvard Business Review:
  • Vallance, P. (Ed.). (2019). A time of unprecedented change in the transport system. London: Government Office for Science. Retrieved from
  • Veisdal, J. (2019, September 12). The Birthplace of AI, The 1956 Dartmouth Workshop. Retrieved from Cantor’s Paradise:
  • Wand, M. (1984). What is Lisp. The American Mathematical Monthly, 32-42 . Retrieved from
  • Weiss, T. R. (2020, August 20). US Establishes 7 AI Research Institutes. Retrieved from HPC wire:
  • Yelizarova, A. (2021, August 2). How countries and organizations around the world are approaching the benefits and risks of AI. Retrieved from Future of Life Institute:
  • As a broad measure of overall domestic production, it functions as a comprehensive scorecard of a given country’s economic health.
5/5 - (3 أصوات)

المركز الديمقراطى العربى

المركز الديمقراطي العربي مؤسسة مستقلة تعمل فى اطار البحث العلمى والتحليلى فى القضايا الاستراتيجية والسياسية والاقتصادية، ويهدف بشكل اساسى الى دراسة القضايا العربية وانماط التفاعل بين الدول العربية حكومات وشعوبا ومنظمات غير حكومية.

مقالات ذات صلة

اترك تعليقاً

لن يتم نشر عنوان بريدك الإلكتروني. الحقول الإلزامية مشار إليها بـ *

زر الذهاب إلى الأعلى