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Research studies

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL OF EMPLOYEES IN THE MINISTRY OF HIGHER EDUCATION AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH IN REPUBLIC OF YEMEN

Prepared by the researcher –  Dr. ANWAR MUSLEH SALEH MOOZAB  – DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN MANAGEMENT – ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT IN YEMENI UNIVERSITIES

Democratic Arab Center

Journal of Afro-Asian Studies : Sixth issue – July 2020

A Periodical International Journal published by the “Democratic Arab Center” Germany – Berlin. The journal deals with the field of Afro-Asian strategic, political and economic studies

Nationales ISSN-Zentrum für Deutschland
ISSN 2628-6475
Journal of Afro-Asian Studies
 :To download the pdf version of the research papers, please visit the following link

ABSTRACT:

This study was addresses in the performance appraisal of the ministry of higher education and scientific research in the republic Yemen. Performance appraisal is much needed in the ministry of higher education and scientific research because it enables the employees to know how can they performing in comparison with set standards and then try to improve their performance therefore this study highlight to what extent effectiveness of using of performance appraisal and what are the benefits of appraisal and what are the problems of performance appraisal. This study is hoped that the results can be used to improve the process of evaluation the ministry of higher education and scientific research.

Introduction:

         The performance appraisal can be described as the process of identifying, observing, measuring, and developing human performance in organizations. Each component of this definition refers to integral elements of the appraisal process. Identification is the process of determining what areas can be studied; specifically, the process of job analysis to identify performance related criteria, and the evaluative scale used. The observation should involve fair, accurate, and unbiased judgments, with the rater frequently observing previously identified characteristics.  Deviation from these criteria can lead to poor ratings. Measurement needs to be related to the integral operation of appraisal. The scales used to make these assessments “not only need to be relevant, but also must be comparable across other raters in the organization, the final component, development, should focus on more than the assessment of past performances. Focus on the future and skill levels of the raters are primary objectives.

            The organization must be able to measure performance to successfully influence performance, and there are two specific purposes that an effective appraisal process can serve evaluative or judgmental function; and developmental function of the appraisal process.

            The results of appraisals in the context of an evaluative or judgmental function are used for making administrative decisions about employees pay increase, promotions or transfers. The developmental role of appraisal focuses on facilitating an individual’s effectiveness by improving job performance regarding one’s own abilities and desires, and on increasing these abilities. The role of the individual’s ability and motivation as primary performance determinants are valuable in demonstrating how an effective appraisal process can be central to obtaining effective performance within an organization. Despite the details that are required to implement an effective appraisal. The reactions of workers to their jobs can alter their basic self-perceptions and self-esteem. The implications of a negative appraisal, in particular, can affect an employee’s sense of self worth and importance adversely within the work environment. Other job aspects (e.g., work motivation, performance, interpersonal relationships, communication and support of organizational goals) also can be negatively impacted. The key is to implement an effective appraisal system consistently, with employees having confidence that the process is objective. Most often, employees must understand the process of identification, observation, measurement, and development and believe that the performance appraisal can aid in improving their work performance, an organization benefits from improved work performance of its employees.

      Before implementing an effective appraisal process, an organization must recognize that its employees are its most valuable resource. Although the organization holds this philosophy, employees impacted by this process may not share the same perception or regard for their value to the organization. Thus, employees’ resulting job satisfaction or dissatisfaction may be an affective reaction to the evaluative aspect of their job performance. Managers to understand satisfy employees’ desires for good managerial relations, respect, fair and adequate compensation, and opportunities for growth and development through training, is reaping the benefits the Bruce and Blackburn concluded that distinct relationships exist between (good) human resource management practices and improved performance. In the “new workplace,” the importance of respect for the individual is emphasized. The opinion that satisfied employees can make a difference was prompted by what has been described as the “third industrial revolution,” which began with the Hawthorne studies of the 1930s that called for a humanization of the workplace. Bruce and Blackburn referred to Herzberg’s 1959 work on “satisfiers” and “dissatisfies’ in the workplace as a catalyst for the position that job satisfaction serves as a means of improving employee motivation. 10 Thus, with that improvement, an increase of individual productivity, job longevity, and organizational efficiency could be expected to emerge. Therefore, it is important that performance appraisal is conducted in a fair and consistent manner. The researcher has a background in public human resources, as he is a member of the working staff in the ministry of higher education and scientific research, based on his own experiences, The Researcher has become concerned with the actual process of performance evaluation. As an employee in a public organization, the researcher has experienced situations in which evaluations were not conducted effectively it becomes useless.

Statement of the Problem 

      There are many problems related with the systems of performance appraisal in the public sectors in general and the ministry of higher education and scientific research in Yemen in particular. one of the most important problems is that the followed stage and procedures are traditional was depends on reports in the evaluation the employees which are done annually besides, appraisal is being done by the direct responsible for this weaker are that employee which make in equity appraisal for this also there is no feedback by the direct responsible for employees about appraisal of results and mentioning the points of weaknesses in their performance of weak and not making effective communication ,which is supposed to be feedback from the side of the direct responsible on the employee weaker about his results of appraisal then offer the knowledge of the weaker/ employee for the results of appraisal will help him to improve his present performance furthermore, promotion in work does not depend an results of appraisal, incentives and allowances, which can make the process of performance appraisal not effective in the reward system.

The problem of this study addressed in performance of appraisal in the ministry of higher education and scientific research therefore the researcher desired to determine whether the performance appraisal instrument and process used by the ministry of higher education and scientific research effective or ineffective, so the researcher used a survey to determine what benefits of appraisal and which factors influences the using of the performance appraisal system.

Objectives of the Study

              The objectives of the present study are as follows:

  1. To investigate whether the current criteria of performance appraisal   for all employees is adequate to evaluate the performance.
  2. To determine whether the performance appraisal instrument is  appropriate for evaluation of the needs of employees and management
  3. To investigate whether the feedback helps employees to improve performance of employees.
  4. To know how the results of performance appraisal used in the ministry of higher education and scientific research for employees and management.
  5. To determine the factors, which affect the performance appraisal process in a select public organization – in the ministry of higher education and scientific research.
  6. To know the current performance appraisal process administrated in an equitable manner among all employees
  7. To know what are the requirements of the effective performance evaluation.

Hypotheses of the Study

            This study hypothesized the following:

  1. The current criteria of appraisal is inadequate to evaluate the performance.
  2. The current instrument of appraisal inappropriate for needs of employees.
  3. There is no association between the feedback and improved performance of employees
  4. There is non significant relationship between Performances appraisal and pay and rewards.
  5. There is an association between Performances appraisal and disciplinary action.
  6. There is non significant relationship between Performances appraisal and training development programs
  7. There is non significant relationship between Performances appraisal and satisfaction of employees

Limitations of the Study:

       The limitation of the present study is as follows

  1. The study is limited to performance appraisal the employees ministry of higher education and scientific research in Yemen.
  2. The study is limited to a year of 2019.
  3. The study is limited to ministry of higher education and scientific research of Sana’a city only.

Statement of the Hypothesis

              The hypothesis of the present study is as follows:

  1.           The current criteria of appraisal are inadequate to evaluate the performance.
  2. There is no association between the feedback and improved performance of employees.
  3. There is non significant relationship between Performances appraisal and pay and rewards.
  4. There is no association between Performances appraisal and disciplinary action.
  5. There is non significant relationship between Performances appraisal and training development programs.
  6. There is non significant relationship between Performances appraisal and satisfaction of employees

Methodology of the Research

             The research Methodology adopted is as follows:

  1. Primary data:  Primary data was collected through  Questionnaire, The primary data has been collected from the sample had chosen  randomly sample from  ministry of higher education and scientific research in Sana’a city the capital city of Yemen
  2. Secondary data:  this study also uses secondary data. The researcher has collected secondary data from published sources also secondary data was collected from ministry of higher education and scientific research, journals, newspapers, reports, previous studies, internet, and books. The secondary data was also analyzed and used for presentation of study.
  3. C) Statistical methods used:

The study has used various statistical methods such as collection and classification of data, tabulation of data, graphic presentation of data percentages, average, etc. and chi-square for testing of hypothesis, the test of significance wherever necessary are used.

  1. D) Size of sample:

This study based upon sample survey. The researcher has used sample randomly selected from the employees of ministry of higher education and scientific research, thus the total sample size was 80 employees and administrators, 20% from the total employees and administrators in ministry of higher education and scientific research.

Findings of the Study

  1. The results of this research indicated that were only 35% of the respondents agree the criteria clear for all employees, the results of respondents indicate that were 65% disagre with this statementm ,an additional 65% of the respondents did not indicat the current criteria of appraisal are adequate to evaluation of performance and to the nature of the basis work.
  2. The results of this research indicated that the 60% of the responding disagree the performance appraisal instrument was the most appropriate form of evaluation for the needs of employees.
  3. The results of this research indicated that only 40% of the responding agrees there is post appraisal feedback to employee about his evolution. In addition 60% of the responding disagree feedback helps employees to improve their performance.
  4. The results of performance appraisal if that were used to facilitate decisions concerning pay increases 62 % said they disagreed with this statement.
  5. This study revealed lack of use of performance appraisal to determine individual and organizational training and development needs. 60% of the respondents did not indicate the ministry of higher education and scientific research did not use performance appraisal for organizational training and development needs and in additional 40% of the respondents were agree it was used for this purpose.
  6. The results of this research indicated that the majority of respondents 98% said that there was no training provided to mangares and employees to give effective appraisals and only 2% said that there was training given.
  7. This research indicated that 62% of the responding agrees for the statements that that the supervisor ’ s personal values and bias can replace organizational standards in the evaluation process, and the 38% of the responding agrees for the statements that the the appraisal adminstreted in equatable manner among all employees.
  8. Finally, only 8% of respondents to the survey, indicated that they were satisfied with their performance appraisal system and the remaining respondents were either dissatisfied about their appraisal system.

 Recommendations of the Study:

The most important suggestions and recommendations were:

  1. Ministry of higher education and scientific research should to use a variety of performance appraisal instrument and tools to be fitted with job requirements.
  2. Ministry of higher education and scientific research should use performance appraisal to identify the training and development needs of their
  3. Ministry of higher education and scientific research needs to develop the performance standards taking into account job requirements and need to reconsider the standards to fit with all the functions.
  4. Provide feedback to employees about the results of evaluation it enable them to see the weaknesses and strengths in their performance, and so as to improve the level of their performance.
  5. Ministry of higher education and scientific research should devote the necessary resources to implement such a appraisal system more effective.
  6. Ministry of higher education and scientific research should to increase the usefulness of performance appraisal by using for decisions regarding pay increase, rewards, promotions and job changes.

REFERENCES

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  11. Coens, Tom, and Mary Jenkins, 2000, abolishing performance appraisal, San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.
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  13. Coutts, Lary and Schneider, Frank, (2004) Police office performance appraisal System: how good are they, journal of police strategies and Management? Vol.27, No9, PP67-81, (2004).
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  18. Sawaf, Mohammed, (1992)Maher, evaluation of job performance, a comparative study between the forms and reports used in Egypt and Saudi Arabi Journal of Public Administration No. 76, pp. 39-
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  20. cia.gov
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  22. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yemen
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