Prepared by the researcher – Dr OUAZIZ ALI – Researcher at the Laboratory of Systems Analysis, Information Processing and Industrial Management, Higher School of Technology in Salé, Mohammed 5 University in Rabat. – Morocco
Democratic Arab Center
Journal of African Studies and the Nile Basin : Eleventh issue – April 2021
A Periodical International Journal published by the “Democratic Arab Center” Germany – Berlin
Journal of African Studies and the Nile Basin
:To download the pdf version of the research papers, please visit the following link
This document presents the empirical study dedicated to the management and sustainable development of smart cities. This literature coordinates the different tasks of the smart city, including the integration of a management model for the city (building a process, empirical evolution, evaluation, communication and information, etc.), data collection from smart sensors and other available resources, data storage and analysis, building predictive models using learning models, optimal control of urban systems and interaction with different stakeholders, including users. The process is also based on a development policy from an economic and social user-friendly point of view, which ensures interaction with users, but also relies on the strengths of territorial intelligence, which is therefore part of a creative, organizational, development, management, intelligent governance and project evaluation process set up in the I.T. process in the Prefecture of Salé, which includes structured and unstructured Data.
Smart Cities are a new and innovative concept that is beginning to take hold in the world and seems to be the future of the human way of life. But what is a smart city? And how do you build a smart city? The scope of this concept is vast, covering many areas such as infrastructure and education. This is what makes understanding the concept of the smart city very important.
A smart city is a city based on technology and composed of different systems, each of these systems provides different sources of data that can be used to develop a smart Salé City.
The term territorial intelligence (T.I.) first appeared in 1998 in the thesis of its author Raison défendue in Marseille, but the author had left this concept in doubt as to its purpose. M. Bertacchini, in the same laboratory directed by Professor Dou, was then studying these problems proposing a thesis as early as the year 2000: Information and Territorial Watch: representation of the local complex and emergence of a territorial intelligence project (Bertacchini Y. , 2000). The evolution of territorial intelligence does not stop, but it is integrated each time in a particular territorial culture in terms of governance and requires a flexible collective will as well as significant resources to be able to emerge the territory towards a growing autonomy.
This article aims at presenting an empirical literature of the Smart City and its various components, before demonstrating the evolution and the empirical evaluation of the T.I., an example, which was built for the city manager is that of the Territorial Information Systems (T.I.S.) which are established as supports of internal and external communications of a Smart City.
The Smart City concept involves various application areas, such as smart devices, smart environment, smart home, smart building, smart transportation and smart education. Here, resources are connected by intelligent devices and environments to be used in intensive interaction. Therefore, for a better management of the different fields of the application of the smart city, it is essential to group all these applications into a single I.T. process, following an Empirical Portrait.
The empirical study obliges us to make, in the first place, a call to interdisciplinarity, to describe the progress of the implementation of a territorial intelligence device requiring the understanding of the institutional mechanisms, for the construction of a strategic territorial intelligence system, which analyses the local dynamics of the city of Salé(Le Moigne Jean-Louis, 2003).
Our prospecting describes the construction of a territorial intelligence system, with a certain number of processes essential to its implementation, which fall within the scope of managerial observation. In this vision, the management of city projects is necessary to set up the process of territorial intelligence, which is a tool to build intelligent cities, whose paradigm is part of a territorial strategy and the complexity of organization.
The construction of I.T, as a new management tool, requires an action plan based on a series of main actions: development projects, programming, management, organization, information and communication, structuring, evolution and evaluation, in order to build a prototype adapted to the intelligent city with a large territorial dimension.
The object of the territorial intelligence device is, first of all, the decision of its construction which must be taken by an intelligent governance of the city and its territorial collectivities and the internal and external key actors who form the alliance of decision and the coupling between the decision-making system and the generally complex operating system carried out by the actors of the project (Jean-Louis Le Moigne (1999, p86)).
In this sense, there must be some information and communication interface that will play the role of interaction between the stakeholders of the project, for the management of information and the implementation of a process of territorial intelligence, based on some management tools understandable by all the actors of the territory of the city, namely; Collection, validation, dissémination, évaluation, expertise, etc.).
For Michel Barabel and Olivier Meier, the organization of a territorial intelligence project requires a heterogeneous team manager who must have the qualities of a resource person to meet the requirements of the intelligent project manager or project director. Obligatorily designated with the greatest attention. In particular, this manager must succeed in bringing out new talents and the constitution of a working group made up of internal and external actors belonging to the various stakeholders of the intelligent territory, who do not know each other, but who must have the confidence and transparency responding to the logic of sociotechnical analysis to make them work in harmony (Barabel M. et Meier O., 2004).
Here is an example launched in 2011 with the help of academic, industrial and government partners, the Sunrise project aims to improve infrastructure management by deploying digital tools on major urban networks.
A demonstrator is located on the Scientific Campus of the University of Lille. Built in the mid-1960s, this campus has around a hundred buildings, used in particular for research and teaching. It also includes around 100 kilometres of drinking water, electricity, public lighting, heating, sanitation and telecommunications networks. The importance of this campus is also due to the fact that it represents a city of about 25,000 users
Figure 1 :Scientific Campus of University of Lille (SunRise demonstrator)
This SunRise platform is managed by a server, which allows the analysis and visualization of intelligent buildings and urban networks. It includes two web portals for the management of intelligent buildings and urban networks.
The territorial intelligence must not be reserved only to specialists, it must be interviewed in a global, permanent and universal view by all the internal and external actors of the territory. And it is based on collaboration and co-operation by sharing and disseminating qualified information and physical and virtual communication. For Christian Harbulot and Philippe Baumard (1997) announce that: “economic intelligence is not a process of accumulation of information, but of production of knowledge, by governments and industrialists, and when necessary within the framework of collective strategies”. The I.T is a strategic organization and a management mechanism for territoriality, with stakes and methodologies of the process of installation of the intelligence process of a territory(Harbulot C. et Baumard P., 1997).
This is why The Smart City must aim to implement a comprehensive monitoring system to optimize the production and distribution of resources. To achieve this, it includes sensor technology. Its implementation requires, first of all, a complete visualization of the network architecture, but also of all the data related to the equipment (tanks, pipes, valves, pumps for the water network, heating network). This data will then be gathered in a Geographic Information System (GIS).
Christophe Assens and Dominique Phanuel observed the adoption of a process of territorial intelligence through the implementation of New Information and Communication Technologies (N.I.C.T.) in five French cities, which had the political will, partnerships outside its cities and the vote of specific budgets to carry out such an intelligence project. But in this regard, the territorial intelligence project must be subject to a certain vigilance, on the evolution of the priorities of the governance of the common territory, because the priorities of intelligent governance are contingent and likely to be questioned at any time. In this sense, territorial intelligence is a matter of policy and of the projection of the territory on the medium and long term, determined as a reaction on several strategic, tactical and operational levels of the information system with these different stages.
The territoriality shares with territorial intelligence a set of informational and communicational processes that create meaning, which are shared in the three planes of the metamodel of territory and which take place in the concrete social practice of everyday life. It ensures coherence and a global readability by allowing individual or collective practices to be situated in a socially shared common history (Bertacchini Y. , 2000).
Table 1 below gives an account of the vision of the territory’s key players and their desired strategic positioning. It is a series of strategic orientations decided by the referent actors of the territory and takes the form of a reading grid of the strategic intentions, it is part of the construction of general aims and operations of the implementation of the intelligence process of the territory.
Territorial intelligence is an operational process that takes into account the visions and the strategic positioning, because the latter guide the process in its missions. The operational character requires a reflection on the needs and therefore on the capacities of the system. It will be a question of providing answers to the following questions:
- What kind of intelligence do we want?
- What projects should be monitored?
- Which axes should be prioritized: Economic, social, political, etc.?
Source: (Pierre MAUREL, 2012)
As for Yann Bertacchini, he refers to the concept of territorial intelligence in relation to collective intelligence defined by Pierre Lévy: “intelligence everywhere distributed, constantly valued, coordinated in real time and which leads to an effective mobilization of individual competences and which starts from the principle that everyone knows something, is endowed with competences and know-how” (Levy, 1994).
Territorial intelligence thus becomes the capacity of collective intelligence that can be mobilized on a territory for Yann Bertacchini, which raises the question of : “to consider territorial intelligence as an informational and anthropological process, regular and continuous, initiated by local actors physically present and/or distant who appropriate the resources of a space by mobilizing then by transforming the energy of the territorial system into project capacity the objective of this approach, is to take care, literally as well as figuratively, to endow the territorial level with what we named the formal territorial capital”(Pierre MAUREL, 2012).
For Philippe Herbaux’ researches, territorial intelligence allows : “the evolution of the local culture based on the collection and the mutualization between all its actors of signals and information, to provide the decision maker, and at the right time, the judicious information”(Herbaux P. et Richard C., 2002).
Pierre MAUREL, in 2012 considers that territorial intelligence must be examined as a collective process, necessary to the progressive emergence of a territory, which must endow with the capacity of self-analysis, of watch and development of a shared consciousness and a proper identity. Actors in the same territory must be in daily contact with each other because of their spatial proximity, which contributes to the strengthening of a shared territoriality(Pierre MAUREL, 2012).
Our empirical research is in line with the current research on public action for the territorial planning and development of the city of Salé. Starting again from the Latin etymology of the term intelligence (inter ligere: to make the link), we join here Marie-Michèle Venturini and Yann Bertacchini who consider that the process of territorial intelligence is: “the relevant pragmatic approach for the networking of the actors in particular in the sharing of territorial information”. The main stake is the creation of territorial links for the emergence of the collective (Venturini. M.-M. et Y. Bertacchini, 2007).
The two authors, Nadine Massard and Caroline Mehier emerge that there is “a new informational strategy of a territory” which is based on a science and technology dashboard in a territorial intelligence approach. Their vision concerns the establishment of a territorial cartography bringing data on the existing information sources and the accessibility to the knowledge that a territory offers, following a comparative analysis or (benchmarking) of performance between the municipalities of the city and to measure the creative dynamics of the internal and external territorial actors for the implementation of territorial intelligence within a city or a given territory.
This dashboard is a management mechanism, an instrument of knowledge, a learning tool for the actors of the city, it is also a communication tool for the stakeholders of the territorial intelligence process (Massard N. et Mehier C., 2004).
In this sense, it is a question of bringing the modes of public management closer to those of private companies, following the dynamic spirit of evaluation and strategic steering in favour of a territory’s public policies. As a result, according to Maurice Baslé: “Evaluation and intelligent public policies will increasingly go hand in hand when the results of evaluations are truly at the service of policy design or strategy research. Evaluations are tests of theories of action”. Territorial policy evaluation theories are implicit and/or explicit in the visualization of central public policies at the local level with the implementation conventions (Baslé M., 2001).
Therefore, it is necessary to understand the territory or the city subject of the intelligence project, in order to describe and know “who” does “what”, following the method of David Autissier and Jean-Michel Moutot, who propose the “R.A.C.I.” method to carry out analyses of a territorial organization, its role and its responsibility. R.A.C.I means (Autissier D. et Moutot J.-M., 2004):
- R for “Responsible”; Actor who is responsible for carrying out the activity.
- A for “Acountable”; Actor who assumes overall responsibility for the activity and the associated consequences.
- C for “Consulted”; Actor who is necessarily consulted to carry out the activity.
- I for “Informed”; Actor who is informed about the activity, but who is not involved in its execution.
This process allows to identify the different activities of an intelligence process in a territorial organization, through the intersections between activities and actors. By what any activity is, attached to a certain number of territorial actors whose roles are qualified by the method (R.A.C.I). As a result, the authors, David Autissier and Jean-Michel Moutot, propose the following matrix; V i, j = (R, A, C, I), to show, in columns (j) the actors and in line (i) the activities, so that. The table below illustrates the authors’ proposal (the R.A.C.I values are taken as an example) (See Table 2)
Table 2 : Activity x Actors (RACI)
Source : (Autissier D. et Moutot J.-M., 2004)
This actor/activities matrix recognizes the participation of the territorial actors, it is a grid of deciphering of the roles and activities of the agents in the territorial collectivity subject of intelligence, and it is a mechanism that admits the highlighting of the difficulties harmful to the process of installation of the territorial intelligence within a city like the one of Salé. The vertical reading (column) of the matrix provides a job card, that is to say the sum of the activities of a person, and the horizontal reading shows the contributors to an activity. In this vision, a new process of the territorial intelligence system is constituted of a new activist sum, which completes this matrix by new innovations and inventions related to the subject territory of intelligence.
For the modelling of a function for the evaluation of the potential for local action the research groups M.A.I.N.A.T.E. (Management of Information Applied to the Territory) initiated in 1997 and continued with the G.O.I.N.G. Group. (Group of Investigations of New Governance), the TRADER programme (From Territory to Territoriality) and the @MEDIATIC programme (Media and Technologies of Collective Intelligence) have initiated an attempt to model the potential for local action at a territorial level, which has been the subject of partial publications and doctoral research applications on different territories, both national and international. Their proposals consisted in the presentation and application of the function (F1) of evaluation of the local action potential possessed by a territory that plans to define and then implement a development plan and to integrate a dynamic in the meta-model that allows the comparison of the action potential between two territories A & B (Yann Bertacchini Y. , 2012).
Following the questionnaire studied by Mr. Yann BERTACHINI, he proposed the modelling function F (l) which represents the sum of the results of a questionnaire and N represents the total number of questionnaires:
With Cij equal to the measure corresponding to condition j belonging to plane i and
Some of the measures corresponding to the conditions belonging to plan i
Mr. Yann BERTACHINI and the other researchers presented a modelling test and located their work within the territorial intelligence by carrying out an introductory report on the relation of the device and organization which poses the distance in the centre of the analysis framework to understand the basis of the territorial intelligence, on the one hand, then the logic of their modelling and its perspectives, on the other hand (Yann Bertacchini Y. , 2012).
For David Autissier and Jean-Michel Moutot (2003, p129), the communication pillars interact with the cognitive system of the receptors; they propose to distinguish between targets and the desired level of interactivity. In this perspective, the two authors present a figure below whose abscissa is the interactivity and the ordinate represents the collective level (David AUTISSIER et Jean-Michel MOUTOT, 2007) (see Figure 2)
Source : (Autissier D. et Moutot J.-M., 2004)
For Yann Bertacchini, the presentation of his empirical method produces a conceptual framework which takes the form of a model of territorial intelligence based on three postulates of communication and information that is (Bertacchini Yann B. , 2004b):
The exchange of information between territorial actors;
The granting of budgetary credit to information and communication in the territory;
The establishment of communic ation and information networks between the actors of the territory for the exchange and transfer of their competences.
Therefore, the creation of territorial informational contents is part of collective communication processes; i.e. discussion forums, forums of expression, hybrid forums, therefore communication can take several other forms such as the web portal, territorial database platform or Territorial Information Systems (T.I.S.) (Bertacchini Yann B. , 2004b).
For Michel Arnaud (2004, pp7-9), Territorial Information Systems (T.I.S.) order, facilitate and improve information speculations between the different actors of the city and the citizens, the author sees that T.I.S. are systems providing reliable data of a territory or a city, he stipulates in the same sense that: “Territorial Information Systems manage the databases of the corresponding administrative services. The interconnection of databases is synonymous with greater reactivity and adaptability of the response of services to user demand” (Arnaud Michel, 2004).
In addition to these positive effects, the implementation of an IT system is necessary for the development of a territory, it requires a collective mobilization and involvement of the territorial actors through a transversal and hierarchical management. To this end, the author Jean-Yves Prax proposes a steering structure for the construction of a territorial information system (Jean-Yves Prax, 2002) (Details in Figure 3).
The epistemology of the evolution of an IT system involves the analysis of the expectations of territorial citizens, based on surveys and the identification of performance and management criteria for people, knowledge and technological tools, for more effective public action. The strategic investment of a S.I.T. is to respond to the expectations of the territorial actors who benefit from adequate and quality information. Jean-Yves Prax relies on the identification of the origins of the information, to guarantee the quality of the information thanks to the editorial regulations, to determine the basic claims from the date of the launch of the S.I.T. platform. As a collaborative process of territorial intelligence that will lead to the construction of a virtual territorial entity.
The territorial information system is the support of the process of territorial economic intelligence (T.E.I.). The computerization of the automat able part of the latter takes the form of a collaborative portal. Eventually, the process of territorial economic intelligence leads to the construction of a virtual territorial community (Jean-Yves Prax, 2002).
The S.I.T. must be fed collectively and spontaneously by all the territorial actors, according to their usefulness for the regular functioning of the collective database. This platform must be supplemented by specific information searches and by the usual information flows and monitored by administrators so that the quality of the sources is in line with territorial expectations.
Mr. Philippe Herbaux, advanced in his survey that: “The process of territorial intelligence is dependent on a priority treatment of information on economic fields”. Whose answers highlighted the advantage of the data by the public on a gradation of ruptures and threats within the problem of employment (27%) and highlighted, with 46% of the territorial population, the problems of security. The impact of economic events on individual lifestyles corroborates this attitude with 47% of the population questioned (H. Philippe., 2006)..
In effect, the inscription of territorial citizens in a collective is mainly located in the articulation between the processes of integration and regulation, this dynamic generates an interval within which are distinguished empirical types of community collective characterized by predetermined memberships and a strong sense of identity generated by the top-down territorial intelligence approaches that will be interested in the creation of a passionate collective through the sharing of information and knowledge, whereas the ascending territorial intelligence will have as a major problem the contractual elaboration of a member collective with a strong degree of commitment and belonging of its members, which will be interested in the development of interactions and trust between the members towards the pursuit of a common finality of the territory of the city with its socio-economic actors (Breton P., 2006).
Therefore, territorial intelligence, in the sense of the collective process, participates in the vision of the socio-economic development of the territory in which the alliance of the actors becomes the key of a successful determination, favours the co-operations outside the market and the elaboration of resources built according to an endogenous logic, defining the democratic territorial projects, out of the influence of the markets and the public authorities and in communication with the civil society. The choice of solidarity and participation multiplies the number of participants in the process of co-construction of proposals and decisions, and commits the future of the territory of the city of intelligent Salé (Curé F., 2009).
This paper has allowed us to present a comprehensive empirical process for smart city management. This process has implemented evolution and evaluation methods, as well as analysis tools.
It also facilitates decision-making for different scenarios such as administration, experts, urban service providers, city managers, users and others.
In addition, this paper presented the Sunrise-Smart-demonstration platform, as a data communication medium, which includes different types of data (GIS, Bim, sensor data, etc.) concerning the Scientific Campus of the University of Lille. This platform also offers analysis and visualization tools that allow to observe carefully the collected data and make them exhaustive. As well as, Territorial Information Systems (T.I.S.), which order, facilitate and improve information speculation between the different actors of the city and the inhabitants,
We noticed, from the empirical research already quoted, that territorial intelligence is an organized process that involves organizational forms in a cooperative social system. The multi-level crossings, of the different actors of the city of Salé, involve the socioeconomic, public and private networks, whether internal or external, in multiple dimensions of organization that develop outside the hierarchical structures or classic organization charts in a territorial collectivity. From another point of view, the intelligence of the city of Salé is based on the competences and objectives of the installed process of territorial intelligence, combining particular and collective interests and uniting the same common goals and objectives, which can sometimes take second place to particular needs. Therefore, the framework of this empirical process of territorial intelligence goes through the methodology of the governance of the administrative systems and the piloting of the human structures following the particular engineering, the good management of the territorial development programs and the crossing between the actors (internal / external or external / internal).
The author declare that no conflicts of interest to disclose.
Arnaud Michel, A. (2004). “La nécessaire modification de la relation administrative avec l’arrivée des TIC ” . – ISDM 16 – Article 162 – May, 12p.
Autissier D. and Moutot J.-M., A. (2004). Change management practices . Paris :: Dunod – 2004 – 248 p.
Barabel M. and Meier O., B. (2004). “Le métier de manager aujourd’hui”. – Cahier français – ” comprendre le management ” – N°32 – 95p – July/August 2004, (pp64-68).
Baslé M., B. (2001). “L’évaluation des politiques publiques: sa nature, ses métiers, sa mise en œuvre et ses besoins” -. Retrieved from http://www.sqep.ca: http://www.sqep.ca/archives/presentations/Baslem_colsqep01.pdf
Bertacchini Yann, B. (2004b). “Entre information & processus de communication : l’intelligence territoriale”. – ISDM 16 – Article N°156 – May 2004 – 11p.
Bertacchini, Y. (2000). 2000, “Information et veille territoriales : représentation du complexe local et émergence d’un projet d’intelligence territoriale”, . PhD thesis in Information and Communication Sciences. University of Aix-Marseille III, Lab.
Breton P., B. (2006). “What have we been planning for 25 years? », . Terminal, 93-94, pp. 25-33.
Curé F., C. (2009, October 21). Guest of the program “Carnet de campagne”, . Retrieved on bleuforet: http://www.bleuforet.fr/fr/bleu-foret.
David AUTISSIER and Jean-Michel MOUTOT. (2007). Method of change management, Diagnosis, coaching and steering. Paris: DUNOD.
- Philippe, H. (2006). Lecture given at the 15th SFSIC Congress. Bordeaux;.
Harbulot C. and Baumard P., H. (1997). “A Historical Perspective on Economic Intelligence. Article published in the 1st issue of the journal Intelligence économique -, 6.
Herbaux P. and Richard C., H. (2002). “L’intelligence économique, outil du pacte territorial dans les pays du Pévèle ” . Colloque ASRDLF – Université du Québec à Trois Rivières (canada), August 21-23, 2002. Quebec City .
Jean-Yves Prax, J. (2002). Le Management territorial à l’ère des réseaux. In J.-Y. Prax, Le Management territorial à l’ère des réseaux.
Le Moigne Jean-Louis. (2003). Le constructivisme. tome II Epistémologie de l’interdisciplinarité. L’Harmattan , 264.
Levy, P. (1994). L’intelligence collective. Pour une anthropologie du cyberespace, . Paris, La Découverte, 29.
Massard N. and Mehier C., M. (2004). “Le rôle des tableaux de bords de la science et de la technologie dans une démarche d’intelligence économique territoriale. STOICA – Working Paper (INSA Lyon) N°2004-10_23 December 2004, 29 pages .
Pierre MAUREL. (2012, 06 26). Signs, Data and Spatial Representations: Elements of Meaning in the Development of an Intercommunal Territorial Project. Application to the territory of Thau . Toulon, France/South.
Venturini. M.-M. and Y. Bertacchini. (2007). “De la circulation et du mesillage des données territoriales à la construction des savoirs”, Collection Les ETIC. Technologiques, P. (Dir.), Toulon,. Collection Les ETIC. Technologiques, P. (Dir.), Toulon, Bertacchini, Yann, p.134-144.
Yann Bertacchini, Y. (2012). Acteurs-réseau et Territoire-Système: modélisation pour l’évaluation du potentiel d’action locale. International Journal of Economic Intelligence (R2IE) 4 (2012) 33-51, 33-55.