Research studies

Covid-19 threat to the global security system

 

By/ Ramez Salah Abd-ullah El-Shishy   – Faculty of Politics and Economics, Suez University

Democratic Arab Center

Abstract

This research paper deals with the novel Covid-19 and its “dangerous threat” to the global security system generally and the national security to the Egyptian state in particular. Covid-19 has prevented some political, as well as social, phenomena from proceeding in their natural form. It is an exceptional phenomenon and a unique threat to all nations and to all sectors that benefit the human race and cannot be dispensed with, especially in the health sector. This requires concerted efforts to contain this pandemic in one way or another, and the need for full attention to the health sector in a flexible manner, and in any case the pandemic has posed a unique threat to the global security system and has changed the shape of the geopolitical map.

Findings: –

Determine the big threat Covid-19 pandemic represents on the global security system and the national security of the Egyptian state.

To see the impact of the pandemic on the global security system.

The necessity of rebuilding the health sector in all the states, especially Egypt.

Practical implications: –

It stems from the necessity of protecting the national security of all the states the security that format the Global Security System.

Research limitations/ Implications:

Some limitations exist in the study, The Egyptian state.

The period limit: 2020/2021.

Also, the study focuses on Conditions in USA, UK.

Introduction: –

T

 he security and intelligence agencies in various countries of the world, large and small, island or continental, have traditionally focused their concerns on issues of a rather traditional nature, such as terrorism, especially after the events of 11 September, as well as securing political boundaries, as well as food shortages in some countries. Each country has its own perspective on national security until the surreal pandemic brings them together around a single perspective that threatens the global national security entity. The pandemic is taking root in the turning points of the last century, the global wars, the cold war and the war on terror to rethink the latest concept of security. However, the world’s national security heresy will continue to be rooted in traditional concepts, and this is the deep problem. Health security was not a priority for the world’s nations, because if it were, the effects of the pandemic could have been mitigated in some way. The planet is now in a state of emotional, political, economic and social turmoil similar to the two world wars, but it is unique this time, this is a war that is invisible in its features, but clear in its consequences and symptoms! Is history repeating itself more mysteriously and brutally this time, especially with the development of humanity? Has man not learned from these wars by virtue of being the maker of history and events? The current surreal pandemic, whose origin is unknown, will represent a state of historical excellence in the minds of many! Since it represents a state of geographical uniqueness in the meantime, it was called a pandemic after it was just an epidemic that was a scandal between this and that!! When history blends with geography, the state of the surreal pandemic is shaped like any historical phenomenon that is gone and this surrealism will end at some point as its predecessors have ended. So, the historical dimension cannot be ignored even if it is chaotic and its impact on the planet as a place and place, we have to read our history well even the bad ones so that we can deal with the geography that has emerged to us in the form of a pandemic! A nation that does not respect history is a nation that geography will not respect. Indeed, this is what we are witnessing a lack of respect for humanity in the fight against this third world war, but this is a war quite different from its predecessors as a result of the signs that have just emerged from it and are still emerging! It is a war with new features, including the expansion of the geographical world, so this virus has been called a pandemic rather than an epidemic.

The First World War is a European war, which broke out on European soil, and while the number of States and battlefields in the Second World War expanded, many states remained immune to their scourge and there were no battles on their territory. The current war against the Coronavirus epidemic extends almost everywhere: from the Canadian and American territories of the Arctic to South Africa. From New Zealand and Australia east to California on the west coast of the United States, through even the oceans and the military and civilian ships in which they live.

According to who data on Tuesday (March 31st), the epidemic has spread to 203 countries and only 20 countries have not reported any infections. By analyzing the names of these countries, it is clear that some of them do not have health authorities to follow up on the situation in Yemen or do not wish to declare such injuries, if they exist, such as North Korea, or that they are closed, geographically and socially isolated, such as some islands in the Pacific Ocean.

The second feature is the coverage of war for all human beings, children, young people and adults, males and females. Unlike previous wars of states and armies, the virus is killing human beings and societies. It is true that in previous wars, the warring states carried out air raids on economic and civilian targets, whose aim was to intimidate and weaken the morale that led to the destruction of Berlin in order to force the Nazi government to surrender. Today, every human being is part of this war and depends on his behavior, the increased chances of spreading or reducing the virus. There is no distinction in this war between human beings, regardless of color, religion, race, economic level or education, and everyone is vulnerable to injury. This is revealed by who’s daily data on the numbers of infected and deceased, which are rising markedly day by day.

The third feature is that it is a war without enemies or, rather, against an invisible enemy.

The fourth feature relates to how to beat the enemy. In previous cases, wars continued as long as their militaries had the equipment, tools and capabilities, and had the political will and the dream of victory over the enemy. In our war today, the enemy is everywhere and at all times defeated only by the cooperation of all human beings in all nations and by following the rules and procedures set by the World Health Organization and adopted by the relevant authorities in each state. It’s the White Army of doctors, nurses and assistants who fight on the front lines of confrontation in hospitals and health units, supported by thousands of volunteers and hospital staff.

Research problem: –

In the world of Politics, there are many tools could represent a threat to the national security of the state, but when the Covid-19 pandemic shows up, it presents a new destructive tool to the whole nations in general, and the Egyptian state in particular. The health sector in all the states has been facing a terrible circumstance especially in the States that don’t have enough medical equipment’s to contain The Virus. Not only for that, but also destroys the economics of many states and all sectors have been widely damaged such as Education, Tourism.

From our introspection to the research problem, the following research questions arise.

The main question: – To what extent does Covid-19 affect global security?

Sub-question: –

What is the definition of national security?

What is the concept of global security in the midst of the Covid-19 pandemic?

What is the status of the Egyptian state in the context of The Covid-19 threats to global security?

What is the concept of security after the Covid-19 pandemic?

Will health security be included as an effective and new element of global security?

Research hypothesis: –

Covid-19 represents a big threat to the national security of the Egyptian state.

Covid-19 represents a big threat to the global security system and health sectors.

Curriculum: –

The study followed the descriptive analytical and historical approach.

Literature review: –

Joseph Jegat: “Global Pandemics: A Security Threat?”[2]

This study argued that global pandemics are a threat to state security, the extent to which they are a threat however, is determined by how developed the state is. A state can be threatened in three key ways: Firstly, at the domestic level where IDs can foster social inequalities, challenge family life and lead to internal violent conflict. Secondly, at the economic level where IDs can stunt GDP growth, increase health expenditure and stimulate violent competition. Lastly, within the military where IDs can be weaponized, can decimate armies, and soldiers can act as vectors to spread disease. These threats will not challenge all states in equal ways, by far impacting the most on less developed states with weak government or poor health infrastructure. The challenges that global pandemics pose to state security are real, but this essay has argued that securitizing global health is a short sighted and ultimately ineffective approach to dealing with global health issues. This is because the securitization process shifts emphasis away from human health to state security, and in doing so fails to address the underlying political structures that cause global health inequalities. In short, a more holistic approach must be taken that places humans as the referent object of security. The current unidirectional relationship between health and security must be overturned so that security and development policy can benefit global health, which will in the long term reduce the threat that global pandemics pose to state security.

Graya Sadiq, “The Transformations of the Concept of Security in light of New International Threats”[3]

This study considers that national security faces new threats, such as the recent threats to the national security of the nations of the world today, even in the coming decades, the most important of which are: economic and social threats, international conflict, internal conflicts, nuclear, radiological, chemical and biological weapons, terrorism, transnational organized crime, and we can also add to them the space war, the cyber warfare, the fourth-generation wars and hybrid wars.

National Security: – The word security is anti-fear, it means being sure to expect something. As is the ideal term for most social science terms, security is not agreed upon on a single definition. According to the British Knowledge Service, security means “protecting the state and the nation from the threat of oppression by a foreign state”. Linking the concept of security to the right to survival, The Secretary of State and National Security Adviser Henry Kissinger argued that security was “the conduct of society to achieve its right to survival”.[4] Boutros-Ghali said security is not limited to the state and its regional units, but extends to its political and economic stability. Robert McNamara defined it that “security is development, without development there can be no security, and states that do not actually grow, simply cannot remain safe”.[5]

We can define it as the ability to provide the greatest protection and stability of national and national action in all political, economic, social, cultural, military and environmental fields in the country against all kinds of internal and external risks and threats, whether regional or global.

Global Security Theories: –

With the advent of the term “national security of states” after the end of the Second World War, the debate began as to how to ensure this state security, and a range of theories arose that presented the various structures that they saw as the guarantors of national security, and these theories are located in two directions: The first trend can be called the traditional trend that emerged during the Cold War period, the positivism theories of national security that have preserved the state-based Westphalian system as the sole actor in international relations and as the basic security reference unit, which are both realistic and liberal.[6]

The second trend is called the extended trend or trend opposed to the conventional trend that arose in the 1980s with the advent of international detente and transparency in U.S.-Soviet relations and confidence-building in the international system, a post-positivism theory that criticized the theories of the situation in that they were restricted to the centrality of the situation.

Copenhagen School: which led to the deepening and expansion of security material, and its most influential thinkers Barry Bozan and Ollie Weaver, Bozan, in his 1983 book Citizens, States, and Fear, argued that the field of security analysis should be expanded to other non-military fields, focusing on situational theories such as political, economic, social and environmental.[7]

Critics’ direction: A movement that often opposes the theory of security status, and involves two currents: the first: the so-called School of Wales, led by Ken Booth and Richard Wynne Jones, whose content focuses on the concept of liberation or human emancipation; security is achieved when people are liberated from human and material constraints that prohibit them from doing so; The second theme is that of Kate Krauss and Michel Williams, who see the need to move from concentrating on the military component of state activity in turmoil to focusing on people, culture and identity.[8]

The concept of global security in the midst of the Covid-19 pandemic: –

Covid-19 has redefined the front lines of the concept of national security and most countries have been forced to redirect resources to invest in vital sectors such as health services, epidemic forecasting, cybersecurity, and other sectors.[9] To illustrate this, people are no longer free to enter public places because of government closures, but are limited to communicating through the Internet. This applies to the private and public sectors, including security institutions such as the army, police and intelligence services. It should be noted that many countries, despite the proliferation of digital technology, were not prepared for this sudden shift.[10] The decision to transform entire institutions into online spaces remains a major challenge; at this moment now, vital information for the State is more vulnerable to digital penetration than ever before.

The Egyptian state in the context of threats Covid-19 for Global Security: –

 Egypt was greatly influenced by pandemic Covid-19; However, it was the government’s response to it that put Egypt in the position of the countries that are best prepared for this crisis. Egyptian president experience strengthened its air, sea and land defense capability, with him and the government’s response to that Pandemic is what put Egypt It has worked on a new deterrence strategy; Potential regional and international challenges, as well as strengthening this means that Egypt has food reserves and equipment Its relations with friendly countries by building alliances medical and necessary tools to deal with the pandemic. Economic security such as the Eastern Mediterranean Organization, which promotes the overall interests of the state in the light of the interruption and interruption of international trade. It also has a strong digital infrastructure, which can be seen in the 2018 Global Cybersecurity Indicators rankings, ranking 25th.[11] This as well as the introduction of Medical assistance to countries such as Italy, China, USA, and some African countries. In other words, Egypt was dealing with the pandemic unequivocally flexibly. Also, we can notice the success applying of Digital transformation into the different sectors.

 Source: GCI Index rankings[12]

Testing the second hypothesis indicates the Egyptian state’s involvement in digital transformation, which has significantly led to a unique change in the various government sectors. However, this change may bring with it some risks that could negatively affect these sectors, as well as the army and the police, which make it difficult to find a fast solution, particularly in cases of weakness in the frameworks dealing with global cyber security, which are unable to establish robust and adequate protection programmes for this shift, which threatens and enhances Egyptian national security.

The process of digital transformation in the Egyptian economy: –

 Many e-commerce and e-services sites have appeared in the Egyptian market before and after Covid-19, such as Souq, Jumia, Otlob, “Talabat”, and Save, to help people buy, pay online and receive them by home delivery. In addition, Egyptian telecommunications companies, whether mobile or landline service providers, provided electronic billing services that allow users to easily pay their bills online using bank cards. The Federation of Egyptian Chambers of Commerce has launched the Digital Future Initiative to support digital transformation efforts in partnership with the Ministry of Public Business, Microsoft and Egypt Systems Fiber. This aims to enable SMEs in Egypt to keep pace with digital transformation through trained technology providers to work with these companies, enhance payment procedures and provide technical support services to end-users.[13]

The process of digital transformation in the Egyptian health sector: –

The Covid-19 pandemic has changed Egypt’s health sector, creating a need for digital transformation based on modern technologies. A number of hospitals have begun to provide an integrated system for all their medical facilities, including laboratories, X-rays, medicines and tele care services via mobile applications, enabling patients to remotely access a range of medical specialties through video communication, as well as ongoing supervision by medical experts and consultants. Pharmaceutical companies have now launched their mobile applications to provide consumers with a simple service experience. Many startups have also begun to offer their services through mobile applications such as appointments, physician inspections, Nano medical technology and prostheses, health insurance and mental health tips such as D-kimia, Shezlong, Vezeeta, Cheffaa.[14]

The process of digital transformation in the Egyptian education sector: –

In 2014, the Egyptian state opened the Egyptian Information Bank, the world’s largest digital library offering unlimited services to Egyptians of all ages. It provides access to the greatest amount of information, cultural and scientific content, whether basic, applied, technical, humanitarian or administrative. It also includes public cultural books targeting children and are used throughout the country by laptops, smartphones and tablets. In order to reduce student overcrowding in schools and universities, the Egyptian government, embodied in the Ministry of Education and Higher Education, has begun e-learning that enables students to read, attend online classes using tablets and laptops, and attend classrooms offline on an intermittent basis. These measures encourage social distances, reduce congestion, reduce environmental pollution and emphasize the importance of digital transformation in education.

The process of digital transformation in the Egyptian

 Governmental sector: –

To promote citizen services and avoid crowds, the government offers online services on the Egyptian government website, which are available in Both Arabic and English. Government services are also available to foreigners where they can pay bills, book tickets to Egypt Air or Egypt Railways, and provide grievances and other basic services requiring access to the relevant agencies.

The process of digital transformation in the Egyptian tourism sector: –

Like any other country, the Egyptian tourism sector is severely affected by Covid-19 but thanks to augmented reality technology everyone can visit Egyptian monuments without even leaving the living room, the purpose is to provide a preview of what visitors will enjoy. This has not been achieved on a massive scale so far. Many sites offer a great experience like airpano.com

The process of digital transformation in the Egyptian banking sector: –

According to the World Bank, some 80 per cent of Egyptians remain non-bankers, and the Egyptian government has agreed to use emerging technology to help improve the tax collection of financial structures. It also targets young people through mobile wallets and e-commerce solutions by creating awareness campaigns to educate people about how to use digital platforms. In order to establish a cashless economy, the Central Bank of Egypt has distributed 5 million ATMs to all government employees, leading to an overall decrease in the cost of paying salaries and holding capital inside the financial system. The National Payment Board also requires all government service providers to provide a digital payment method to help consumers pay receipts and fees online.

The Impact of Covid-19 on global security: – 

Covid-19 will not only affect national security, but will also have important implications for international security. It is important at this intersection to reaffirm that countries have different health care systems. As the pandemic is a global phenomenon, the failure of the local health-care system may have negative consequences in other parts of the world. The effects will go beyond borders, and the global nature of the current crisis is also manifested by the disruption of international business and the slow pace of its movements after the policies of openness that have returned. As we have already assumed, The Covid-19 has fundamentally challenged the traditional security sector. To take the example of infection on ships, one cannot imagine that infection on board with The Covid-19 would lead to the closure of the navy and its ships, in the way it did with the Cruise Lines Industry. This simply cannot happen. Instead, when countries were notified of type Covid-19 infections on their ships, it forced them to rethink and reposition their strategic assets, allowing the treatment of injured Marines in related facilities. This was not a purely fabricated situation, as the first recorded death of the U.S. Marines on board the USS Theodore Roosevelt occurred in April 2020.[15] The disruption of the State security strategy will be much greater, when the infection to be treated in a nuclear submarine occurs. These coercive strategic responses to the non-discriminatory nature of the epidemic have had a serious cumulative impact on global security.

His absence from government and, most importantly, the apparent power vacuum in the control of nuclear weapons in the United Kingdom was a major security challenge. Although all countries undoubtedly have procedures with their leaders unable to lead permanently or temporarily.[16] The shift in the model introduced by Covid-19 requires states to recognize the multifaceted nature of national security and its interdependence with international security, both of which must be fully addressed. Also, Donald Trump and his infection last October raised a major concern in American society about the debates and the American election that ended with Joe Biden’s victory. Under President Trump, the 2017 National Security Strategy for the United States of America has encompassed many non-conventional security dimensions, and has given great importance to many non-military security dimensions such as space, biosecurity, cybersecurity, economic security, energy security, enhanced diplomacy, and community security. But that doesn’t mean that they ignored the military dimension — which is indispensable, but most of the strategy involved more unconventional security dimensions than traditional ones. Looking at the USA national security strategies, there has been a shift in these strategies since Obama came to power and two national security strategies were issued (2015,2010), with the 2010 strategy essentially turning to other non-traditional issues and dimensions, most notably the economy, environment, cybersecurity, cybersecurity, epidemic, climate change, diplomacy, science, and energy security.[17]  The most important part of the 2017 national security strategy under President Trump was the non-traditional security dimensions Biosecurity and epidemic response.

The U.S. strategy considered that biological incidents, whether deliberate, such as in October 2001, when anthrax attacks in the United States after 9/11, or naturally unintentionally such as SARS or Ebola, could lead to many disasters, including human losses, the destruction of the economy, and loss of confidence in government institutions. The strategy also considered that although the development of life sciences has many positive effects on areas such as health, the economy and society, it offers many flaws that can lead to disasters in such areas, in addition to the fact that this development may reach other international actors and may therefore be available to some terrorist organizations. It is therefore imperative for the state to deal with such threats decisively by fighting and containing biological threats at an early stage, promoting its biological innovation, and developing health emergency services to prevent the spread of these infectious epidemics to the fullest extent.[18] Nevertheless, Trump has not been able to implement a strategy flexibly in responding to the Coved-19 pandemic, which was one of the reasons for his defeat in the presidential election.

The second hypothesis shows us how fragile the health sector is in the United States of America, despite President Trump’s adoption of the strategy in 2017, which was the straw that made his back in the presidential election against Joseph Biden.

The concept of global security after the Covid-19 pandemic: –

Although some may suggest that the world will return to “normal” once the health threat is adequately managed, what Covid-19 has brought is in fact a paradigm shift. The pandemic has exposed many gaps in critical security systems and infrastructure around the world. At the same time, she highlighted the growing importance of online spaces and cybersecurity, as well as the importance of artificial intelligence. These newly discovered challenges are added to the existing commitment of both democratic and authoritarian states to balance the requirements of state security, public health, and the economy without exacerbating existing threats to freedoms and human rights, especially in liberal democracies.[19] As can be seen from the current Black Lives Matter movement, the United States of America rarely deals with a single situation in isolation.

Health security as an element of global security: –

It can be argued that the health protection clause was not a priority for the world’s security and intelligence services, because if it were, countries would have been able to reduce the negative effects of the coronavirus to some extent, and the best example is Germany, which, like other neighboring countries such as Italy and Spain, has not been affected by the success of German intelligence in obtaining information that enabled it to establish a health security network for its citizens before the pandemic worsened. On the other hand, the virus has not been determined, is it a virus that has evolved on its own or was created and developed humanly, and there will be a greater risk that the security services will face a real danger. the possibility that any terrorist organization or organization could develop it and use it to achieve certain objectives, which would be a significant risk compared to the types of terrorism that the world has experienced in the past years. Faced with the emergence of a new type of security and intelligence system around the world, health intelligence, which will devote its attention to maintaining the global health security of nations and their people alongside the World Health Organization, this kind of intelligence will be a priority for political and economic decision makers. This form of intelligence would be a profound addition to the concept of national security, but it would not be simple and would face significant burdens because it needed to build devices and techniques capable of investigating health problems somewhere and searching for biological threats.

Conclusion, results, recommendations: –

In order to gain a deeper understanding of the effects of Covid19 on security, future studies by many experts are needed to address the pandemic and then work to contain it. A new understanding of the concepts of national, international and even global security requires stakeholders to re-imagine them in a clearly coherent way.  To illustrate this, it is now clear that health systems should not be invisible in national security planning or strategy. Similarly, Covid-19 dispelled any notion that we do not live in a global society. Therefore, national security must be seen as multifaceted; international security as it is inherent in the global community. However, the shift in the model also reveals knowledge gaps about the potential consequences of epidemics for national security and the ways in which states can strengthen their willingness to deal with such challenges. To fill this gap, further studies are recommended, given the complexity of the concept of national security and its complexity.  As well as the second wave of the pandemic, which has returned more hostile than before and which will have its most severe collapse this time on the economies of many countries of the world, which leads to its vulnerability, and even its demise unless it is dealt with very professionally with that first cosmic biological war. In any case, the surreal pandemic will change the international format and the geopolitical map of the whole world.

References

(1) Jegat, Joseph. (2015), “Global Pandemics: A Security Threat?”, E- International Relations, accessed on 10/8/2020, available at: https://www.e-ir.info/2015/11/17/global-pandemics-a-security-threat/

(2) Sadiq, Graya. (2014), “The Transformations of the Concept of Security in light of New International Threats” (Journal of Legal and Political Sciences, Issue 8, 2014), p23.

(3) Kissinger, Henry. (1969), “Nuclear Weapons and Foreign Policy (London: Wild Field and Nicholson”, p 46.

(4) McNamara, Robert. (1966), “The Essence of Security” New York: Harper Press, p149.

(5) Dyer, Amina. (2013), “The Impact of Environmental Threats on the Reality of Human Security in Africa: The Case Study of the Horn of Africa”, (Master’s Thesis, Mohamed Khedir University, Faculty of Law and Political Science, p15,17.

(6) Ibid, p18.

(7) Ibid, p20,21.

(8) David Barno & Nora Bensahel. (2020), “After the Pandemic: America And National 

Security in a Changed World,” War on the Rocks, accessed on

17/11/2020, at: https://warontherocks.com/2020/03/afterthepandemicamerica

  /andnationalsecurityinachangedworld

(9) Finley, Alex, Mendez, Jonna & Priess, David, (2020), “How do you Spy when the World is Shut Down?” Lawfare, accessed on 17/11/2020, at: https://www.lawfareblog.com/how-do-you-spy-when-world-shut-down

(10) Sussman, Bruce. (2019), “The List: Best and Worst Countries for Cybersecurity,” Secure World, accessed on 17/11/2020, at: https://www.secureworldexpo.com/industry-news/countries-dedicated-to-cybersecurity

(11) Ibid.

(12) Brien, Patric O. (2020),”Digital transformation trends from Egypt”, Irich Tech news, Accessed on: 24/11/2020.

Available at: https://irishtechnews.ie/digital-transformation-egypt-ahmed-ibrahim/amp

(13) Ibid.

(14) Perrigo, Billy. (2020),”Boris Johnson Is Unable to Govern While He Battles COVID19. Here’s How the U.K. Is Running Without Him”, TIME, accessed on

18/11/2020 at: https://time.com/5816794/ukgovernmentborisjohnson  /coronavirus

(15) Abdel Moneim, Abdel Fattah. (2017), ” A Secret Document for the Protection of U.S. National Security”, accessed on: 20/10/2020, available at: https://m.youm7.com/story/2017/9/18/%D9%88%D8%AB%D9%8A%D9%82%D8%A9-%D8%B3%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D9%84%D8%AD%D9%85%D8%A7%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A3%D9%85%D9%86-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%82%D9%88%D9%85%D9%89-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A3%D9%85%D8%B1%D9%8A%D9%83%D9%89/3418021

(16) Trump, Donald J. (2017, “National Security Strategy”, (NSS), (Washington, DC: White House, available on:

https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/NSS-Final-12-18-2017-0905.pdf

(17) Fukuyama, Francis. (2020), “The Pandemic and Political Order: It Takes a State,” Foreign Affairs, 9/6/2020, accessed on 27/10/2020, at: https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/world/2020-06-09/pandemic-and-political-order?amp&__twitter_impression=true

[1] Student in the Faculty of Politics and Economics, Suez University. Fourth Level-Department of Political Science.

[2] Jegat, Joseph. (2015), “Global Pandemics: A Security Threat?”, E- International Relations, accessed on 10/8/2020, available at: https://www.e-ir.info/2015/11/17/global-pandemics-a-security-threat/

[3] Sadiq, Graya. (2014), “The Transformations of the Concept of Security in light of New International Threats” (Journal of Legal and Political Sciences, Issue 8, 2014), p23.

[4] Kissinger, Henry. (1969), “Nuclear Weapons and Foreign Policy (London: Wild Field and Nicholson”, p 46.

[5] McNamara, Robert. (1966), “The Essence of Security” New York: Harper Press, p149.

[6] Dyer, Amina. (2013), “The Impact of Environmental Threats on the Reality of Human Security in Africa: The Case Study of the Horn of Africa”, (Master’s Thesis, Mohamed Khedir University, Faculty of Law and Political Science,  p15,17.

[7] Ibid,p18.

[8] Ibid, p20,21.

[9] David Barno & Nora Bensahel. (2020), “After the Pandemic: America And National 

Security in a Changed World,” War on the Rocks, accessed on

17/11/2020, at: https://warontherocks.com/2020/03/afterthepandemicamerica

  /andnationalsecurityinachangedworld

[10] Finley, Alex, Mendez, Jonna & Priess, David, (2020), “How do you Spy when the World is Shut Down?” Lawfare, accessed on 17/11/2020, at: https://www.lawfareblog.com/how-do-you-spy-when-world-shut-down

[11] Sussman, Bruce. (2019), “The List: Best and Worst Countries for Cybersecurity,” Secure World, accessed on 17/11/2020, at: https://www.secureworldexpo.com/industry-news/countries-dedicated-to-cybersecurity

[12] Ibid.

[13] Brien, Patric O. (2020),”Digital transformation trends from Egypt”, Irich Tech news, Accessed on: 24/11/2020.

Available at: https://irishtechnews.ie/digital-transformation-egypt-ahmed-ibrahim/amp

[14] Ibid.

[15] BBC News, (2020), “ Coronavirus: First Sailor on Virus-Stricken USS Roosevelt Dies ” accessed on 13/4/2020, https://www.bbc.com/news/worlduscanada52272249

[16] Perrigo, Billy. (2020),”Boris Johnson Is Unable to Govern While He Battles COVID19. Here’s How the U.K. Is Running Without Him”, TIME, accessed on

18/11/2020 at: https://time.com/5816794/ukgovernmentborisjohnson  /coronavirus

[17] Abdel Moneim, Abdel Fattah. (2017), ” A Secret Document for the Protection of U.S. National Security”, accessed on: 20/10/2020, available at: https://m.youm7.com/story/2017/9/18/%D9%88%D8%AB%D9%8A%D9%82%D8%A9-%D8%B3%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D9%84%D8%AD%D9%85%D8%A7%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A3%D9%85%D9%86-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%82%D9%88%D9%85%D9%89-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A3%D9%85%D8%B1%D9%8A%D9%83%D9%89/3418021 

[18] Trump, Donald J. (2017, “National Security Strategy”, (NSS), (Washington, DC: White House, available on:

https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/NSS-Final-12-18-2017-0905.pdf

[19] Fukuyama, Francis. (2020), “The Pandemic and Political Order: It Takes a State,” Foreign Affairs, 9/6/2020, accessed on 27/10/2020, at: https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/world/2020-06-09/pandemic-and-political-order?amp&__twitter_impression=true

المركز الديمقراطى العربى

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