Research studies

Applying VTT in Assessing the Arabic Translations of Western News Headlines: Covid 19 as a Case Study


Prepared by the researcher :  Assistant Professor, Ibrahim Talaat Ibrahim AL-Bayati, College of Arts/ AL-Iraqia University, Iraq.

Democratic Arabic Center

Journal of Human Resources Development for Studies and Research : Fifteenth Issue – January 2022

A Periodical International Journal published by the “Democratic Arabic Center” Germany – Berlin.

Nationales ISSN-Zentrum für Deutschland
  ISSN 2625-5596
Journal of Human Resources Development for Studies and Research

To download the pdf version of the research papers, please visit the following link


Covid 19 is a pandemic that hit the world in late 2019. It has paralyzed all aspects of life such as economy, education, cultural activities and everyday work of individuals. It is a respiratory virus that affects human being and it makes him suffer from a lot of symptoms such as fever, vomiting, muscle weakness, diarrhea…etc. This virus became a big headline in world media as a result of its huge worrying impact upon human life. The current study is a translation analysis of the Arabic translations of five different news headlines with reference to Covid 19 terms: (the virus, clinical trials, the vaccines, outbreak, children death,)  produced by ten different graduate students from AL-Iraqia University/ College of Arts/Department of Translation. The current study is a content-focused. In other words, it focuses on the information rendered from English news headlines into Arabic. It is worth noting, headlines are featured by condensed details, non-grammatical forms and economic employment of lexical items. For reasons of attracting the attention of readers. I adopt variational translation theory (VTT) in analyzing the translations produced by ten graduate students to answer the following hypotheses: Graduate translators are likely resorting to variant procedures in rendering Covid 19 terms into Arabic. Some graduate translators are expected not to condense the Arabic versions of Covid 19 headlines. The results of analyses showed that the vast majority of graduate translators whose translations are chosen for analysis made use of variant translation procedures with VTT and this verified the first hypothesis and some translators failed to condense the Arabic translation Covid 19 terms headlines and this verified the second hypothesis.

  1. Introduction

Scientific register is described as one of the mostly employed type of registers in the world of media, science and even industry. It gained currency due to its usage on daily basis. Where every single layman is exposed to such register in news reports, interviews, pharmacies…etc. this is why, it is has become a worth researching field especially when it comes to translation studies.  It is divided into many sub-registers including medical register and the sub-register highlighted above is further sub-divided into virus register and the latter is also sub-divided into many types of viruses such COVID 19 which is defined as the deadliest virus that hit the world in present time. Carrying out translation analysis with reference to news headlines of Covid 19 is a new approach to understand how such news can be transferred to Arabic language because there are major challenges faced by Arab translators including the coinage of new terms to render Covid 19 terms into Arabic successfully or keeping them as they are without any change in the target language.

  1. Literature review

Since Covid 19 pandemic is a novel virus, few researches were carried out in this field with reference to translation. One of the distinguished papers that addressed coronavirus, translation studies and corpus was written by Amal Haddad and Silvia Montero-Martínez, their paper is titled “COVID-19: a metaphor-based neologism and its translation into Arabic”. It sheds the lights on the fact that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)’ is the neologism coined in relation to the pandemic disease currently paralyzing countries globally (1). The World Health Organization (WHO) was the international body that coined this neologism in all its official languages including Arabic. Although, in mass media outlets, the mostly employed term is ‘coronavirus’, which is a meronymic denomination. The corpus-based case study aims at giving new insights into the creation of these neologisms in English and their counterparts in Arabic, and to the adequacy of the meronymic employment of the term ‘coronavirus’ in the English and Arabic mass media outlets as well. Our current study is going to shed the lights on COVID 19 terms in news headlines and how they are rendered into Arabic.

  1. Scientific Language

It is described as a language that can be employed for special purposes. In other words, it is “a formalized and codified  variety of language, used for special purposes with the function of  communicating information of a specialist nature at any level in the  most economic, precise and unambiguous terms possible”. (2). From a register vantage point, scientific language is concerned with a linguistic variety of a  speech community that tends to employ in a certain event for a particular communicative purpose (3). Speaking of the occupational situation, it will definitely result a distinct linguistic variety. The language resort to in writing a report in a particular field of science is different from that of a literary text. It is worth mentioning that Science language can be highlighted as an developed level of the layman’s knowledge due to the fact that all of their concepts and names we are familiar with or employ are originally related to the one or the other branch of science. It goes without saying that there is a far cry between the laymen language and expert one, to convey the message to laymen clearly, one needs to focus on the language employed by scientists (4) (5). This is due to being specialist. However, specialization is a relative term that is different from area to another one and individual to another one. For example, firstly, those who work in the field of medicine,  supposedly resorting to medical terms that could not be easily grasped among prime members of the medical community itself such as students who study medicine or students practice at hospitals, doctors of different of different specializations, nurses…etc. Secondly, among other persons if they employ their occupational language variety in social events per se.  Moreover, with the increasing complication of the subject matter of the register explained above and narrow specialization.  A situation has been reached, where a scientist related to one discipline faces a critical position to comprehend the language related to a discipline other than his native language due to his non-acquaintance with the expression conventions and the other discipline concepts (6). If this is so, a specialist would imagine what would be the translator’s state when dealing with a multiplicity of scientific genres, although, asked to translate his text professionally. This is a signal for specialization from translator’s side and the institution in question. Scientific language is directed to specific listeners or readers.  However, the tenor variable does not always constitute one symmetrical connection between sender and receiver. For example, there is a hierarchical connection, but  it could give rise to different kinds of asymmetrical connections (cf. Stolze,  1992), for example, those of authorities in the field such as an expert writing to non-expert, or  impersonal (a writer trying to impersonalize himself by resorting to passive  voice for objectivity or neutrality reasons. It is worth noting that the most distinctive feature of science is that of vocabulary differences where the employment of certain words or the use of words in a particular sense takes place. On the one hand, certain words like  ‘hydrosphere’, ‘kinesis’, ‘levitron’, ‘nabla’ (Alwafi, 2002) to name but  few, are mostly, if not exclusively, obtained/employed in science jargon and  each has certain meaning well ingrained in the  scientific field in  which it is first coined. On the other, there are terms that feature dissimilar meanings in special fields of science in which they occur (ibid.): balance (online Encarta Dictionary, 2006):

“1. Biology: steady state of the body on a certain base.”

“2. Psychology: “emotional stability, a state of emotional and mental stability in which somebody is calm and able to make rational decisions and judgments.”””””

“3. Accounting: “remainder, a remaining or outstanding amount, for example, the amount remaining in a bank account after a withdrawal or the amount still to be paid to settle a bill.””

“4. Mechanics: “weighing machine, a simple mechanical device for weighing objects.”

“5. Mathematics chemistry: “equality of elements in equation: a state in which the elements of a mathematical or chemical equation are equal on both sides.””

Out of the above mentioned examples, it is concluded that every single discipline appears to have a language of its own branched off one core language; languages of different science have a common mode as well as common convention. In such a context, it is probably the mode of semantic extension whereby the above terms, taking/sharing the core meaning of the word ‘balance’ can have, under the category of polysemy, such diverse senses.  The stand taken here is that, amidst the different disciplines of science and the resultant different registers there is an underlying system (7).” Scientific language is figured out and communicated in written documents principally which are cast in a variety of layouts. It represents the followings: “science textbooks, research papers, technical manuals, technical  handbooks, the patent application, the license agreement (for example, in  computer technology), technical reports, test specifications, professional  papers, advertisements (when the thing advertised is science-related, for example, a new xeroxing machine, or a medical product), the leaflets,  instructional manuals, signs and notices,  catalogues, vouchers, invoices,  bills, name plates, certificates, tables, tags, and many more (Thirumalai, 2003). The following section is going to elaborate on one of the sub-languages or registers of scientific language titled medical language.

3.1. Medical language

The employment of medical discourse constitutes a series of forms of communication. Gotti(2008: P.24) employs the term specialized discourse as “the specialist use of language  in contexts which are typical of a specialized community stretching across the  academic, the professional, the technical and the occupational area of knowledge  and practice.” Three factors are of great significance, they are mentioned below: user, domain of employment and specific employment of language. Besides, medical language is used in the expert circles or a means of communication between experts in the field and laymen, with the use of characteristic features ranging from one single genre to another onerelying upon the communication the participants involved in the discourse in question. Genres are employed in experts environments as the followings” discharge summaries, case studies and case notes, imaging reports and research papers” employment of various specialized terms whose semantic value is taken into account. The sections explained below highlights some of the most prominent features of medical English with particular focus on medical terminology concerning Covid 19 pandemic and related translation problems and challenges.

3.2. Eponyms

Eponyms constitutes a big part of medical terminology. They embrace names of “anatomical parts, e.g. Fallopian tubes, Adam’s apple, names of diseases Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, signs and symptoms e.g. Babinski  sign, fractures e.g. Jefferson Fracture, procedures e.g. Heller myotomy, medical  devices e.g. Bard-Parker scalpel” (cf. Meals 2007). They are stemmed from the names of researchers, but they could also be derived from celebrity names patients’ ones, “e.g. Lou Gehrig disease, a common name for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis” (cf. Walling, 1999), fictitious characters, “e.g. Othello’s syndrome, or geographical places, e.g. Lyme disease.”Eponyms could be described as one of well-known translation problems source. It is worth noting that the resemblance between eponymous terms and their counterparts does not refer to the fact that both source language terms and their target language ones will be eponymous, although they could be the case.

3.3. Acronyms and abbreviations

One of the major characteristics attributed to the language of medicine and virology is the availability of “acronyms, initialisms and clipped forms.” Moreover, English language occupies a very distinguished status among other languages when it comes the employment of the above-mentioned word formation especially in the medical language. This is why, it is described as the lingua-franca of medicine, English acronyms is heavily employed in everyday situation of users of other languages and are used both  by the medical professionals and patients, especially if no native acronym is  commonly employed in the local language “e.g. MCV, TSH, INR, CRP, LDL, HDL  and Corona Virus and Covid 19″…etc.

3.3.1.Covid 19

Corona virus or Covid 19 is the virus that spread all over the world when it first appeared in china in December 2019.It has become the deadliest pandemic that hit the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) has been taking a close look at the development of the phenomenon on a global scale. On the breakout of the disease whose name is mentioned above, news reports and briefs delivered by the WHO referred to the disease in question as “a pneumonia of unknown cause”. For example, the summary of December 31 reads: “A pneumonia of unknown cause detected in Wuhan, China was first reported to the WHO Country Office in China on 31 December 2019”. After that, on January 10, the WHO issued its first guidebook on the disease, developed with regard to other coronaviruses like SARS and MERS. Since then, the denomination turned out to be ‘Novel Coronavirus’ also abbreviated as ‘nCov’. This term was employed because the virus is a new type of the previously discovered coronavirus, a term referring to the crown-like appearance of the surface projections of the virus. Two days later, a different terminological variant was employed by the WHO, ‘2019-nCoV’. On January 30, the Public Health Emergency of International Concern was declared. Finally, on February 11, 2020, the WHO officially designated the disease with yet another variant “Covid-19”, an acronym that stands for ‘Coronavirus Disease 2019’. On March 11, 2020, the WHO featured Covid-19 as pandemic and, eventually, all the nations in the world have been impacted by the virus and they have been fighting it ever since (8).

It is worth mentioning that the pandemic timeline shows that, in a record breaking period of time, a variety of terminological phrases or compounds (pneumonia of unknown cause, novel coronavirus), acronyms (nCov), abbreviation or short forms (2019-nCoV) have been employed to refer to the same phenomenon before the final neologism was created (COVID-19). It is also significant to differentiate between the disease’s name and the virus that causes the disease. This means that ‘COVID-19’ is the pandemic disease, while ‘severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2’ (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus that causes that disease.

  1. Scientific Translation:

Scientific translation is essentially a professional skill representing three basic requirements at least:

(a)A crystal-clear comprehension of the source language,

(b) Knowledge concerning the subject, backed by access to authentic sources of the newest pieces of information,

(c) Necessary skills to write on the field like an expert. (9)

Translators whose specialization is technical and scientific texts translations have to address types of discourse where the scientific terminology looksto be plain, having established equivalents in the target language, and the employment of language is simple (ibid.). It means that anybody with a good command of a language with an appropriate level of technical or scientific knowledge can produce a well-knitted scientific text.

Translating in this field, Javier (citing Schleiermacher (1813)) further argues that it is “almost a mechanical activity” (ibid.). But Javier’s stand seems to be challenged by Kara’s (a theorist and scientific translator) magical task in checking an equivalent term in bilingual dictionaries (2004).

  1. Translation of News Headlines

Journalistic texts are of different registers sports, political, scientific, technical, medical ones…etc.  Every text is divided into two main components: Headlines and the text. As for the former, it is defined as the complementary factor of the whole news text. In other words, without the existence of the headline, the news text is incomplete. Therefore, the headline should give a crystal-clear sign with regard to its news text (10). It is worth noting that headline translation is defined as the process of rendering an incomplete, condensed or non-grammatical form of text from one human language into another.

  1. Data Collection

I selected five different news headlines with reference Covid 19 pandemic from different news websites. Then, I gave the chosen texts to ten translators who have recently graduated from AL-Iraqia University/College of Arts/Department of Translation.

  1. Methodology

Since the case study of my paper is concerned with the translation analysis of Covid 19 news headlines. And headlines are featured by incomplete form, non-grammatical structure or condensed meaning (see 5. above). I counted on Variational Translation Theory (VTT) in carrying out the analysis to shed the lights on the different procedures followed by the translators whose translations were selected for analysis. It is worth mentioning that I want to highlight in the body of the practical part the correct and incorrect procedures under the theory whose name is cited above because these procedures can be useful in certain areas of translating particular Covid 19 headlines and they can be useless in other areas of translating such headlines. So, variation translation is defined as a translation activity where the translator, based on certain needs of target language readers under particular conditions, employs adaptation techniques like: adding, deleting, narrating, condensing, integrating changing into ingesting the original’s contents. Figure No.1 presented below clarifies how the methodology of the paper functions in the process of analysis of the translation of English Covid 19 News Headlines into Arabic (11).

English News Headlines: Covid19 Terms

Eclectic model of translation assessment of English sport texts into Arabic

Figure (1) Eclectic model of translation analysis of the Arabic translations of English news headlines with reference to Covid 19 terms
Variational Translation Theory (VTT)
Translated News Headlines of Covid 19 into Arabic
Incorrect Employment of VTT tools
Correct Employment of VTT tools Inappropriate Translation
Appropriate Translation
Inappropriate Translation

  1. Analysis of the translation of English news headlines of Covid19 terms into Arabic

8.1.Coronavirus: ‘Only sensible’ to cancel India trip, says Johnson

1.جونسن حول فايروس كورونا؛ من البديهي ان يتم الغاء رحلة الهند

2.فايروس كورونا, ذكر جونسون ان من المنطقي الغاء رحلات الهند.

3.فايروس كوفيد ١٩: يقول جونسون انه “من المنطقي ” الغاء رحلة الهند

4.ــــــــــــــــــــــرئيس الوزراء البريطاني: من المنطقي الغاء رحلة الهند.

5.يقول جونسون ان من الممكن الغاء رحلات الهند بسب فايروس كارونا

  1. فايروس كورونا: قال جونسون انه ” من المعقول فقط” الغاء الرحلة الى الهند بسبب تفشي فايروس كورونا المستجد.
  2. فايروس كورونا: قال جونسون انه ” من المعقول فقط” الغاء الرحلة الى الهند بسبب تفشي جائحة كورونا.

8.علق بوريس جونسون رئيس الوزراء البريطاني ان الخيار الوحيد المعقول في هذا الوقت هو الغاء رحلته إلى الهند بسبب ارتفاع اعداد الإصابات هناك.

9.فايروس كورونا : تصريح جونسون بوجوب الغاء الرحلات من والى الهند

10.فايروس كورونا: قال جونسون انه “من المعقول فقط” الغاء الرحلة الى الهند بسبب تفشي فايروس كورونا المستجد.

8.1.1.Translation Analysis of the First Covid 19 News Headline

All the above translators whose translations are chosen for the analysis translated the Covid 19 terms differently. As for the first two translators, they rendered it into (فايروس كورونا) which is the transliteration of the phrase. However, the term virus is lexicalized in Arabic. The third translator made use of couplet strategy which is concerned with two procedures of translation: transliteration and borrowing (فايروس كوفيد 19). The fourth translator removed the term in question from translation. Therefore, this is a gap in the Arabic version. The fifth translators translated the term into (فايروس كورونا) and shifted its position. For this reason, he affected the importance of the translation of the term in question because it was put at the beginning of the headline. The sixth translator added extensive amount of information in the Arabic version and he used (فايروس كورونا) at the beginning of the headline and intervened by adding extra information (فايروس كورونا المستجد) which is unnecessary. The seventh translator used different strategies in translating Covid 19 terms in the same headline he translated it into ( (فايروس كورونا  then he resorted to nominal phrase (جائحة كورونا) at the end and this is described as an unnecessary addition to the headline because it is already mentioned in the headline. The eighth translator followed narrating tool and deletion one at the same time by removing the covid19 term in the body of the Arabic headline and narrating the reason behind the increasing death among people in India. The ninth translator used (فايروس كورونا) at the beginning of the Arabic headline and he retained to the same condensed version of English in the Arabic one. The tenth translator added unnecessary details to the Arabic headline at the end of headline although he highlighted it at the beginning. It is worth noting that 60% of graduate translators successfully employed VTT tools and produced condensed Arabic news headlines with reference to Covid19. While 40% failed to make use of VTT tools because they either added unnecessary pieces of information or deleted the main term and added unnecessary one.

8.2.COVID-19 outbreak in Baghdad is “very alarming”

.1تفشي فايروس كورونا في بغداد يثير للقلق

2.كوفيد  19 وتفشيه في بغداد امر مقلق للغاية.

.3تفشي فايروس كورونا المستجد في بغداد امر “مقلق للغاية”

.4ان تفشي فايروس كوفيد 19 في بغداد قد اخذ منحى مخيف

.5“انذار بالخطر” لانه كوفيد ١٩يندلع في بغداد

6.تفشي فايروس كورونا في بغداد أمر “مقلق للغاية “

7.تفشي فايروس كورونا في العاصمة العراقية بغداد أمر “مقلق للغاية “

8.انتشار فايروس كوفيد-١٩ في محافظة بغداد ينذر بالخوف الشديد.

9.بغداد : تفشي الفايروس في المنطقة “مقلق للغاية”

.10تفشي فايروس كورونا في بغداد “مقلق للغاية”.

8.2.1.Translation Analysis of the Second Covid 19 News Headline

The translators whose numbers are (1, 3,  6, 7 and 10) rendered the underlined English phrase into (تفشي فايروس كورونا) successfully. In other words, they were able to give the appropriate production in the target language. They made use of transliteration strategy and narrating because the decoded the acronym (Covid19) into meaningful expression in the TL and pinpointed the optimal equivalent term by selecting the word (تفشي) in Arabic. While samples No. 2, No.4 and 8 made use of transliteration strategy of the acronym which is a failure in translation because  (فايروس كورونا) is lexicalized in Arabic due to the intensive media coverage with reference to the news of the said virus but its acronym is not known among laymen. Therefore, their choices are not accurate. The sample No.5 followed addition technique in transferring the English headline into Arabic by adding the following phrase (انذار بالخطر). It is not acceptable to add unnecessary information in the translation of headlines because they are featured by economy. And the second issue is that he transliterated the acronym Covid 19 into Arabic (كوفيد 19)which is not suitable as well. Speaking of sample No.9, the translator in question counted on deleting the name (corona) and sticking to the word virus in Arabic. It is worth highlighting that 50% of graduate translators succeeded in resorting to VTT tools while the rest failed partially.

 8.3.Why are so many babies dying of Covid-19 in Brazil?

1 .لماذا يحصد فايروس كورونا بأرواح الاطفال في البرازيل؟

2.ارتفاع الوفيات بين الاطفال في البرازيل جراء الاصابة بكوفيد 19. ما السبب وراء ذلك؟

3 .لماذا الكثير من الاطفال يموتون بسبب فايروس كورونا في دولة البرازيل

.4ما السبب الكامن وراء موت العديد من الاطفال بفايروس كوفيد 19 في البرازيل؟

.5لماذا يموت الكثير من الاطفال بكوفيد ١٩في البرازيل ؟

  1. 6. لماذا يموت عدد كبير من الاطفال بسبب كوڤيد-١٩ في البرازيل ؟
  2. 7. لماذا يموت عدد كبير من الاطفال بسبب فايروس كوڤيد-١٩ في البرازيل ؟

.8ما هو السبب وراء ارتفاع حالات الوفيات للأطفال جراء الإصابة بفايروس كورونا في البرازيل؟

9.البرازيل: تساؤلات عن موت الكثير من الاطفال بسبب الجائحة المتفشية

10.لماذا يموت عدد كبير من الاطفال بسبب كوفيد- 19 في دولة البرازيل؟

8.3.1.Translation Analysis of the Third Covid 19 News Headline

Three out of ten translators employed VTT tools appropriately. They are the translators whose samples are numbered No.1, 3 and 8 because they used narrating tool as in the following expressions (يحصد الارواح ), (الكثير من الاطفال يموتون)  and          (ما هو السبب وراء ارتفاع حالات الوفيات للأطفال) respectively not to mention integrating Covid 19 into (فايروس كورونا) in Arabic. As for samples No.2, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 10, they made use of narrating tool as well but they partially failed because they transliterated the Covid 19 acronym into (كوفيد 19) which is not appropriate choice due to its vagueness for laymen readers. While the translator whose sample is No.9 followed integration tool and he resorted to deletion as well. In other words, his product is described as a failure in the TL because he removed the corona and he added the nominal phrase (الجائحة المتفشية). It is worth noting that 30% of translators managed employing VTT tools correctly and 70% choices were incorrect.

8.4.UK Clinical Trial Confirms SaNOtize’s Breakthrough Treatment for COVID-19

1.اكدت التجارب السريرية البريطانية فاعلية بخاخ انف شركة سانوتايز كعلاج لكوفيد 19

2.التجارب السريرية في المملكة المتحدة على لقاح  فايزر تعطي تقدما واضحا في فاعليتها على فايروس كوفيد 19.

3.تجربة سريرية في المملكة المتحدةتؤكد على  علاج saNotize لتقليل من الحمل ل كوفيد ١٩

4.تؤكد التجارب السريرية على مرضى كوفيد 19 في المملكة المتحدة البريطانية ان الدواء المسمى ب (سانوتايز) او (نورس) قد حقق تقدما ملحوظا في علاج فايروس كوفيد 19.

5.تؤكد التجارب السريرية للمملكة المتحدة البريطانية ان هناك احتمال لاختراق المطهرات التي تكون ضد كوفيد ١٩

  1. تؤكد التجربة السريرية في المملكة المتحدة البريطانية ان سانتايزز هو علاج فعال ل كوفيد-١٩.
  2. اكدت التجربة السريرية في المملكة المتحدة البريطانية ان سانتايزز هو علاج فعال ل كوفيد-١٩.

8.تؤكد التجارب السريرية البريطانية على فاعلية بخاخ الأنف السانوتايز في العلاج ضد حالات كوفيد-١٩.

9.المملكة المتحدة: تأكيد فاعلية التجارب السريرية لرذاذ الانف من سانوتايز ضد فايروس كورونا

10.تؤكد التجربة السريرية في المملكة المتحدة البريطانية ان سانتايزز هو علاج فعال ل كوفيد -19.

8.4.1.Translation Analysis of the Fourth Covid 19 News Headline

One out of ten translators produced an accurate product of translation because sample No.9 rendered the whole English headline in a suitable way.He made use of narrating tool and he transliterated the acronym Covid 19 into (فايروس كورونا). While the rest of translators they either failed almost totally or partially. As for, Samples No.1 and 8, they succeeded partially because they counted on narrating tool in explaining the first part of the English headline and elaborating on the product of the company which is not mentioned in the said headline but they failed in rendering Covid 19 into (فايروس كورونا) because they kept it (كوفيد 19). While the rest of translators failed completely because they added irrelevant pieces of information to the translated headline in Arabic and the transliterated the acronym Covid 19 into (كوفيد 19). Furthermore, 10% of graduate translators produced suitable translation, 20 % gave partially clear translation while 70% failed totally in using VTT tool.

8.5.Coronavirus digest: Denmark halts AstraZeneca vaccination indefinitely.

1.ابرز عناوين فايروس كورونا :الدنمارك توقف توزيع لقاح استرازنكاكليا

2.ملخص فايروس كورونا, توقف الدنمارك عن تطعيم لقاح استرازينكاالى اجل غير مسمى

3-توقف الدنمارك عن تطعيم AstraZeneca الى اجلٍ غير مسمى

4.صرحت (الكورونا فايروس دايجست) عن توقف دولة الدنمارك عن اخذ لقاح (الاسترازينيكا) البريطاني الصنع لأجل غير مسمى

5.موجز فايروس كورونا الدنماركي يوقف تلقيح استرازينيكا الى اجل غير مسمى

  1. موجز اخبار فايروس كورونا: الدنمارك تعلق استخدام لقاح استرازينيكا بشكل تام.
  2. ملخص فايروس كورونا: الدنمارك توقف استخدام لقاح استرازينيكا بشكل تام.

8.فيما يخص كوفيد-١٩: توقفت الدنمارك عن استخدام لقاح استرازينكا الانكليزي إلى اجل غير محدد.

  1. جائحة كورونا :ايقاف التطعيم بلقاح استرازينكا في الدنمارك الى اشعار آخر

10.ملخص فيروس كورونا: الدنمارك تعلق استخدام لقاح استرازينيكا بشكل تام.

8.5.1. Translation Analysis of the Fifth Covid 19 Headline

All translators whose translations were selected for analysis rendered the abovementioned English news headline with reference to Covid 19 into Arabic appropriately except for sample No.3 because he deleted the term Corona virus from the Arabic translated version not to mention using the English version of (AstraZeneca) vaccine in the body of the Arabic headline and sample No.8 failed as well because he resorted to the employment of the Arabic acronym version of Corona which is (كوفيد 19). Moreover, 80% succeeded in conveying the English news headline with reference to Covid 19 into Arabic clearly while 20% of the translators failed in employing VTT tools.

  1. Translation Analysis Results

The table presented below shows us the results of translation analysis of English Covid 19 news headlines into Arabic with the employment of VTT.


IEV: means incorrect employment of variational translation approach


Covid 19 Headlines




1st Tr



2nd Tr



3rd Tr



4th Tr



5th Tr



6th Tr



7th Tr



8th Tr



9th Tr



10th Tr

1. First Headline


2. Second Headline


3. Third Headline


4. Fourth Headline


5. Fifth Headline


6. Total Results 80% S 40% S 40% S 20% S 40% S 40% S 40% S 40% S 60% F 40% S
20% F 60% F 60% F 80$ F 60% F 60% F 60% F 60% F 40% S 60% F

CEV: means correct employment of variational translation approach

Tr: Translator


It is concluded that the analyses of the translations of English Covid 19 news headlines into Arabic presented in the practical part of the paper showed us that the vast majority of graduate translators whose translations are chosen for analysis followed various translation procedures under the umbrella of VTT and this verified the first hypothesis and some translators failed to condense the Arabic translation Covid 19 terms headlines and this verified the second hypothesis. It is worth noting that 44% of ten graduate translators whose translations are selected for analysis succeeded in making use of correct procedures of VTT in rendering English Covid 19 News headlines into Arabic while the 56% percent of translators failed in resorting to the appropriate procedures of VTT in transferring the abovementioned headlines.


1-Amal. Haddad and Silvia Martínez,. Montero. 2020. COVID-19: a metaphor-based neologism and its translation into Arabic. Journal of Science Communication. DOI: 10.22323/2.19050201

2-V. Korkas, & P Pavlides .2004. Teaching Aspects of LSP  (Language for Special Purposes) to Nonspecialists: A Case for Background Courses in Translation Studies Programmes, in  The Journal of Specialized Translation Issue 02 – July 2004.

3-S Thirumalia M.  2003. Language in India accessed from

4-Z Huang & Y Zhang. 2020. Variational translation theory. The registered Co. Springer Nature. P.237.

5-S Thirumalia M.  2003. Language in India accessed from

6-S Thirumalia M.  2003. Language in India accessed from

7-S Thirumalia M.  2003. Language in India accessed from

8-Amal. Haddad and Silvia Martínez,. Montero. 2020. COVID-19: a metaphor-based neologism and its translation into Arabic. Journal of Science Communication. DOI: 10.22323/2.19050201.P.1-2.

9-M Martinez & A Hurtado. 2001. Assessment In Translation  Studies: Research Needs, Meta, XLVI, 2, 2001. P.687-8

10-Ibrahim AL-Bayati. 2020. Introduction to Translation A Concise Reference With Regard to English into Arabic Translation and Vice Versa. Baghdad: Dar ALwan Publishing.

11-Z Huang & Y Zhang.  2020. Variational translation theory. The registered Co. Springer Nature.P.103-134.


Jingzi Huang & Morgan Glen. 2003. A Functional Approach to  Evaluating Content Knowledge and Language Development in  ESL Students’ Science Classification Texts. Blackwell Publishing  Ltd.

A Javier F.  2004. The Study of Technical and Scientific Translation: An Examination of its Historical Development, in The Journal of Specialized Translation. Issue 1 January 2004.

Isador Pinchuck. 1977. Scientific and Technical Translation. Westview Press, Colorado, U.S.A.

Websites on 23/4/2021 accessed on 23/4/2021 on 23/4/2021 accessed on 23/4/2021

5/5 - (2 صوتين)

المركز الديمقراطى العربى

المركز الديمقراطي العربي مؤسسة مستقلة تعمل فى اطار البحث العلمى والتحليلى فى القضايا الاستراتيجية والسياسية والاقتصادية، ويهدف بشكل اساسى الى دراسة القضايا العربية وانماط التفاعل بين الدول العربية حكومات وشعوبا ومنظمات غير حكومية.

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