Research studies

EFFECT OF TEACHING STYLE ON STUDENT’S SATISFACTION AND VOCABULARY IMPROVEMENT

 

Prepared by the researcher  

Mr. Mahmoud Ahmida Aboualya,  Lecturer,  Faculty of Arts and Sciences – Alkufrah, University of Benghazi,  Libya.

Dr. Salem Hamed Abosnan –  Assistance Professor, Faculty of Arts and Sciences-Alkufrah, University of Benghazi, Libya.

Ms. Khadeejah Ali Eisay  – Lecturer, Faculty of Arts and Sciences -Alkufrah, University of Benghazi, Libya

Democratic Arab Center

Journal of Afro-Asian Studies : Thirteenth Issue – May 2022

A Periodical International Journal published by the “Democratic Arab Center” Germany – Berlin.

Nationales ISSN-Zentrum für Deutschland
ISSN  2628-6475
Journal of Afro-Asian Studies

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Abstract

The teacher must recognize the needs of the students and modify the instructions to best suit them. Students are motivated to use different styles of vocabulary teaching because they have different learning styles. Six different strategies from a qualitative study conducted in Libyan context were used to conduct a survey among 364 Libyan students to determine how frequently teachers used them to teach vocabulary and how effective students thought it was. The most effective way to learn vocabulary was through media, followed by word association, context learning, games, teachers’ creative methods, and virtualizing. Students who took part in this study believed that all six strategies were more effective than those used by teachers. The current study, which aims to evaluate teachers’ styles of teaching vocabulary as a dominant aspect of English oral skills, is expected to be applicable in Libya’s higher education market and educational system.

Introduction 

Teaching young learners English by Libyan those who are non-native English speakers’ such countries have always been inspired by much academics and debate. Among them, Libya keeps focusing on improving the English education system despite its many fundamental changes. The main language of Libya is Arabic; however, English is playing an increasingly important role as a foreign language (Najeeb, 2013). English was a primary and secondary school subject, as well as the medium of instruction in Libyan universities, until it was removed from the country’s educational system for political reasons in the late 1980s. This omission deprived an entire generation of exposure to the language.

Although teaching English as a foreign language was permitted in Libyan schools and universities in the mid-1990s, it was discovered that using English as the sole medium of instruction had a negative impact on students’ academic performance. However, due to a lack of academic materials and resources, using only Arabic was unprofitable. As a result, Arabic–English Bilingualism was viewed as a first step toward globalization (Tamtam,Gallagher, Naher, & Olabi, 2013). The Libyan government’s decision to discontinue English instruction for several years has been a disadvantage. Due to language barriers, the students were unable to use the available learning materials and data. Regardless, there are no negative attitudes toward the English language.

The Libyan people value it because it is the language of science and technology. Asker and Martin-Jones (2013) investigated the sociocultural, political, and historical milieus underlying beliefs and ideologies about appropriate language use in multilingual classroom interaction and CS practices in western Libya, where Berber is the students’ mother tongue. There have, however, been no published studies on classroom CS in the Libyan context where Arabic is the learners’ first language. As a result, the current study attempts to bridge the gap by investigating the current state of teachers’ CS practice and beliefs in L1 and L2 classrooms (Arabic).

Vocabulary learning processes can have a significant impact on the overall success or failure of second language learning. It is generally believed that using artificial memory and recall tasks to investigate psychological memory strategies, list learning, short term memorizing, and incidental learning is a good idea. However, many of these experiments are dubious in terms of ecological validity and pedagogical authenticity. There has been little research into learner-centered contexts (rather than teacher-centered contexts) in which students choose vocabulary items and manage their own autonomous vocabulary learning.

To conclude, a review of the literature reveals that teachers have employed a range of visually appealing and enjoyable methods to improve students’ vocabulary knowledge, such as using social media (Sivagnanam & Yunus, 2020); videos, captions, visual organization practice, and their combination (Teng, 2020), songs (Joe & Frederick, 2020); picture-viewing and picture-drawing on tablets (Ou et al., 2020); computer Role-Playing  (Rahman & Angraeni, 2020), smartphone application (Agustin & Ayu, 2021; Gonulal, 2019; Rahman & Angraeni, 2020), online game (Bytheway, 2014; Yip & Kwan, 2006). All of these ways are effective. However, when it comes to younger learners, entertaining strategies are often employed as an effective way to teach new vocabulary.

Method

This study is based on the key findings of a study by (Aboualya, Abosnan & Arashidi, 2021). The population of the study was randomly selected from University of Benghazi at Alkufrah campus” Faculty of Arts and Science” students of the English Language Departments. According to the outbreak of Covid19 pandemic, questionnaire link was made and shared in students’ whatsApp & messenger groups to get their feedback as a distribution method. The whole number of Respondents replied within a complete period of 3 months to collect the distributed data. For measuring the variables of the study, four strategies that was discovered from a Libyan qualitative study (Aboualya, Abosnan & Arashidi, 2021) were adopted including (1) using media with eight coats, (2) context learning with eight coats, (3) word association with ten codes, and (4) virtualizing with four codes.

Respondents were asked to rate How often your teachers used these strategies to help you improve your vocabulary improvement. Students were asked to rank those strategies based on (1) frequency of usage by teachers and (2) the level of effectiveness of the strategies. The questions were:

  1. How often your teachers used these strategies to help you improve your vocabulary?
  2. How agree are you these strategies to help you improve your vocabulary?

 Due to the outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic and the ease of today’s digital communications, the interview was conducted online via the WhatsApp application, and participants were given a suitable time to respond and share their experience in teaching English as a second language. Students results of analyzing the collected data from 364 students (university)  Comprising of 46% female and 54% male with age ranged 20-26 years old.

Findings and discussion

Using media

Using media improves vocabulary learning and motivate students to learn actively (Agustin & Ayu, 2021; Duong et al., 2021; Jawad & Saeed, 2021; Khan et al., 2016). In this study, students were asked how often their teachers used media to practice vocabulary and how effective they thought it was. Among the six method categories, using media to learn vocabulary is the most effective from the students’ point of view. Among methods categorized under using media, teachers use “search for stories which contain new vocab” more frequency but students believe “social media applications” are more effective than other media techniques. According to a comparison mean T test, there was a significant difference between teachers’ use of media to teach vocabulary and the students’ perceptions of media effectiveness to learn vocabulary. More specifically, the findings show that teachers should use media to practice English vocabulary more frequently because their students believe it is effective

Practice English vocabulary through using media,

such as:

Teacher apply Effective perception
Mean Std. Deviation Mean Std. Deviation
social media applications 1.70 0.72 2.58 0.62
learn while watching movies 1.84 0.67 2.49 0.61
learn with songs 1.84 0.70 2.45 0.68
tape listening and word guessing 1.87 0.74 2.41 0.66
play cards with new vocabulary 1.83 0.71 2.37 0.67
learn with news 1.88 0.73 2.37 0.67
read books 1.93 0.70 2.33 0.66
search for stories which contains new vocab 1.94 0.67 2.29 0.69
Overall mean 1.85 2.41
Overall standard deviation 0.57 0.51
T-statistics -13.15
Significant 0.00

This study’s findings are similar to previous researches (Agustin & Ayu, 2021; Duong et al., 2021; Jawad & Saeed, 2021; Khan et al., 2016). According to a study conducted in Pakistan, social media (e.g., Facebook, Twitter, Flickr, YouTube, WhatsApp, Instagram) has a significant impact on the vocabulary development of university-level English learners. It enables English learners to learn new words and vocabulary to increase their English language level; it is more convenient than books and other text materials since it entertains while educating. This study also showed that using social media is easier for young university level learners compared using books or other text materials while visiting the library and getting books relevant to vocabulary development (Khan et al., 2016). Similarly, Jawad and Saeed (2021) discovered that using social media improves vocabulary learning and motivate students to learn actively.

Social networking is important in education, especially for young learners who are exposed to social media at an early age. Students are well-equipped with technological knowledge and are aware of the opportunities available to them through mediums such as social media and social networking sites. Educators currently take the incorporation of social media in education seriously in order to increase their vocabulary and to overcome any problems that may arise while using diverse media as a medium to study vocabulary (Sivagnanam & Yunus, 2020).

As technology progresses as one of every human being’s needs, smart phone applications are becoming the most commonly used technology in daily life to find information anytime and anywhere. Instagram is one of the applications found on smart phones that many users use to learn and educate themselves. Researchers discovered that using social media, such as Instagram, to learn vocabulary was beneficial (Agustin & Ayu, 2021; Gonulal, 2019). Instagram is a social networking platform that allows users to share various forms of content such as images and videos. Many Instagram profiles provide information on English lessons, such as uploading photos with English captions and sharing English lesson videos, which will help users learn English more quickly and interestingly, as well as improve vocabulary by seeing the caption or watching the video (Agustin & Ayu, 2021). English language teaching and learning has become increasingly dependent upon technology. As a result, the use of technology enhanced language learning tools in English language learning has become widespread because they can improve knowledge retention and engagement (Duong et al., 2021).

Word association

Because learners’ lexicons are unstable and there is limited time for explicit vocabulary instruction, teachers must carefully examine the teaching technique and choose one that is most likely to generate the best results for a certain group of learners. The semantic organization of the human mind is thought to be reflected in word associations. According to psycholinguistic studies, words in the minds of native speakers are semantically ordered, and these associations are powerful and long-lasting. The evidence from both native and non-native speakers suggests that the shift in response type from phonological to semantic is directly connected to the target word’s level of integration in the mental lexicon (Vasiljevic, 2008).

In this study, students were asked how often their teachers used media to practice vocabulary and how effective they thought it was. Among methods categorized under using World association strategy, teachers use ” learn antonyms/ synonyms” more frequency but students believe “dictation” are more effective than other media techniques. The second most effective strategy for practicing English vocabulary was the word association strategy. According to a comparison mean T test, there was a significant difference between teachers’ use of Word association strategy to teach vocabulary and the students’ perceptions of Word association strategy effectiveness to learn vocabulary. More specifically, the findings show that teachers should use Word association strategy to practice English vocabulary more frequently because their students believe it is effective.

Practice English vocabulary through Word association,

such as:

Teacher apply Effective perception
Mean Std. Deviation Mean Std. Deviation
Repeat and repeat 2.02 0.70 2.24 0.68
Fill the blank with new word 2.01 0.71 2.21 0.66
Dictation 1.99 0.71 2.26 0.68
Learn antonyms/ synonyms 2.03 0.70 2.22 0.68
Tree family (words association with the new vocab) 1.97 0.70 2.23 0.70
Write the vocabularies many times 2.02 0.72 2.24 0.70
Provide example 2.01 0.71 2.23 0.68
Dictionary usage 1.99 0.71 2.21 0.71
Word description 1.98 0.69 2.21 0.69
Overall mean  2 2.23
Overall standard deviation   0.55 0.53
T-statistics -5.39
Significant 0.00

Word association tests were primarily used to measure the amount of maturity of an individual’s entry in the mental lexicon, the mechanics of individual word acquisition, and the formation of lexical networks in second language reading. A study was designed to make an empirical contribution to vocabulary teaching research by analyzing the usefulness of word association tests as a vocabulary enhancement activity (Vasiljevic, 2008). Similarly, another study looked into whether word association is a good way to promote vocabulary development. There are 43 high school students involved. The data collection tools included a guiding observation and a quasi-experiment. The goals of these instruments were to determine whether word association is an effective approach for learning new vocabulary in two groups of students using a pre-test. Groups of 20 students were tested to determine their prior knowledge and the post-test in which one group of ten students was exposed to the word association approach to acquire vocabulary and the other group of ten students was not exposed to the word association. It was discovered that the majority of the students lacked a broad vocabulary (Amador et al., 2021)

Context learning

One of the most common strategies for finding out the meaning of new English words is to guess the meaning from context for the English learners. The grammatical and pragmatic context in which a word is found determines its meaning (Jawad & Saeed, 2021). In this study, students were asked how often their teachers used Context learning strategy to practice vocabulary and how effective they thought it was. Among methods categorized under using Context learning strategy, teachers use “search for words in book” more frequency but students believe “recognize vocabularies in written text” are more effective than other media techniques. According to a comparison mean T test, there was a significant difference between teachers’ use of Context learning strategy to teach vocabulary and the students’ perceptions of Context learning strategy effectiveness to learn vocabulary. More specifically, the findings show that teachers should use Context learning strategy to practice English vocabulary more frequently because their students believe it is effective.

Practice English vocabulary through Context learning,

such as:

Teacher apply Effective perception
Mean Std. Deviation Mean Std. Deviation
recognize vocabularies in written text 1.98 0.69 2.25 0.69
acting/role-playing 1.94 0.69 2.22 0.68
learn from real life situation 1.94 0.70 2.23 0.68
learn in real life 1.96 0.69 2.20 0.68
speaking in context 1.95 0.68 2.21 0.68
vocabulary guessing from description 1.98 0.69 2.16 0.68
explain in front of other students 1.98 0.67 2.18 0.67
search for words in book 2.03 0.70 2.23 0.69
Overall mean  1.97 2.21
Overall standard deviation   0.55 0.53
T-statistics -5.73
Significant 0.00

As this study investigated the extent to which training learners in vocabulary learning from context has a positive impact on the process of vocabulary acquisition at the university level, which is similar to the current study. This quantitative study of forty-five instructors from two universities found that teaching students inside-class techniques like gathering meaning from context, using grammatical clues to improve vocabulary guessing, and checking the accuracy of the guess with a dictionary can help them learn English vocabulary more effectively (Jawad & Saeed, 2021).

 In addition, training learners on outside class techniques like watching movies, listening to songs, social media interaction and gaming can significantly improve learner’s vocabulary size. The findings also show that among the fore mentioned strategies, training learners to follow the steps of inferring meaning from context and directing learners to infer meaning from context through watching movies are superior to other strategies. Adopting the mentioned ways in this study may positively improve learners’ vocabulary and comprehension, and speeds up the vocabulary learning process. The findings of this study may also encourage the EFL instructors to follow the techniques depending on their learners’ level of understanding and interest (Jawad & Saeed, 2021).

Game

Numerous studies have shown that computer video games can provide an advantageous environment for vocabulary development. Adventure games have received a lot of attention among different sorts of computer games due to its rich input and immersive learning environment. In this study, students were asked how often their teachers used media to practice vocabulary and how effective they thought it was. Among methods categorized under using Games, teachers use “role-playing game” and “team group” more frequency but students believe “Team group” and “vocabularies games” are more effective than other media techniques. According to a comparison mean T test, there was a significant difference between teachers’ use of game to teach vocabulary and the students’ perceptions of game effectiveness to learn vocabulary. More specifically, the findings show that teachers should use game to practice English vocabulary more frequently because their students believe it is effective.

Practice English vocabulary through Games,

such as:

Teacher apply Effective perception
  Mean Std. Deviation Mean Std. Deviation
Role-playing game 1.99 0.72 2.17 0.70
Team group 1.99 0.73 2.21 0.69
Using concrete tools 1.90 0.71 2.20 0.69
Using technology 1.95 0.72 2.20 0.72
vocabularies games 1.96 0.70 2.21 0.69
Overall mean 1.96 2.20
Overall standard deviation 0.57 0.51
T-statistics -5.04
Significant 0.00

This study was found in-line with the result of a quasi-experimental among two groups (an experimental and a control group) which supported students’ responses toward the game as a vocabulary learning tool (c & Angraeni, 2020). Chen et al., (2021) conducted an experimental comparative study with two groups of students who played the same game with two variants. The first game was an adventure game, and the second was the same game but with vocabulary exercises. Two classes were assigned at random to play two versions of the game and complete a pre-test, post-test, and delayed post-test. A survey was also conducted to analyze the perceptions of the participants. Both groups learned new words, but the experimental group outperformed the control group in both the immediate and delayed post-tests. As a result, this study proposed that game makers add word-focused workouts into video games. The additional practices can help learners benefit from both implicit and explicit vocabulary learning.

Use of computer role-playing game as vocabulary learning reported to be efficient on students’ vocabulary mastery among through a quasi-experimental study. Supported by students’ responses toward the game as a vocabulary learning tool, including its application in the classroom activities. The experimental and control groups were significantly different and the experimental group tended to have a better rating than the control group (Rahman & Angraeni, 2020).

A game-based teaching style could be used in learning processes where an audience is present (Jawad & Saeed, 2021). It attempts to improve learners’ motivation (Lan et al., 2018) and performance (Stieler-Hunt & Jones, 2019), and it assists students in acquiring knowledge and skills by allowing them to experience the material and mechanism in contextual game-based learning (Prensky, 2003).

Game-based learning has been utilized in language learning from the primary to the university levels, and many academics have explored the value of incorporating game-based learning into education (Rna et al., 2020; Tsai & Tsai, 2018; Wu & Huang, 2017; Young et al., 2014). It allows learners to immerse themselves in simulated real-world environments (Hwang et al., 2016), which increases their enjoyment and engagement, improves their procedural knowledge (Owen et al., 2019), and allows them to gain a more profound understanding of the meaning of the subject (Klimova & Kacetl, 2018; Wu & Huang, 2017). Some studies have devised and implemented game-based learning in language classes in order to investigate how digital games and gaming tactics can improve language proficiency, motivation, engagement, attitudes, or views. The significance and impacts of the gaming learning strategy for English in particular have been investigated (Rna et al., 2020; Tsai & Tsai, 2018). Games have been utilized to facilitate practice while also developing interpersonal bonds between the teacher and pupils. A well-designed game should provide players with timely, accurate feedback while also assisting them in learning with a reasonable level of cognitive load.

Creative

In addition to the standard methods of teaching English vocabulary, teachers used creative techniques based on their experiences and unique teaching style. Students in this study were asked how often their teachers used a creative method of teaching vocabulary and how effective they thought it was. Teachers use “show pictures referring to the new words” more frequently than other creative way techniques, but students believe “writing up at the white board with colored-example” is more effective than other creative way techniques. A comparison mean T test revealed a significant difference between teachers’ creative ways of teaching vocabulary and students’ perceptions of the effectiveness of creative ways of learning vocabulary. More specifically, the findings indicate that teachers should use.

  Teacher apply Effective perception
 Practice English vocabulary through Teacher creative way,

such as:

Mean Std. Deviation Mean Std. Deviation
Guessing by writing a sentence 1.97 0.72 2.21 0.70
Make a simple example 1.98 0.72 2.21 0.70
Make sentences with new words 1.96 0.71 2.16 0.71
Pronounce new vocabs 1.97 0.72 2.17 0.70
Quick quiz at the beginning of session 1.95 0.73 2.21 0.69
Thinking odd 1.92 0.71 2.16 0.68
Translate into Arabic and Converse 1.91 0.70 2.20 0.69
Overall mean  1.95 2. 19
Overall standard deviation   0.59 0.59
T-statistics -5.08
Significant 0.00

The findings of the study is in line with a study by (Raheem et al., 2021)  who investigated teachers way of teaching by 20 classroom observations. They found that the majority of teachers teach their students English vocabulary in a variety of ways. Teachers used visual aids, separate Word lists, and word formation concepts to teach students new lexical terms in the English language, according to the findings. The students were also instructed to memorize the word lists and its synonyms, in order to boost their performance on academic tests.

Virtualizing

Applying visual techniques to teach new vocabulary in Libyan school helps equally the teachers and the students to explore an original method on teaching and learning the new vocabulary of the English language. In this study, students were asked how often their teachers used Context learning strategy to practice vocabulary and how effective they thought it was. Among methods categorized under using Virtualizing, teachers use “show pictures referring to the new words” more frequency but students believe “writing up at the white board with colored-example ” are more effective than other media techniques. According to a comparison mean T test, there was a significant difference between teachers’ use of Virtualizing to teach vocabulary and the students’ perceptions of virtualizing effectiveness to learn vocabulary. More specifically, the findings show that teachers should use Virtualizing to practice English vocabulary more frequently because their students believe it is effective.

Practice English vocabulary through Virtualizing,

such as:

Teacher apply Effective perception
Mean Std. Deviation Mean Std. Deviation
Using colors 2.00 0.69 2.22 0.71
Draw pictures of the new vocabulary 1.99 0.70 2.22 0.69
Show pictures referring to the new words 2.01 0.72 2.20 0.69
Writing up at the white board with colored-example 1.93 0.71 2.23 0.71
Overall mean 1.98 2.21
Overall standard deviation 0.59 0.59
T-statistics -4.90
Significant 0.00

Applying a classroom observation and pre/post-test, a researcher shows that teachers confirmed that using children’s picture books tactic increased the students’ skills to learn and use new vocabularies which they found difficulty on learning and pronounce it before using the picture book technique (Safaa, 2021).

Contribution, limitation and recommendation

Language learning has turned into something that happens both in and out of classroom (Sivagnanam & Yunus, 2020). The current study is expected to be applicable for in Libya’s higher education market and educational system as it aims to evaluate the teachers’ style of teaching vocabulary as a dominant aspect of English oral skills. Further investigations needed to explore other effective strategies, as well as survey to identify the effectiveness of these strategies to enhance students’ vocabulary knowledge. The use of different teachers’ strategies to teach vocabulary is relatively unstudied, particularly in the Saudi Arabian setting. The overall aim of this study was to determine which strategies are most commonly used by teachers and which are perceived as more effective by students. The students that took part in this study were confined to only English Language Department at the Faculty of Arts and Science (Alkufrah campus). It is suggested that future study be done across other populations to fill these limitations in generalizability. Furthermore, the majority of this study did not provide adequate information regarding other creative methods utilized by teachers in a variety of ways.

Teacher must make use of such techniques while teaching of vocabulary. It also focused on expansion of vocabulary. Corder (1973, p223) stated that “the more words one knows, the

easier it is to ‘learn’ new words, because one has more associative link available”.

While there is no single-standard strategy to enhance vocabulary in a day, or two, teachers’ plan of a wide variety of activities and exercises could help (Abduramanova, 2020). This study shows that most students would rather using media, specially smartphone applications and social media which are more interactive fun happy environment and the enjoy when teachers apply creative and mix strategies to make the station attractive and effect. The reason is the young learners are different from the past generations that the world being a small village and internet facilitate every learning process between the learner and the teacher ad well. Traditional teaching style is no more welcome and no longer effective for young generation and educational systems likewise. Experienced non-native English teachers apply creative strategies.

Many studies conducted in practical second language learning settings provide valuable information from a different perspective. It is past time for research to shift from a prescriptive and quantitative focus on how much is learned what is learned, and what should be taught to an examination of how students learn in complex learning situations with diverse and incongruent contributing components. We can improve teaching methods, learning strategies and processes, and learning outcomes if we explain how students learn in realistic, complex situations.

As a principal figure in education, teachers must be competent and knowledgeable in order to impart the knowledge they could give to their students. Effective teaching style requires a variety of teaching styles or techniques just to capture students’ interests. The teacher must recognize students’ need and adjust instructions that best suit for them. From a diversity perspective, students are motivated to diverse styles of vocabulary teaching since they have varied learning styles. Some students can memorize vocabulary using a visual technique, while others prefer hearing, reading, and writing styles or acting. Teachers are responsible for meeting the various needs of all of them. Teachers should be innovative in diversifying education strategies in class by being responsive to students’ learning needs in order to draw students’ attention to the topics. Considering one is teaching style and how it affects students’ motivation greatly concerns the researchers.

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Appendix

Media1 Never Sometimes Often
            Mean Std. Deviation
Team group 97 26.6% 173 47.5% 94 25.8% 1.99 0.725
Role-playing game 95 26.1% 178 48.9% 91 25.0% 1.99 0.716
vocabularies games 98 26.9% 183 50.3% 83 22.8% 1.96 0.705
Using technology 103 28.3% 175 48.1% 86 23.6% 1.95 0.720
Using concrete tools 112 30.8% 178 48.9% 74 20.3% 1.90 0.708
Contex learning        
               
Search for words in book 84 23.1% 186 51.1% 94 25.8% 2.03 0.700
Vocabulary guessing from description 89 24.5% 192 52.7% 83 22.8% 1.98 0.688
Recognize vocabularies in written text 90 24.7% 190 52.2% 84 23.1% 1.98 0.692
Explain in front of other students 84 23.1% 202 55.5% 78 21.4% 1.98 0.668
Learn in real life 93 25.5% 193 53.0% 78 21.4% 1.96 0.685
Speaking in context 94 25.8% 196 53.8% 74 20.3% 1.95 0.678
learn from real life situation 100 27.5% 185 50.8% 79 21.7% 1.94 0.700
Acting/role-playing 98 26.9% 190 52.2% 76 20.9% 1.94 0.690
Word.association1        
               
Tree family (words association with the new vocab) 93 25.5% 188 51.6% 83 22.8% 1.97 0.696
Word description 91 25.0% 190 52.2% 83 22.8% 1.98 0.692
Dictation 94 25.8% 180 49.5% 90 24.7% 1.99 0.712
Dictionary usage 94 25.8% 179 49.2% 91 25.0% 1.99 0.714
Fill the blank with new word 91 25.0% 179 49.2% 94 25.8% 2.01 0.714
Provide example 88 24.2% 183 50.3% 93 25.5% 2.01 0.706
Repeat and repeat 85 23.4% 187 51.4% 92 25.3% 2.02 0.698
Write the vocabularies many times 91 25.0% 173 47.5% 100 27.5% 2.02 0.725
Learn antonyms/ synonyms 84 23.1% 184 50.5% 96 26.4% 2.03 0.703
Virtualizing1        
               
Using colors 87 23.9% 190 52.2% 87 23.9% 2.00 0.692
Show pictures referring to the new words 94 25.8% 177 48.6% 93 25.5% 2.00 0.718
Draw pictures of the new vocabulary 92 25.3% 185 50.8% 87 23.9% 1.99 0.702
Writing up at the white board with colored-example 105 28.8% 179 49.2% 80 22.0% 1.93 0.711
Game1 Never Sometimes Often
Count Row N % Count Row N % Count Row N % Mean Std. Deviation
Team group 97 26.6% 173 47.5% 94 25.8% 1.99 0.725
Role-playing game 95 26.1% 178 48.9% 91 25.0% 1.99 0.716
vocabularies games 98 26.9% 183 50.3% 83 22.8% 1.96 0.705
Using technology 103 28.3% 175 48.1% 86 23.6% 1.95 0.720
Using concrete tools 112 30.8% 178 48.9% 74 20.3% 1.90 0.708
Creative1 Never Sometimes Often
Count Row N % Count Row N % Count Row N % Mean Std. Deviation
Make a simple example 98 26.9% 177 48.6% 89 24.5% 1.98 0.717
Guessing by writing a sentence 99 27.2% 176 48.4% 89 24.5% 1.97 0.719
Pronounce new vocabs 99 27.2% 178 48.9% 87 23.9% 1.97 0.715
Make sentences with new words 100 27.5% 180 49.5% 84 23.1% 1.96 0.711
Quick quiz at the beginning of session 108 29.7% 168 46.2% 88 24.2% 1.95 0.733
Thinking odd 107 29.4% 179 49.2% 78 21.4% 1.92 0.709
Translate into Arabic and Converse 106 29.1% 184 50.5% 74 20.3% 1.91 0.699

5/5 - (1 صوت واحد)

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