The level of Palestinian national values among university students in the southern governorates from their point of view
Prepared by the researcher : Dr. Roba Al sayed Mohammed Abu kmeil – PhD in Curricula and Teaching Methods of Science – Altoffah Musqat School Headmistress – East Gaza Directorate – Ministry of Education, Gaza/Palestine
Democratic Arab Center
Journal of Afro-Asian Studies : Seventeenth Issue – May 2023
A Periodical International Journal published by the “Democratic Arab Center” Germany – Berlin
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The study aimed to identify the level of Palestinian national values for students of university in the southern governorates, according to their attitudes or students paints of view.
The research depended on the descriptive method. She applied a questionnaire distributed to study a sample of 242 students , girls and boys , in the Palestinian universities in Gaza governorates in 2023 AD .The historical Dimension Placed In The First Of The Result About Relative Weight 92.45%. The Political Dimension has the second place about relative weight 91.17% .The socio-cultural dimension has the third place about relative weight 91.01% the economic dimension followed them in the fourth place with about relative weight 89.23% . the total weight or mark of the questionnaire has got about relative weight 90.93% . it clarified that there are no statistically significant differences at the level of significance (0.05<=la) in the Palestinian national values that must be exist inside students in Palestinian universities in the southern governorates according to the factors of sex.
Palestine and Palestinian Cities are the oldest cities on earth and have a long history, witnessing the turbulence of events and the passage of holders of conquerors and invaders, as it considered a museum of human history. Palestine has experienced many crises and wars throughout its history, the most recent of which was the odious occupation that uprooted the Palestinian people and established a homeland there. After the Nakba and the loss of the land of Palestine in 1984, the Palestinian people were dispersed and distributed in neighboring areas in Jordan, Syria, Lebanon and the Gulf States, and most settled in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. One of the aspects of the suffering of the Palestinian people was the repeated violent wars against the Gaza Strip in a close period of time, one was in December 2008, followed by the war in November 2012, the Israeli aggression in July 2014, the battle of the dawn cry in 2019, and the most recent was the battle of Saif al-Quds in 2021. These wars had disastrous effects on all economic, social and psychological levels, and were exacerbated by the blockade imposed on the Gaza Strip. That made the Gaza Strip, from the point of view of its inhabitants, a prison in which they were held captive, and in search of a new life, young Palestinians tended to migrate abroad in search of stability.
We need to strengthen and empower certain concepts to deal with renewed issues and phenomena in the life of the nation. We need educational and political studies in line with the principles of the true religion of these concepts, and among these concepts is national belonging, which has become a necessity of the times. Nationality is a central issue in educational studies, because pedagogy is the primary function of shaping a citizen’s own personality in all its aspects and dimensions, and this personality has to be framed in a way that distinguishes it from other personalities that exist in other countries, and in some ways shares with them (Khader, 2000, h).Cohesion and patriotism are a very important requirement given the various influences that our society is facing today, and in view of the view that with scientific and technological progress the world will become a small village, there are many concerns that regional identity and specificity may be eroded .
Manifestations of national belonging:
National belonging is embodied through manifestations that vary in importance according to the cultural heritage and the different political, economic and social conditions of each society, and Abu Fouda (2006:77-78) defined these manifestations as follows:
Pride in national symbols: Pride in national symbols is a way of expressing pride in the homeland, and examples of Palestinian national symbols are: the Palestinian flag, the national anthem, and Palestinian costumes and folk arts.
Commitment to the prevailing laws and regulations: Individuals in every country seek a life of stability, security and order, and crystallize this through legislation that includes regulations and laws that are respected and accepted, which preserves the prestige and status of the country and facilitates the life of citizens.
Preserving the wealth and property of the homeland: The wealth and property of the homeland belongs to everyone, and damaging it negatively affects the economy of the country, and reflects on the lives of citizens, preserving the wealth and property of the country is a value that must be instilled in the hearts of its children from a young age.
Adherence to customs and traditions: Customs and traditions are a distinctive feature of each of the peoples of the earth, and Palestinian customs and traditions are what is followed in cases of reconciliation, engagement, marriage, condolences and others, and one of the manifestations of national belonging is non-compliance with customs and traditions that are alien to our society or those that contradict religion or scientific logic.
Encouraging national products: Despite the lack of Palestinian products, they are fought by the occupation, and competition with Israeli products is unfair and the import of raw materials depends on the interest of the Israeli product, as the goal of the occupation is to destroy the Palestinian economy, and this is what drives us as Palestinians to protect the Palestinian product through the demand to buy it and prefer it to Israeli products.
Participation in volunteer work: It is very necessary and important because of its great impact in resisting the effects of aggression, and contributing to accelerating the wheel of construction.
Participation in national events: The memory of the Palestinian people is full of a large number of national occasions, as it is a history of their struggles and rounds of victories, such as the Sabra and Shatila massacre and the Declaration of Independence.
Sacrifice and defense of the homeland: Self-sacrifice is considered the greatest manifestation of national belonging, and this manifestation acquires special importance in the Palestinian reality, and is appreciated to the point of holiness, and this manifestation increases in strength and popularity as the pace of aggression escalates.
Al-Shaarawy (2008:54) quotes Nasser as adding other aspects of national belonging, such as the preservation of the original language and cultural heritage and the preservation of popular dress.
The researcher adds other aspects of national belonging, such as social solidarity, cooperation within the family, maintaining family ties, and obedience to the ruler.
Patterns of National Affiliation:
The pattern of belonging varies from one person to another according to his convictions towards the homeland or parties, or perhaps a lack of clear understanding of what is going on in society, as national affiliation has several patterns mentioned by Khader (2000:65-66), which are as follows:
Real affiliation: in which the individual has a real awareness of the circumstances surrounding his homeland internally and externally, and is aware of the issues of his homeland, and his belonging to the majority and works for its benefit, and works for the public interest and the safety of society and its growth and development.
False affiliation: It is the affiliation based on a false awareness, due to some institutions that may distort the reality of reality in the minds of citizens, which may make their vision of things unreal, which gives rise to a weak false affiliation that is not real, and the individual’s belonging to a group other than his class, or a class other than his class, is considered a false affiliation.
Belonging to a specific category: Here the individual works on the interests of the group to which he belongs without other groups, and although his awareness is real awareness and his belonging is real, but compared to his belonging to society as a whole, it is not real and belonging is not real, because it works and belongs to part of the whole only, and this results in serious effects of fragmentation of the structure of society, and even the existence of conflict between its groups, and the conflict increases in intensity as the gap between these groups increases.
Obstacles to national belonging:
There are a set of obstacles that weaken the strength of the tendency to belong to the homeland, or may work to disperse the emotion of belonging, and the tendency to belong to the motherland to other societies, and these obstacles are mentioned by Hamayel (44: 2011), namely:
The predominance of material values in society and the prevalence of the values of consumer insatiability in society.
The supremacy of individual and negative values, indifference and the primacy of private interest over the public.
Lack of role models and the application of the principle of reward and punishment.
Weak religious scruples and the spread of extremism
Asaad (1992:81-84) adds other obstacles to national belonging:
The failure of the family and then the school to instill a sense of belonging in young people: a fractured family that is rife with a spirit of hatred cannot raise children with national belonging, a school that does not succeed in reuniting its students around its goals, and that cannot connect the hearts of its students about its activities; it cannot raise citizens with a national belonging.
Unemployment and disguised unemployment: The failure of society to provide jobs and tasks that the young person feels that he is a positive participant in building the nation, it may retaliate against the homeland and undermine national belonging, and this feeling affects the young person who feels that the state has attached him to an institution that does not want him, or does not need his services, because this makes him feel that the salary he receives is a subsidy for unemployment and not the price of his effort.
Problems of leisure time: Modern technology does not need a long time spent by workers in their workplaces, and the stored energy that does not find its discharge may be a bomb directed to sabotage and destruction, as the number of saboteurs and conspirators against their homelands increases in number and danger in developed countries.
Conflicting ideologies: Conflicting ideologies lead to a weakening of the loyalty of young people due to confusion between ideologies.
All these factors can affect the level of national belonging and the true connection to the unity of blood and destiny of this homeland.
A number of studies were conducted on national values and national belonging, including the study of Al-Qadi (2021), which aimed to identify the role of the national education course in developing national values among Jordanian university students from their point of view, and the study sample consisted of (350) male and female students from Al-Balqa Applied University. In the study methodology, the pairing method was used (combining qualitative research in the analysis of open questions and the descriptive survey approach in data analysis). To achieve the objectives of the study, a questionnaire was prepared consisting of (36) items, and two open-ended questions, and the results of the study indicated that the role of the national education course in developing national values among students came to an average degree, and students submitted (12) proposals to activate the role of the national education course in developing national values among students.
The study of Alzaboon et al. (2020) aimed to identify the role of the national culture subject in developing and promoting the values of citizenship among university students, and to achieve the objective of the study, the descriptive analytical approach was used for its suitability of the study, and a questionnaire was distributed to a sample of (745) male and female students from the University of Jordan. The study found that the role of the national culture subject in developing and promoting the values of citizenship among students came to a very high degree, and that there were no statistically significant differences due to the variable of gender, total gender, or monthly family income, and there were statistically significant differences attributed to the variable of the academic year in favor of students of the second academic year.
The study of Hadiya (2018) aimed to find out the most important values related to the national values contained in the civic education book for the fourth year of the intermediate education stage, which is scheduled for Algerian school students, and the study followed the analytical approach, and the study used an intentional sample represented in the civic education book for the fourth year intermediate (edition 2011/2012), by applying content analysis by designing a content analysis form, and relying on records and documents as tools for data collection, and the study resulted in the book having national values related to the symbols of national sovereignty Citizenship, democracy and human rights, where the values of citizenship ranked first, then the values of symbols of national sovereignty, then the values of human rights, and finally the values of democracy.
The study of Abu Hamed (2013) aimed to measure the level of political values among Palestinian university students represented in the values of belonging, freedom, equality and social justice, and to achieve this, the researcher designed a questionnaire consisting of (30) items, and the study was conducted on a random stratified sample amounting to (1000) single of which was valid for analysis (969), and the study revealed that the highest level of political values was at the value of freedom, followed by the value of belonging, and the value of equality and social justice came in last place, and the study revealed that there were statistically significant differences according to The two variables: the source of income of the parents, and the political organization to which the student belongs.
The study of Hamayel (2011) aimed to identify the role of Aman FM in promoting national belonging among university students, and the researcher followed the descriptive approach, and the researcher designed a questionnaire that was applied to (308) male and female students from the Middle East University, and the results showed that there are statistically significant differences between the estimates of the sample members about the role of Aman FM in enhancing national belonging among university students at the Middle East University due to the gender variable.
Al-Mutairi (2009) conducted a study to identify the role of school radio programs in promoting the values of national belonging, and the researcher followed the descriptive analytical approach, and prepared a questionnaire that was applied to (175) teachers and (338) students, and the results showed that teachers and students agree on the role of internal radio in promoting national belonging.
In addition to the above, the study of Hamto (2009) aimed to identify the values of belonging and loyalty included in the national education curriculum for the lower basic stage in Palestine for the academic year 2008-2009 and determine the level of availability of values in the national education material for students of the lower basic stage, and to achieve the objectives of the study, the researcher used the descriptive analytical approach and the researcher prepared an analysis tool for the national education curriculum for the basic education stage, and the results showed that the total values included in the national education curriculum for the lower basic stage amounted to (30.0%) of the total values.
The study of Shaarawy (2008) aimed to identify the impact of a multimedia program in promoting the values of national belonging and environmental awareness among ninth grade students, and the researcher used the constructivist approach to build the program, and the experimental approach to find out the impact of the program, and the researcher prepared two tools: achievement test and trend scale to measure national belonging, and the tools were applied to a sample of (50) students, and the results showed an impact of the multimedia program in promoting the values of national belonging and environmental awareness among ninth grade students in Gaza governorates.
Abu Fouda (2006) also conducted a study aimed at identifying the role of educational media in strengthening national belonging among university students in Gaza governorates, the researcher followed the descriptive analytical approach, and designed a questionnaire that was applied to (954) students, and the results showed that educational media has the ability to broadcast national values among university students in Palestinian universities in Gaza governorates by (77.8%), and the results showed the compliance of university students with the national values broadcast by educational media in Palestinian universities in the governorate of Gaza (70.4%).
By tracking previous studies, it is clear that some of them are studies that were concerned with national affiliation, which used the questionnaire to measure the level of affiliation, and some studies used a tool to analyze the content, and we note the diversity in the approaches used in these studies, such as the descriptive analytical approach and the constructivist approach, and we also note a diversity in the tools used such as the trend scale, the questionnaire, and an analysis tool.
Because knowing the features of national values and their level among young people is an urgent necessity in order to address the present, and foresee the future, and based on considering universities as educational, educational and development institutions for scientifically qualified cadres and human energies, and university students are counted on to achieve national goals, and they have a vanguard and effective role in the struggle of the Palestinian people, this study came to know the level of Palestinian national values among Palestinian university students in the southern governorates, especially after the phenomenon of immigration has become one of the problems that society suffers from. Palestinians in light of the continuation of the occupation and the repetition of its violent attacks in close periods of time, the problem of the study is the following questions:
1 What is the level of Palestinian national values among university students in the southern governorates from their point of view?
2 Are there statistically significant differences at the level of significance (α ≥ 0.05) in the Palestinian national values that must be met by university students in the southern governorates due to the gender variable?
Objectives of the study:
The study aimed to:
Identify the Palestinian national values that must be met by university students in the southern governorates.
Determine the level of Palestinian nationalism that must be met by university students in the southern governorates from their point of view.
Knowing whether there are statistically significant differences at the level of significance (≥ α 0.05) in the Palestinian national values that must be available among university students in the southern governorates due to the gender variable.
Definition of terms:
National values have been defined as “a set of values that include loyalty, belonging, and active citizenship that produce a generation of young people belonging to their homeland, capable of being among those who carry the flag of the homeland on high (Al-Zaboun et al., 2020: 652).
Hadiya defined it (2018:46) as those components, principles, standards and basic symbols that make up the national personality, which were formed from the national culture with its various components such as Islam, Arabism, land, history, geography, etc., and everything that symbolizes national identity such as the national anthem, the national flag, heritage, and the unity of the homeland and the nation.
The researcher defines it as a set of principles and controls that determine the behavior of the citizen in the society to which he belongs, and is represented in love of the homeland, devotion to it, jihad for its sake, the pursuit of reform, stopping the hands of corrupters, adherence to rules and laws, and carrying out religious, political, social and economic duties to the fullest.
In order to achieve the objectives of the study, the researcher used the descriptive analytical approach through which she tried to describe the phenomenon of the subject of the study (the level of Palestinian national values among university students in the southern governorates from their point of view) and analyze its data and indicate the relationship between its components and the opinions that are put forward about it and the processes it contains and the effects it causes, which is one of the forms of analysis and scientific interpretation organized to describe a specific phenomenon or problem and portray it quantitatively by collecting data and codified information about the phenomenon or problem, classifying, analyzing and subjecting it. For accurate studies.
Second: Study Population:
The study population consists of all Palestinian university students in Gaza governorates for the second semester of the year 2022/2023.
Third: Study Sample:
The study sample consisted of (242) male and female students, (53) male and (189) female students, from Palestinian universities in Gaza governorates for the second semester of the year 2022/2023.
Fourth: Study Tool:
The researcher built the questionnaire to show the level of Palestinian national values among university students in the southern governorates from the point of view of their appearance, and the scale consisted of (45) items, distributed on four dimensions, namely (political, historical, socio-cultural, economic), and the five-point Likert method was adopted for the extent of the respondent’s response to the study tool (strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree, strongly disagree) so that this response is granted a degree ranging between (5) degrees in the case of the answer (strongly agree) and (4) degrees in the event of The answer is OK, (3) if the answer is neutral, (2) is a score if the answer is disagree, and (1) is a score if the answer is strongly disagree.
Fifth: Validity and Reliability of the tool:
Interrater validity 1.
The sincerity of the tool was confirmed in the manner of the interrater validity, as it was presented to a group of experienced and competent arbitrators numbering (8) arbitrators, where they referred to some amendments to some phrases that were taken into account for the formulation of the tool in its final form, whether by deleting or adding some phrases, and praised the appropriateness of the phrases as their description of metacognitive strategies and their use in teaching.
: 2. The validity of the internal consistency
The validity of the internal consistency of the tool was verified by applying the tool to the study sample, and the Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated between each paragraph of the questionnaire and its total score, using the statistical program (SPSS).
The correlation coefficient of each paragraph of the questionnaire with the total degree of the questionnaire
|م||Paragraph||Correlation coefficient||Significance value|
|1||I am proud of my Palestinian nationality and identity||.664**||0.000|
|2||I put in my house a map of historic Palestine||.537**||0.002|
|3||I am proud of my country’s flag and the Palestinian national anthem||.652**||0.000|
|4||I respect the keffiyeh and Palestinian dress||.634**||0.000|
|5||I uphold the right of return for the Palestinians||.562**||0.001|
|6||I participate in parades and national holidays||.634**||0.000|
|7||I respect all national slogans calling for adherence to the land of Palestine||.798**||0.000|
|8||I understand the intellectual ideologies of different political parties||.664**||0.000|
|9||I counter malicious rumors that harm the dignity of the nation||.821**||0.000|
|10||I participate in raising awareness for my family and community to be careful not to betray the homeland||.764**||0.000|
|11||I appreciate national symbols and leading figures||.510**||0.004|
|12||I am proud of the strength of Palestinian popular determination and will||.554**||0.001|
|13||I sanctify Al- Aqsa mosque and keep a picture of it||.664**||0.000|
|14||I am working to revive the art of Palestinian heritage||.614**||0.000|
|15||I hold fast to Palestine as the land of civilizations||.689**||0.000|
|16||I feel proud that Palestine is the cradle of all monotheistic religions||.375*||0.041|
|17||I respect the scientists that Palestine has produced||.399*||0.029|
|18||I read about the historical battles that took place in palestine||.676**||0.000|
|19||I preserve the historical traces of the civilizations that inhabited Palestine||.828**||0.000|
|20||I keep photos of historical monuments in Palestine||.717**||0.000|
|21||I like to take part in trips to visit the ruins of Palestine||.845**||0.000|
|22||I am interested in institutions and centers that take care of the antiquities of Palestine||.741**||0.000|
|23||I abide by laws and regulations and ensure their application||.808**||0.000|
|24||I participate in religious and social events||.426*||0.019|
|25||I respect our Palestinian customs and traditions||.738**||0.000|
|26||I like to help and honor tourists and guests when visiting home||.782**||0.000|
|27||I volunteer in community institutions that care for the children of martyrs and orphans||.646**||0.000|
|28||I help the people of Palestine as much as possible and when they are needed||.804**||0.000|
|29||I maintain my national aesthetician appearance||.666**||0.000|
|30||I accept criticism in a good spirit by practicing dialogue skills from other compatriots||.537**||0.002|
|31||I maintain nature reserves and rest areas||.746**||0.000|
|32||I preserve the property and public resources of the people||.661**||0.000|
|33||I focus on the health safety of citizens by practicing proper behaviors||.640**||0.000|
|34||I participate in raising awareness for my family and community to be careful not to betray the homeland||.733**||0.000|
|35||I live with the economic situation in my homeland||.520**||0.003|
|36||I appreciate the owner of different professions and crafts||.680**||0.000|
|37||I encourage national products and industries||.683**||0.000|
|38||I am keen to rationalize the consumption of Palestinian environmental resources||.748**||0.000|
|39||I pay electricity, water, and phone bills||.539**||0.002|
|40||I like to be involved in making comprehensive development plans||.501**||0.005|
|41||I make sure to boycott Israeli products||.606**||0.000|
|42||I love shopping from national product showrooms||.752**||0.000|
|43||I see the need to attract Palestinian capital||.368*||0.045|
|44||I appreciate all those who support the steadfastness of the Palestinian people financially||.463**||0.010|
|45||I make sure to participate in exhibitions with proceeds going to charities||.593**||0.001|
R** tabular at degree of freedom (28) and at significance level (0.01) = 0.463
R* tabular t at degree of freedom (28) and at significance level (0.05) = 0.361
It is clear from the previous table that the correlation coefficients between the paragraphs and the total total of the questionnaire are a function at the level of significance (0.05, 0.01), which reassures the researcher to apply them to the study sample.
To verify the structural validity of the dimensions, the researcher calculated the correlation coefficients between the degree of each dimension of the questionnaire with the total degree of the questionnaire and Table (2) illustrates this.
Structural validation of questionnaire
|Dimensions||Significance value||Significance level|
R** tabular at degree of freedom (28) and at significance level (0.01) = 0.463
R* tabular t at degree of freedom (28) and at significance level (0.05) = 0.361
It is clear from Table (2) that all dimensions are statistically significant correlated with the total score of the scale at the level of significance (0.01) and this confirms that the resolution has a high degree of reliability and internal consistency.
The researcher conducted steps to ensure the reliability of the tool after applying it to the members of the survey sample in two ways, namely the Split-Half Coefficient and Cronbach alpha coefficient.
Split- Half coefficient methods
The scores of the survey sample were used to calculate the reliability of the scale by the split-Half coefficient method, where the researcher divided the tool into two halves, odd paragraphs versus even paragraphs for each paragraph of the questionnaire, by calculating the correlation coefficient between the two halves, then the length was adjusted using the Spearman-Brown equation and Table (3) shows that:
Shows the correlation coefficients between the halves of each resolution
|Dimension||Paragraphs number||Reliability coefficient before modification||Reliability coefficient after modification|
Getman’s equation was used because the two halves are not equal*
It is clear from the previous table that the total reliability coefficient of the scale (0.912) and this indicates that the tool has a high degree of reliability that reassures the researcher to apply it to the study sample.
Cronbach’s alpha method:
The researcher used another method of calculating reliability, which is the Cronbach alpha method, in order to find the reliability coefficient of the tool, where she obtained the value of the alpha coefficient of the questionnaire as a whole and Table (4) shows that:
Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for resolution
|Dimension||Items Nu||Cronbach’s alpha coefficient|
It is clear from the previous table that the total reliability coefficient of the questionnaire (0.939) and this indicates that the tool has a high degree of reliability that reassures the researcher to apply it to the study sample.
Results of the study
Answer to the first question of the study:
The text of the first question: “What is the level of Palestinian national values among university students in the southern governorates from their point of view?”
To answer this question, the researcher used the averages, standard deviations, relative weight and the value of “T” for the scale, and the following details the results:
Averages, standard deviations and relative weight of each dimension of the questionnaire as well as their order in the questionnaire
|م||Dimension.||Average||Standard deviations||Relative weight||“T” value||sig||Order|
It is clear from Table (5) that the historical dimension ranked first
With a relative weight (92.45%), followed by the political dimension it ranked second with a relative weight (91.17%), followed by the socio-cultural dimension it ranked third with a relative weight (91.01%), followed by the economic dimension it ranked fourth with a relative weight (89.23%), while the total score of the questionnaire obtained a relative weight (90.93%), and the researcher attributes the historical dimension to the first place because of the historical importance of Palestine, which students are aware of during the educational stages through the Palestinian curriculum either Directly or covertly.
The following table shows the level of Palestinian national values among university students in the southern governorates from their point of view, the researcher prepared the following table showing the dimensions of the questionnaire as follows:
Averages, standard deviations and relative weight of each paragraph (first / political dimension)) as well as their order in the dimension
|Paragraphs||Average||Standard deviations||Relative weight||T value||Significance
|1||I am proud of my Palestinian nationality and identity||4.897||0.399||97.93||73.901||0.000||2|
|2||I put in my house a map of historic Palestine||4.595||0.664||91.90||37.359||0.000||8|
|3||I am proud of my country’s flag and the Palestinian national anthem||4.744||0.757||94.88||35.834||0.000||4|
|4||I respect the keffiyeh and the Palestinian dress||4.793||0.545||95.87||51.159||0.000||3|
|5||I uphold the right of return for the Palestinians||4.905||0.321||98.10||92.353||0.000||1|
|6||I participate in parades and national holidays||3.992||0.968||79.83||15.932||0.000||11|
|7||I respect all national slogans calling for adherence to the land of Palestine||4.645||0.655||92.89||39.052||0.000||6|
|8||I understand the intellectual ideologies of different political parties||3.901||1.050||78.02||13.348||0.000||12|
|9||I counter malicious rumors that harm the dignity of the nation||4.612||0.636||92.23||39.418||0.000||7|
|10||I participate in raising awareness for my family and community to be careful not to betray the homeland||4.595||0.677||91.90||36.675||0.000||9|
|11||I appreciate national symbols and leading figures||4.339||0.860||86.78||24.220||0.000||10|
|12||I am proud of the strength of Palestinian popular determination and will||4.686||0.591||93.72||44.389||0.000||5|
|Total score of dimension||4.559||0.471||91.17||51.423||0.000|
It is clear from the previous table:
That the highest paragraph in the dimension were:
Paragraph (5), which states “I uphold the right of return for the Palestinians”, ranked first with a relative weight of (98.10%). The lowest paragraph in the dimension was: paragraph (8), which stated “I understand the intellectual ideologies of the different political parties”, ranked last with a relative weight of (78.02%). As for the total degree of the dimension, it received a relative weight (91.17%) The researcher explains that adhering to the right of return ranked first because this right is indisputable, it is the right of every person to live on the land of his homeland, and the right of all Palestinians to return to their land, they are more entitled to the land, the right of return for every natural Palestinian citizen, whether he owns land or not, because the expulsion of the refugee or his departure from his homeland deprives him of his Palestinian nationality and his right to citizenship, and therefore his right to
homeland of which he was denied.
Averages, standard deviations and relative weight of each paragraph (second/historical dimension) as well as their order in dimension
|Relative weight||T value||Sign
|1||I sanctify Al-Aqsa Mosque and keep a picture of it.||4.843||0.446||96.86||64.219||0.000||1|
|2||I am working to revive the art of Palestinian heritage||4.595||0.652||91.90||38.082||0.000||6|
|3||I hold fast to Palestine as the land of civilizations.||4.752||0.580||95.04||46.978||0.000||3|
|4||I feel proud that Palestine is the cradle of all monotheistic religions.||4.826||0.401||96.53||70.894||0.000||2|
|5||I respect the scientists that Palestine has produced.||4.719||0.486||94.38||55.038||0.000||4|
|6||Read about the historical battles that took place in Palestine.||4.488||0.619||89.75||37.361||0.000||8|
|7||I preserve the historical traces of the civilizations that inhabited Palestine.||4.562||0.643||91.24||37.803||0.000||7|
|8||I keep photos of historical monuments in Palestine.||4.372||0.806||87.44||26.481||0.000||10|
|9||I like to take part in trips to visit the ruins of Palestine.||4.620||0.685||92.40||36.796||0.000||5|
|10||I am interested in institutions and centers that take care of the antiquities of Palestine.||4.446||0.705||88.93||31.911||0.000||9|
|Total score of dimension||4.622||0.436||92.45||57.854||0.000|
It is clear from the previous table that the highest paragraph in the dimension was paragraph (1), which stated “the holiest of Al-Aqsa Mosque and keep a picture of it” ranked first with a relative weight of (96.86%), and that the lowest paragraph in the dimension was paragraph (8), which stated “I keep pictures of historical monuments in Palestine” ranked last with a relative weight of (87.44%), while the total degree of the dimension obtained a relative weight (92.45%) The researcher believes that this indicates the historical and religious importance of Al-Aqsa Mosque is It occupies a high religious value among Muslims, as it is the first of the two qiblas, the third of the two mosques, and the path of the Messenger of God peace be upon him.
Averages, standard deviations and relative weight of each paragraph (third dimension / socio-cultural) as well as their order in the dimension
|1||I abide by laws and regulations and ensure their application.||4.537||0.605||90.74||39.536||0.000||7|
|2||I participate in religious and social events.||4.537||0.645||90.74||37.092||0.000||8|
|3||I respect our Palestinian customs and traditions||4.653||0.640||93.06||40.150||0.000||2|
|4||I like to help and honor tourists and guests when visiting home||4.537||0.657||90.74||36.373||0.000||9|
|5||I volunteer in community institutions that care for the children of martyrs and orphans||4.430||0.771||88.60||28.843||0.000||11|
|6||I help the people of Palestine as much as possible and when they are needed||4.603||0.624||92.07||39.954||0.000||6|
|7||I maintain my national aesthetic appearance||4.678||0.486||93.55||53.731||0.000||1|
|8||I accept criticism in a good spirit by practising dialogue skills from other compatriots||4.496||0.606||89.92||38.401||0.000||10|
|9||I maintain nature reserves and rest areas||4.636||0.547||92.73||46.573||0.000||3|
|10||I preserve the property and public resources of the people.||4.612||0.567||92.23||44.213||0.000||4|
|11||I focus on the health safety of citizens by practicing proper behaviors||4.612||0.505||92.23||49.633||0.000||5|
|12||I participate in raising awareness for my family and community to be careful not to betray the homeland||4.273||0.893||85.45||22.182||0.000||12|
|Total degree of dimension||4.550||0.456||91.01||52.896||0.000|
It is clear from the previous table: that the highest paragraph in the dimension was: paragraph (7), which stated “I maintain the aesthetic appearance of my country” ranked first with a relative weight of (93.55%). And that the lowest paragraph in the dimension was: paragraph (12), which stipulated “I participate in raising awareness of my family and community to be careful of betraying the homeland” ranked last with a relative weight of (85.45%), while the total degree of the dimension obtained a relative weight (91.01%) The researcher believes that maintaining the aesthetic appearance ranked first due to the Palestinians’ close association with their land and their keenness on it, and this reflects their belonging to their land.
Averages, standard deviations and relative weight of each paragraph (fourth dimension / economic) as well as their order in the dimension
|1||I live with the economic situation in my homeland||4.669||0.471||93.39||55.092||0.000||1|
|2||I appreciate the owners of different professions and crafts||4.529||0.632||90.58||37.627||0.000||6|
|3||I encourage national products and industries||4.554||0.617||91.07||39.162||0.000||3|
|4||I am keen to rationalize the consumption of Palestinian environmental resources||4.355||0.782||87.11||26.957||0.000||9|
|5||I pay your electricity, water and phone bills||4.091||0.669||81.82||25.351||0.000||11|
|6||I like to be involved in making comprehensive development plans||4.537||0.752||90.74||31.813||0.000||5|
|7||I make sure to boycott Israeli products||4.380||0.720||87.60||29.809||0.000||8|
|8||I love shopping from national product showrooms||4.455||0.631||89.09||35.852||0.000||7|
|9||I see the need to attract Palestinian capital||4.554||0.630||91.07||38.336||0.000||4|
|10||I appreciate all those who support the steadfastness of the Palestinian people financially||4.339||0.789||86.78||26.381||0.000||10|
|11||I make sure to participate in exhibitions with proceeds going to charities||4.612||0.662||92.23||37.894||0.000||2|
|Total degree of dimension||4.461||0.407||89.23||55.911||0.000|
It is clear from the previous table:
That the highest paragraph in the dimension were:
Paragraph (1), which stated that “I live with the economic situation in my country”, ranked first with a relative weight of (93.39%), and that the lowest paragraph in the dimension was: – Paragraph (5), which stipulated “I am keen to pay electricity, water and telephone bills”, ranked last with a relative weight of (81.82%), while the total degree of the dimension obtained a relative weight of (89.23%) The researcher believes that the payment of utility bills ranked the lowest due to the weakness of the services obtained by the Palestinian citizen due to the siege and occupation.
Answer to the second question of the study:
The text of the second question: Are there statistically significant differences at the level of significance (0.05 ≤ α) in the Palestinian national values that must be met by university students in the southern governorates due to the gender variable?
To answer this question, the researcher used the “T. test” and Table (10) shows that:
Averages, standard deviations and the “T” value of the questionnaire due to the type variable
|Dimension||Gender||Nu||Average||Standard deviations||Value “T“||Significance value||Value level|
|Not statistically significant|
|Not statistically significant|
|Not statistically significant|
|Not statistically significant|
|Not statistically significant|
Tabular value of “T” at degree of freedom (240) and at significance level (0.05) = 1.96
Tabular value of “T” at degree of freedom (240) and at significance level (0.01) = 2.58
It is clear from Table (10) that the calculated value of “T” is less than the tabular value of “T” in all dimensions and the total degree of the questionnaire, and this indicates that there are no statistically significant differences due to the gender variable, and this indicates equality between what females and males live, as both live the same conditions and possibilities, and there is no difference between them in adhering to Palestinian values, principles and constants.
- The development of new courses taught to Palestinian university students related to the national process in all its dimensions, provided that they include a balanced amount of values to be instilled in the minds of students, and to invite Palestinian university professors to promote the inculcation of values of national significance and their dissemination among students.
- Increasing and diversifying targeted programs, activities and events that enhance the values of citizenship and increase the feelings of loyalty among students, and that the university administration is keen to provide support and assistance to all new students, establish service centers to receive them, guide them, and develop a strategic plan adopted by the university administration to improve the values of citizenship among students and develop a sense of moral responsibility towards society.
- The need for intellectual and political awareness among university students in political education among students, developing their concepts about the Palestinian right and the developments of the Palestinian cause and its effects, focusing on the Palestinian right and the importance of rooting in the Palestinian land and directing students towards knowing their rights and duties towards the homeland.
- Channeling the ideas and energies of young people in a creative and productive manner through youth initiatives to improve the Palestinian reality, and providing the necessary material and moral support, which will reflect positively on adherence to national values.
- Activating the role of the media and highlighting some issues and matters that work to consolidate the values of belonging and loyalty to the homeland from a religious perspective.
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