Research studies

Islamic Terrorism from a religious backgrounds


Prepared by the researcher :   Nada Naji and Younes Loulidi

  • PhD student, Laboratory of literature, linguistic, media and communication studies, Faculty of arts and humanities Sais, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University
  • Research visiting fellow at the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies (CNS), The Middlebury Institute of International Studies (MIIS) in Monterey, CA. (Spring 2022)
  • Alumni of Lucerne Summer University Ethics in a Global context (LSUE), (Summer 2022)

Democratic Arabic Center

Journal of extremism and armed groups : Twelfth Issue – August 2023

A Periodical International Journal published by the “Democratic Arab Center” Germany – Berlin

Nationales ISSN-Zentrum für Deutschland
ISSN 2628-8389
Journal of extremism and armed groups

:To download the pdf version of the research papers, please visit the following link


Terrorism has become a phenomenon that threatens both western and eastern Communities. And although there is no common definition agreed upon, it is often associated with extremist Islamic movements (Salafi Jihadist movements), which is understood given the fact that the most three most dangerous terrorist movements in the last decade have been Islamic Movements (ISIS, Boko Haram, and Taliban).  After an academic research paper about terrorism and its backgrounds, done in Arabic in the cadre of a Master degree, it seemed to me essential to share some of the most important findings in English, in order to raise the question of terrorism worldwide, and enable the non-Arabic/and non-Muslim countries, researchers and readers to get some insights into this phenomena that threatens western and eastern countries equally. In this paper, I will focus mainly on the religious factor of terrorism by analyzing the two pillars that Muslims take as religious references and that Islamic movements take as evidence for the obligation of the Jihad/terrorism which are: the verses from the Quran and the Hadith (sayings of the prophet). I’ll also go back to the Tafassir that most Muslims (especially Sunnis) take as a basis to understand the Quran.


When dealing with Islamist movements it is essential to note their association to what is religious with what is political, social, and economical, which explains their interference with individual freedoms, national politics and international relations. This comes from the common belief that Islam has come both for “life and religion”, it is – according to this belief- not only the religious guide for the after-life, but also a constitution for life on earth.

Here we find Hassan Al Banna, one of the well known and respected religious leaders among Islamists, and the founder of “the Muslim Brotherhood” stating:

”It (the Movement) believes that the provisions of Islam and its teachings are comprehensive… it organizes the affairs of life and the hereafter… it is a doctrine and a worship…and ethics and legislation…. And a homeland and a nationality…. And a religion  and a state… and a spirituality and a work…. And a Book and a sword….”[1]

This explains the reason why most Muslims give themselves the right to interfere in the religious lives of others (not always with an extremist insight or violence). The Islamic movements such as IS, Taliban and others, start from the same principle and consider it their duty to preach for Islam, as it is “a universal religion” and the only one that should remain till the day of judgment, from the same perspective, they consider themselves obliged to fight all non-believers and non-Muslims, in order for the words of ALLAH to prevail.  What is more interesting, is that those Islamic movements – Including the IS fighters- justify each of their crimes, by a verse from the Quran or the Hadith.

According to some interviews I made with social assistants and psychologist working in the local prison of Kenitra[2], as well as with ex-Muslim extremists,- those who held the belief of the necessity of the Jihad/terrorism, and who have revised their beliefs and religious perceptions such as Mr. Abdelwahab Rafiqui, previously known as Cheikh Abu Hafs, and Mr. Adil ElHassani- the religious factor (especially the verses about fights and Jihad as well as the Hadith that go with them) is one of the main factors that convince Muslims with the necessity of Jihad, and turn them to Terrorists. All those interviewed, confirmed that keeping books calling for Jihad available in the markets, and low-priced, makes it easier for Muslims to become extremists. Not to forget the role of the religious/Islamic education given in some mosques and schools, as well as from the family, in preparing a new Salafi Jihadist/ Terrorist.

What makes the Islamist speech more effective according to those ex-Salafists, is the use of the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict and taking advantage of the Muslims emotional bound with Palestine to convince the audience that their Muslim brothers and Sisters in Gaza need them and that they should fight for them. This same speech is adopted by the media, making the potential of the emergence of new terrorist groups more probable.

In front of this data, we are faced with three reactions from religious-speech-holders:

  • A speech that focuses only on the bright side and claims that terrorism has no Quran-ic background.
  • A hate speech that identifies verses and Islamic texts related to Jihad/terrorism, and calls Muslims to move to action.
  • A speech that identifies those texts but tries to justify them through fallacies.

 The Quran:

Quranic verses, from a Muslim point of view, are believed to be the words of Allah, delivered directly by the Prophet Mohamed without any changes, and that Allah promised to preserve through time, which means that no single word has been changed, omitted, or replaced since the prophecy. And although the Quran clearly states that the holy book is complete, that it addresses “everyone”, and that it is “clear”, Islamists have worked throughout history on giving their own explanations and understandings of the verses, in books called “Tafsir/ Tafassir (plural)”. Those Tafassir later gained authority and formed what is called an “Ijma3”/ consensus. Today, those same understandings still have authority and most Muslims obey by them. In this chapter, we will look at how some parts of this Islamic heritage play a role in extremism and will investigate the modern attempts to deal with the issues in the Tafasir books.

1-1- The traditional Understanding of the Quran:

While not all Muslims are terrorists or extremist, most of the Islamist leaders, and Jihadist Movements, justify the Jihad/Terrorism by Quranic verses, that makes their actions more credible for Muslims and convince others to join them in their fight. Among those verses – and there are many- we can site:

“Fight those from among the People of the Book who believe not in Allah, nor in the Last Day, nor prohibit what Allah and His Messenger have prohibited, nor follow the religion of truth, until they pay the tax with their own hand with humiliation.” (Al-Tawbat, 29)

And in order to make the Jihadist Movement more credible, the Movements rely on Tafasir (explanations) that are agreed upon to be truthful within the people of the Sunna’h and the Jamaa’h, such as the explanation of Al Tabari, Al Baghawi, Ibn Katir, Assaiidi, Al Qortobi and others, all of which they took this verse and other similar verses to be a sincere and clear message from Allah to his believes, in all times and places, for the Jihad, and to declare war against all those who don’t believe that there is no god but god, and that Mohammed is his prophet.

For instance, we can read the following verse and its different explanations:

“It was written for you to fight though it is repugnant to you; and you may dislike a thing while it is good for you and you may like a thing while it is evil for you; and Allah knows and you know not.” (Al Baquara-216)

The Baghawi explanation states:

“(…) (It was written for you to fight): the Jihad was imposed on you. And the Ullamah differed concerning this verse, Attae said: Jihad is volunteering and this verse concerns the disciples of the prophet peace be upon him only, Atawri went with the same explanation, other disagreed taking for argument the saying of Allah: “Allah preferred those who do Jihad with their money and with themselves to those inactive, with one grade, and has promised goodness for both” (An-Nisae, 95) and if the inactive was withdrawing an obligation god wouldn’t promise them goodness, and some have went the apparent from the verse and said: The Jihad is an obligation for the Muslim until the final hour. (…) (though it is repugnant to you): it is though on you (..) (and you may dislike a thing while it is good for you): Because in the invasion there is one of the two goods, either the victory and  the prizes or Martyrdom and Heaven. (and you may like a thing): Not to take part in the invasion. (while it is evil for you): Because you miss the prizes and the remuneration. and Allah knows and you know not.” [3]

Most of the explanations agree on the necessity of Jihad, and since there are many we will add only one explanation which is that of Ibn Katir, He explains:

“This is an obligation of Jihad from Allah to the Muslims: To stop the evil of the enemies of Islam. (…) (though it is repugnant to you): Though on you and tiring. (…) (and you may dislike a thing while it is good for you): Because fights is followed by victory and getting the skin of the enemies, and the requisition of their homelands and their money and their families and their children. (and you may like a thing while it is evil for you): and this is general to all the matters, a person may like a thing and they have no good in it nor interest, among which not taking part in the fight, it may be followed by the requisition enemy’s land and taking control of it. (…) (and Allah knows and you know not) means: He is more knowledgeable of the consequence of things more than you do, and he knows best what you have interest in for you lives and your hereafter, therefore respond to him follow his orders, thus you may be on the right way.” [4]

1-2- The Modernization of Islamic understandings

This verses that had been traditionally explained by the necessity to kill and to fight, are the same that made from Jihad one of the religious duties, or what is called “the absent duty”, and it has been classified into two types:

  • Kifaya duty: which means that if a group of Muslims answer the call of Jihad, the rest of Muslims are not obliged to do the same, (a groups pays the duty for the entire Muslims) and this is in case if the fight is taking part in a land of non-believers, also called a land of war.
  • Ayn Duty (individual Duty): which means that it is a duty of each Muslim person, regardless the number of the Muslim fighters, in case the fight is taking place in a Muslim land, also called a land of peace.

What makes those explanations even more dangerous is the sanctification of those explainers. Instead of taking their efforts as ways of perception, that may be wrong, the majority of Muslims lean towards taking their words as sacred, and their person as saints. This has led many modern Islamist thinkers and Cheikhs to make efforts to give new explanations to those verses, among which we can site: Adnane Ibrahim and Mohamed Chehrour. The main objectif of their efforts is to give a new breath to Islam, to make it coherent with the new circumstances of the Muslim lives and to make it suitable with human rights and universal laws.

Mohamed Chehrour, for instance, tried to distinguish in the Quran between two notions : Fight and Jihad. Pretending that Jihad, comes from Mujahada and Juhd which means making efforts, while fight came in different contexts. Those contexts, according to Adnane Ibrahim, have always been defending oneself, and never provocative, he denied Jihad Talab (which means demanding Jihad) and declared all the Jihad done with Muslims in the time of the Prophet of Islam was Jihad Daf’e, which is a Jihad of defense, where Muslims are obliged to fight the enemies attacking them.[5]

1-3- The problems within the new efforts:

Although the aim of these revisions remains noble, as it aspires to a new religious speech free from violence, and to review the Islamic Heritage from all the explanations that go against human values and threatens the citizen’s security both in local Islamic countries and abroad, those same revision still insufficient as they lack coherence and truthfulness, for instance, we can notice that some explanations brought do not fit with the verses context, while others are mostly justifications that go against the historical data.

If we take for example the two examples sited –Adnane Ibrahim and Mohamed Chehrour- we can note:

  • That the new explanations discusses the words and their meanings within a certain verse, without taking in account that the same word has been used in other verses, within a similar context:
  • In the case of Chehrour: Making the difference between “fighting” and “Jihad” is necessary, but highlighting the term “Kotiba” (it has been written) and claiming that “fighting” is optional, and that “Kotiba” give us a second option, which is in this case “peace”, is irrelevant, since the Quran contains other verses inciting Muslisms to fight and in which the term “Kotiba” doesn’t figure. Such as:

“O’ prophet incite the believers to fight, if there are among you twenty (who are) patient, they will beat two hundred,  and if there are among you a hundred they’ll beat a thousand of those who have disbelieved that they are a people who do not understand” (Al Anfal, 65)

  • In the case of Adnane Ibrahim: claiming that all Jihad verses are related to self-defense does not fit, for there are verses that note the obligation of fight, and that specifies those whom the Muslims must fight, it also urges the Muslims to Kill, Fight, Chase and Capture polytheist wherever they are:

“Fight those from among the People of the Book who believe not in Allah, nor in the Last Day, nor prohibit what Allah and His Messenger have prohibited, nor follow the religion of truth, until they pay the tax with their own hand with humiliation.” (Al-Tawbat, 29)

“And when the sacred months have passed, kill the polytheists wherever you find them and capture them and besiege them, and sit in wait for them in every observation post, but if they repent and established prayer and gave the taxes then let them go. Allah is Forgiving and Merciful” (Al-Tawbat, 5).

2- Forgetting that god is believed to be all-powerful: this is when they justify the presence of verses inciting on killing, slavery, polygamy, inequity  and other issues considered nowadays immoral, by claiming that it was considered in the past as normal and that if a verse comes against the traditions the religion of Islam will be refused. This is the same claim that Chehrour opted for when he justified slavery in Islam by saying that slaves used to have three essential social roles that the people couldn’t do without and those are: sex, labour, and housework[6]. With that claim, those scholars and men-of-religion forget that god is all-powerful and that he could choose to ban such behaviors without creating a social breakdown.

3- Falsification of Historical Data: this is the case with the disavowal of all the battles, invasions and Saraya[7] that Mohamed the prophet had governed. The disclaim goes against the historical data both Islamic and non-Islamic. Some of the battles were indeed for self-defense such as the invasion of Uhud, but  in most of them, it was the Muslims who demanded the fight and invaded other regions, this is the case for instance for the invasion of Tabouk, Muata, and the well known insavion of Khaybar.[8]

1-4 The obligation to deal with the facts:

When dealing with Quranic texts we are obliged to admit the existence of verses calling for violence, battles, and murder, and to admit that it was part of the history of the prophet Mohamed and his disciples.

To overcome the incoherence while staying faithful to the historical data and to the facts, I suggest a new methodology to deal with the religious texts, that starts with a classification of  the various verses in the Quran based on their topics, their main goals (the reasons they have been written for), their obligation, the circumstances, their religious and social roles etc…

For instance we can extract the verses and organize them as follows:

  • Verses concerning the religious duties of the Muslims: these verses must be applied by all Muslims wherever they are such as the verses about the Prayer (Salat), and Fasting Ramadan (Sawm) and the Zakat etc….
  • Verses about the other world (the invisible one) such as angels and the resurrection and the day of judgment, those verses are meant to be taken by Muslims as an evidence and to believe in what it holds.
  • Verses reporting past events that happened in a certain period of time and that won’t happen again such as those telling stories about the prophets, the aim of those verses is to learn lessons from the stories and to speculate about them.
  • Verses explaining event that happened in the time of Mohamed, prophet of Islam, and the reasons why they occurred, in order to erase all doubt about his prophecy and to reassure Muslims and make things clear to them, such as verses that allow him his marriage from Zainab –the ex-wife of his adopted son Zayd- and the verses that allow him to sleep with a believer woman if she gives herself for him, and he accepts.
  • Verses dealing with the legislations and the laws, and they have come for specific cases, in specific circumstances such as the Hudud (for instance cutting a thief’s hand), and social relations (such as heritage and polygamy. Those verses must be looked at within the new circumstances of the world and the changes that occurred on the daily life of Muslims, and in the light of the new universal human light law and common sense.

Indeed another study is needed in order to extract all the verses in the Quran and organize them accordingly.

Although I strongly agree that a new revision of the Islamic Heritage is needed and that a new understanding of the verses of the Quran had become an obligation in order to overcome the extremist threat, I strongly recommend to stay truthful when dealing with the Verses, and to stay faithful to the academic truth when presenting the historical Islamic data during the time of the prophet and afterwards. It is only by admitting the facts and relating it to its historical period and its circumstances that we can eventually find a solution to the problems facing humanity nowadays.

2- The Hadith:

When preaching for the Jihad extremist movements and individuals rely not only o the verses of the Quran inciting Muslims to fight or to kill, but also on the Hadith, reporting sayings of the prophet of Mohamed encouraging Muslims to fight and blessing Muslims Martyrs. The book of Hadiths the most valuable for Muslims is “Sahih Al- Bukhari”[9].  In his “Sahih”, Al Bukhari has dedicated a whole book to talk about the Jihad and another book all about the Jizya (taxes that non-Muslim believers must give to Muslims in return for peace), the Hudud and calling the non-believers and the apostates for repentance and fighting them. For instance we can find Hadith number 2803:

« 2803- Abd Allah Ben Youssef narrated to us that Malek told from Abi Azzinad from Al Aaraj from Abi Huraira god bless him that Allah’s prophet (saws) said: “By He who hold my soul in his hand, whoever is wounded for the sake of Allah –and Allah knows who’s wounded for his sake- comes the day of resurrection and the color is the color of blood, and the scent is the scent of Musk”». [10]

When dealing with the Hadith it is important to note that:

  • Although Islamic Data has no precise answer to who has first started writing down and collecting the Hadith and has no specific date, it is safe to say that the collection of the Hadith has started at least 100 years after the death of the Prophet, and that it has passed from oral reporting to writing them down, which leaves a huge marge of error and forgetfulness as well as for intentional falsification (given the political and religious conflicts that Muslims knew after the death of the prophet).
  • The methodology followed in order to consider a Hadith to be true, is based mainly on the truthfulness of the reporters, the continuity of the chain of reporters from the main source (The prophet) to the last reporter (A disciple, or a family member).
  • Although the Hadith, literary means the “sayings” and in a religious context, it refers to the sayings of the Prophet of Islam reported by his close disciples and his wife (Aicha), we still can find sayings that are not his, in the books of the Hadith. For instance:

“ Abu Bakr Bno Chayba and Zohair Bno Harb narrated to us, they said Afan narrated to us, Hamad Bno Salama narrated to us from Tabit from Anas said I gave the messenger of Allah saws to drink with this cup of mine all kinds of drink honey and wine and water and buttermilk” [11]

  • There are Hadith that are not related to religion:

« Mohamed Bno Bachar narrated to us, he said, Mouad Bno Hicham narrated to us, he said, My father told me, from Quatada, he said, Anas Bno Malik narrated to us, He said: The prophet saws used to visit his wives in one round at one a clock of the day and the night, and they are eleven, so I asked Anas: Did he have the strength for that? He replied: we used to say that he was given the power of thirty.

And said said from Quatada that Anas had told them about nine wives.» [12]

  • There are Hadiths that are contradictory with the Quran. For example:
  • There are Hadiths reporting that there are missing verses from the Quran:

“Abu Attahir and Harmala Bno Yahya narrated to me, they said Abu Wahd told us Younes told me from Ibn Chihab said Oubayd Allah Bno Abd Allah Bno Otba said he heard Abd Allah Bno Anas saying Omar IBn Al Khatab said while he was sitting on the stand of the messenger of Allah (saws)that Allah had sent Mohamed (saws) with truth and revealed the book to him, and from what he had revealed was the verse of stoning, we read it and had conscience with it and understood it, then the prophet stoned saws and we stoned after him. I fear that when a long time passes by people, that someone says we do not find the stoning in the book of Allah and they remain with the withdrawing of a duty that Allah had revealed. And the stoning in the book of Allah is right on those who commit adultery for married men and for women with the establishing of proof or pregnancy or  confession.” [13]

  • Other Hadiths reporting actions of Mohamed the prophet of Islam that are contradictory with the Quran teachings:

« 138- Ali Bno Abdi Allah narrated to us he said: Soufian narrated to us, from Amro said: Korayb from Ibn Abbas Told me that the prophet saws slept until he snored, then he prayed- and maybe he said: he lay till he snored- then he stood up and prayed. Then it was narrated to us by Soufian over and over again from Amro bno Korayb from Ibn Abbas, said: I slept over at my aunt Maimouna one night, the prophet stayed awake from some of the night, and sometime in the night, the prophet stood and performed the ablution from a hanging water pot a light ablution – Amro lightens it and minimizes it- and he performed the prayer, I performed a similar ablution, then I stood on his left –maybe Soufian said at his north- and he drew me to his right and prayed as much as Allah wished, then he lay until he snored, then the Adane (call for the prayer) called him for prayer, so he stood to the prayer and performed it, and he did not perform the ablution, we told Amro: Some people say: The eyes of the messenger of Allah saws sleep, but not his heart, and Amro said: I heard Oubayd Bno Omayr say: the vision of the prophet is a revelation, the he read: (I see in the dream that I am slaughtering you).» [14]

In front of this incoherence Muslims must admit that not all what has been mentioned in the Sihah is really truthful and should revise the contain of the Hadith and find a modern manner to deal with it. For that it is essential to take in consideration some criteria:

  • Taking common sense and human values in consideration.
  • Logic and Rationality.
  • Agreement with scientific fact and academic data.
  • Avoiding incoherence between the Quran and the Hadith.
  • To make sure that the Hadith is related to religion and to exclude those that are unrelated.
  • To exclude the quotes that are not reporting the prophet of Islam sayings.

With that being said, I find it essential to establish a new Muslims-Religious texts relation based on common sense, on human values and scientific facts in order to overcome a future extremist threat, and for that, different sectors must take part including: the religious sector (Mosques, Imams and their speeches, religious guides, Ministries of Islamic affairs etc…), the educational sector (raising youth on common sense, on citizenship and human values, on scientific analyses and critical thinking, revising the educational programs of the “Islamic education” school subject as a start and excluding it from the educational program at last, etc….), the cultural sector (raising awareness of the threat of extremism, creating encounters with other religions and cultures, encouraging multiculturalism and art education….etc).


In order to understand the Islamic background of terrorism and extremism, I opted in this research to examine both the Quranic verses and the Hadiths.

By examining and analyzing the Quranic verses calling for fighting, -which are cited by Islamic jihadist movements and extremist religious leaders-, and taking into account the historical context of their revelation, and comparing that with the traditional interpretations of these verses adopted by Ahl al-Sunnah wal-Jama’ah, and with the modern interpretations offered by some modern specialists in the field-, it turns out that the problem of terrorism is not primarily related to the Qur’anic verses as religious texts as much as it is related to the understandings of the ancients, and considering their interpretations of the verses binding on the Muslim instead of considering them mere jurisprudence and subjecting them to reason and criticism. This calls for renewal in religious discourse, a path that has been chosen by a group of researchers interested in this topic, including Adnan Ibrahim and Muhammad Shahrour, whom I chose as cases of study in this research. And despite the value of their works aimed at revising the Islamic heritage and its violent discourse in some instances, and at refocusing, instead, on the spiritual aspect of religion, the interpretations they presented is not without impurities and shortcomings, the most important of which we can cite:

  • Providing explanations for words contained in Quranic verses, away from the context of the verse or the subject dealt with in the Quranic verse.
  • Attempting to deny all historical data that might be related to violence despite the contexts; such as saying that all verses about fighting were mentioned in the context of self-defense, in contradiction with the historical data of the battles fought by the Prophet and the Companions after him in different contexts.

In order to overcome the differences regarding the fighting verses, I first suggested clinging to scientific honesty and not falling into the logic of justification, then I suggested an alternative approach in dealing with the verses by dividing them according to their objectives, historical context and addressee. For instance:

  • Verses pertaining to duties and beliefs that are obligatory for every Muslim in all ages, such as the verses that talk about the obligation of Fasting Ramadan, Prayer, Zakat, etc…and they require the believer to practice them and follow them.
  • Verses that talk about the unseen world of angels, resurrection and reckoning, and they require the believer to accept them.
  • Verses that list past events that occurred at a specific time in the past and history will not repeat them, such as the verses that tell the stories of the prophets, and that of the creation, and those verses call the believer to reflect on them and to learn from them.
  • Verses that explain what happened at the time of the Prophet and the reason for its occurrence, in order to lift suspicions about him and reassure Muslims and clarify matters for them; such as the verses that allow him to marry Zainab – the ex-wife of his adopted son Zaid – . Those verses are to be read and understood by the believer as part of the Prophet’s life and are meant for him alone.
  • Verses related to legislation and those are verses that came for specific cases, in special circumstances, and they can be revisited in the light of changing circumstances and conditions, such as verses related to hudud and social relations. Believers are therefore called to understand the reasons behind them, put them in a historical context, compare with the present, and build – if the circumstances and reasons of the legislation are still in place- by its guidance what’s more suitable for the present time, while taking in consideration the present circumstances and maintaining the core of religion : peace, coexistence and tolerance.

As for the Hadiths,  I have returned to both the books “Sahih Bukhari” and “Sahih Muslim” in order to look at the hadiths cited by Islamic jihadist movements and religious leaders in order to justify their crimes against humanity, and to research the methodology used in determining the authenticity of these hadiths attributed to the Prophet of Islam In this context,and it concluded that:

  • The traditional methodology in dealing with hadiths – that relies mainly on the control of the chain of transmission, i.e. the trustworthiness of the narrators or what is termed as “the science of men” and “the science of wounding and modification”- is inaccurate and leads to false conclusions, because it neglects to scrutinize the text attributed to the Messenger, leaving the Muslim with a group of hadiths that contradict sometimes with Quranic verses, sometimes with other hadiths found in the same reference, and with universal values ​​and human morals in other times.
  • It is essential to recognize that not everything that is mentioned in the “Sahihs” is actually authentic and is genuinely attributed to the Messenger. It has become necessary to review the Islamic heritage, to revisit it and re-read it in a modern way that is in line with common sense, human values, accurate scientific research, and Quranic verses, with the aim of overcoming the contradictions and impurities that affected the hadith books.


Many thanks to my professor and PhD supervisor, Dr. “Younes Loulidi” for his review and guidance.

All my gratitude to my professors at “Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University”  for their constant support.

declaration of interest statement

Nothing to declare

References :

Books :

  • القرآن الكريم.
  • ابن كثير، تفسير سورة البقرة لابن كثير من 201 إلى آخر السورة، المكتبة العربية للكتب والمعارف، -(رقمي، بدون تاريخ)
  • حسن البنا، نقلا عن فتحي يكن، الإسلام فكرة وحركة وانقلاب، مؤسسة الرسالة،(بدون طبعة وبدون تاريخ)، بيروت..
  • صحيح البخاري، الجزء الأول والثاني، ، تحقيق: د. محمد تامر، دار الآفاق العربية، الطبعة الأولى، 2004م
  • صحيح مسلم، الجزء الثاني، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت (بدون تاريخ).
  • محيي السنة البغوي، “تفسير البغوي ‘معالم التنزيل'”، المجلد الأول، تحقيق: محمد عبد الله النمر وعثمان جمعة خسميرية وسليمان مسلم الحرش، دار طيبة، الرياض، 1409 ه (1988م/1989م).

Other docs :

·        A video of Adnan Ibrahim: the verses of Jihad in Islam (In Arabic)

  • An interview with Mohamed Chehrour done by “Abu Dhabi” (In Arabic)

  • An interview with Mohamed Chehrour done by “Rotana Khaliji” (in Arabic)

  • See an interview of Mohamed Chehrour on “Abu Dhai” (in Arabic)

[1]حسن البنا، نقلا عن فتحي يكن، الإسلام فكرة وحركة وانقلاب، مؤسسة الرسالة،(بدون طبعة وبدون تاريخ)، بيروت، ص: 61.

[2] The Moroccan Prison in which the largest number of terrorists are sentenced.

[3]  محيي السنة البغوي، “تفسير البغوي ‘معالم التنزيل'”، المجلد الأول، تحقيق: محمد عبد الله النمر وعثمان جمعة خسميرية وسليمان مسلم الحرش، دار طيبة، الرياض، 1409 ه (1988م/1989م)، ص: 245-246

[4] ابن كثير، تفسير سورة البقرة لابن كثير من 201 إلى آخر السورة، المكتبة العربية للكتب والمعارف، ص: 13 -12

[5] See : A video of Adnan Ibrahim: the verses of Jihad in Islam (In Arabic)

See also : An interview with Mohamed Chehrour done by “Rotana Khaliji”  (in Arabic)

See also :An interview with Mohamed Chehrour done by “Abu Dhabi” (In Arabic)

[6] See an interview of Mohamed Chehrour on “Abu Dhai”  (in Arabic)

[7] The Saraya are troupes that the prophet used to send to merchand caravans, in order to acquire their goods.

[8] Muslims attacked the Jews of Khaybar claiming that they incite Bno Korayda to dishonor the act they made with the Muslims, it is in this same invasion that the family of Safia will be murdered, and Mohamed the prophet will take her as a slave/Sabiya/Malakat yamin and will sleep with her in the same night. The Islamic legend claims that later on Safia had converted to Islam and got married to the prophet.

[9] There are six books reporting the sayings of the prophet of Islam that Muslims consider to be authentic called the six Sihah, but those of Imam Al Bukhari and Imam Muslim are the most trusted among Muslims. Some Muslims lean towards putting Imam Al Bukhari first, for he is the master, while others lean towards Imam Muslim (Al Bukhari’s student) because he had revised the work of his master and had eliminated some Hadiths that he found doubtful. There are numerous legends about Imam Al Bukhari, and his book “Sahih Al Bukhari” is believed to be “the most truthful book after the book of Allah”(the Quran).

[10]  صحيح البخاري، الجزء الثاني،  كتاب الجهاد والسير ، باب من يجرح في سبيل الله، تحقيق: د. محمد تامر، دار الآفاق العربية، الطبعة الأولى، 2004م، حديث رقم 2803،  ص: 644

[11]صحيح مسلم، الجزء الثاني،كتاب الأشربة – باب إباحة النبيذ الذي لم يشتد ولم يصر مسكرا، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت (بدون تاريخ)، ص:203

[12] صحيح البخاري، حديث رقم: 268.

[13] صحيح مسلم، الجزء الثاني، كتاب الحدود-باب رجم الثيب في الزنى، ص: 49

[14] صحيح البخاري، الجزء الأول – الوضوء – التخفيف في الوضوء -، صص:47-48

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المركز الديمقراطى العربى

المركز الديمقراطي العربي مؤسسة مستقلة تعمل فى اطار البحث العلمى والتحليلى فى القضايا الاستراتيجية والسياسية والاقتصادية، ويهدف بشكل اساسى الى دراسة القضايا العربية وانماط التفاعل بين الدول العربية حكومات وشعوبا ومنظمات غير حكومية.

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