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Research studies

The Impact of using power ful question son evoking student’s curiosity and enhancing their problem-solving skill – A study reviewin literature

Prepared by the researcher   

Haifaa Kamel Abdullah Al-Kurdy, University of Jordan-Jordan

Khawla Kamel Abdullah Al-Kurdy, Hashemite University-Jordan

Democratic Arab Center

International Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies : Tenth Issue – September 2020

A Periodical International Journal published by the “Democratic Arab Center” Germany – Berlin.

Nationales ISSN-Zentrum für Deutschland
ISSN  2569-930X
International Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies
 :To download the pdf version of the research papers, please visit the following link

Abstract:

The target of this study is to shed a light on the impact of using powerful coaching question son enhancing learners’ problem-solving skill and evoking their curiosity. Bothare demanded for the 21st century learning; Addressing the shifting focus which requires to be on the question rather than on the correct answer. The researcher used the analytical descriptive approach and the inductive one. The terminologiesof this study are coaching, powerful questions, problem solving, and curiosity. The theoretical frame of the study reviews the literature of classroom questions in teaching and powerful ones in coaching approach. The study also highlights theeffectof askingeffective, powerful, questionsin teaching learners’ problem-solving skill and evoking their curiosity to get learners engaged and active during learning.

The results of the study support the idea (The change starts in the class.)Based on the results of the study, recommendations and suggestions are introduced for teachers to consider and start shifting their teaching responding to the global requirements; focusing on asking effective questions to empower learners’ thinking rather than focusing on answers and memorizing facts.

  1. Introduction

Many calls for changing in the teaching instruction and the way students learn isa necessity in a fast-development world. The 21st century learning appears to be the target of most countries to cope with new global expectations and generation needs. Based on 21st century frameworks, some countries start to plan for amendments in their educational systems as wellcurriculums; directing the educators and teachers to infuse the 21st targeted skills in their instructional plans. (figure 1) shows the widely used frameworkof partnership for 21st century learning. (Lamb et al, 2017).

Cognitive skills and active learning are among the main domains of the 21st century learning that require teachers to consider and teach in their classes. As (figure 1) shows, there is a need to shift the way of teaching to target students’ thinking rather than merely memorizing facts. That is, asking effective questions, to activate learners’ thinking, instead of demanding correct answers.  Cognitive skills include critical thinking, metacognition, decision making, and problem solving, which is the focus cognitive skill in this study. As well, thisstudy reviews how to evoke learners’ curiosity; Knowing that curiosity is the heart of active learning. To contribute in to the require shifting, this study reviews the effect of using powerful questions, adapted from coaching approach, in classroom, believing that question is the key power to evoke learners’ curiosity and enhance their thinking; we are no more interested on the answer rather on the question itself. The study reviews the effect of using powerful questions, inclassroom, and its impact on learners’problem-solving skillas well theircuriosity.

Figure 1

1.1 The importance of teaching problem solving and evoking learner’s curiosity in 21st century learning 

This study focuses on problem solving skill, as a cognitive skill, and learner’s curiosity which areboth demanded for the 21st century learners and learning process. Nowadays, learners face many complicated and overlapping challengesand problems inside and outside the school. Besides that, they have to meet the international expectations of being good problem solvers especially when they proceed with their professional career. Such expectations require them to solve problemsand come up with new genuine solutions. In the Middle East region, there are many young refugee learners who can benefit much from learning ‘problem-solving’ skill. That is, learning such skill enable them to overcome their life obstacles. Curiosity is the engine of active learning in classroom. It enables learners to be interested and engaged during teacher’s instructions; Active learners are inquirers who ask questions to know more. Engaging learners in learning, and keep their engagement for a length of time, is a challenge that teachers face; with many social media attractions.

Problem solving is among the required cognitive skills that students should learn. As the framework of partnership shows (figure 1), problem solving is oneof themaintargeted cognitive skills for the 21st century learning. Problem solving skill appears most of the time with other important cognitive skills: critical thinking, decision making, and metacognition because they are interrelated. The definition of problem solving indicates that it is a process that teachers and learners should be aware of to teach and learn “Problem solving is a process of making something into what you want it to be.” (Van Gundy,2005) This process requires involving other cognitive skills such as critical thinking, metacognition, and decision making. (Lamb et all, 2017) emphasized problem solving and metacognition for their effective impact on students’ learning “The US National Research council places a particular emphasis on problem solving and metacognition as part of their overview of transferable skills. Both have a demonstrate relationship with improved educational outcomes.

Evoking learners’ curiosity is the core of active learning and it is one of the main targets in 21st century learning. In 21st century learning, the learners are innovators and curious who use questions to inquire and know. (Washburn, 2016) defined curiosity as “a hunger to know.” He pointed to the effect of being curious for learners and learning process as a whole “It sparks and sustains inquiry for deeper learning, and it drives interest, excitement (motivation), and exploration.”(Ostroff, 2016) mentioned the positive effect of curiosity in motivating both teachers and learners “Creating the conditions for curiosity in the classroom will allow us to achieve more authentic motivation from both teachers and students, leading to deeper learning.” When learners become curious about learning content, there will be an inner need to know more about it, then mental questionswill be formed whichneed answers to satisfy the inner need. Evoking learner’s curiosity by asking powerful questions allow learners to use the researcher’s strategy, asking and answeringeffective powerful questions, and experience the passion to searchthen know.

In summary, problem solving, and learners’ curiosity have certain particularity in the 21st century learning. Young generation face many challenges that require teachers to equip learners with problem solving skill. As well, teachers need to get learners engaged, feed their interests, and connect them with what they are learning; to be attached with their learning and school.

1.2Coaching and asking questions 

The coaching approach is increasingly used in education as a powerful approach to enhance leaders, teachers, and learners’ performance “Coaching is now recognizingglobally as a powerful intervention that can support educators and learners.”(Campbell& van Nieuwerburgh, 2017). Referring to the coaching definition mentioned by (Van Nieuwerburgh, 2012; Campbell & van Nieuwerburgh, 2017) we find that coaching is mainly a conversation between a coach and learner. In the coaching conversation, the coach asks effective, well-formed questions to help the learner to solve a problem or enhance his/her performance “A one-to-one conversation focused on the enhancement of learning and development through increasing self-awareness and a sense of personal responsibility, where the coach facilitates the self-directed learning of the coaches through questioning, active listening, and appropriate challenge in a supportive and encouraging climate.

 As the definition indicates, asking effective questions plays a vital role on directing the learner’s self-thinking and learning. In connecting between asking questions and directing learner’s thinking, we can refer to cognitive coaching which works on the learner’s cognitive processes, to enhance his/her learning and performance, for the purpose of solving a problem or self-development. The cognitive coaching definition focuses on three simple step strategy, that is asking well-formedquestions, affectingthe learner’s thinking (by providing clarity and raising awareness), and developing a self-directed learner “Cognitive coaching uses several coaching behaviors to achieve its goals, including reflective questioning…” (Marzano et all ,2013)“A nonjudgmental, interactive strategy focused on developing and utilizing cognitive process.”  “And that’s cognitive coaching is all about producing self-directed learners.” (Costa et all, 2016)

To sum it, coaching approach is a friendly interaction in which the coach depends on questioning to raise the learners’ awareness to help in developing well directed learners. Specifically, cognitive coaching works on learners’ cognitive processes by using powerful questions to give them opportunity to reflect and decide for themselves. The main aim of using powerful questions is to provide clarity to learners to help them take a decision or plan for next step.

1.3Using questions in classroom

Though many researches and studies highlighted the importance of teacher asking high level questions, most of the classroom questions are at Bloom’s low levels. “Research reports that 75 to 80 percent of the questions posted in both elementary and secondary classrooms are at the recall or memory level.” (Walsh & Sattes, 2005). The big percentage, of using questions at memory level, comes from the fact that teachers evaluate learners’ ability to recall information “Teachers use classroom questions primarily to evaluate students’ ability to remember information.” (Walsh & Sattes, 2005). Though, asking questions which require students to recall or remember information will not help teacher in knowing about learners’ thinking or tapping on their thinking “As teachers ask questions to find out what their students are thinking, it is important that they ask questions to which students have not already memorized answers.” (Chinn, 2011). There are some reasons behind teachers use low level questions rather than the high ones. Teachers tend to avoid using high level questions for the following reasons:

  1. Teachers are often worried by the consequence of effective questioning because of the noise of vital talk; the perceived lack of control…the inability to handle misinformation.
  2. Teachers become uncomfortable using time-consuming strategies that cannot be measured in traditional ways.
  3. Some people still misunderstand the nature of education. They perceive knowledge as immutable and learning as knowing the right answer.(Morgan & Saxton, 2006)

There is still a chance,though, for learners to be exposed answering high-level thinking in the class by teachers plan and prepare to post well-formed effective questions that target learners’ different mental functions “The answer to this way lie in planning a sensitive questioning strategy. What better way to exercise high level cognitive skills than to work at them every day in classroom that is driven by dialogue and planned questioning.” (Higgins, 2014)

Therefore, this study is an attempt to investigate the impact of using effective powerful questions on learners’ problem-solving skill and curiosity. This would contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between powerful questions and learners’ thinking strategies. Thus, the importance of this study stems from the fact that it connects between 21st century requirements and coaching approach which is a distinguish point in this study.

Believing on (the change starts in the class) and since the new required shifting in learning focuses on questions, the researcher reviews the literature using the analytical descriptive approach, the inductive one that does not use statistics, experiments or survey tools in its analysis; trying to know more about effective classroom, powerful questions, and to answer the study problem questions which center around the following:

  1. Why asking questions is more effective than telling ordelivering facts?
  2. What are the types of classroom questions?
  3. What do we mean by powerful questions in coaching approach?
  4. What is the impact of teacher using powerful questions on enhancinglearners’ problem-solving skill?
  5. What is the impact of teacher using powerful questions on evoking students’ curiosity in learning?

First: asking questions and telling/delivering contents

The following two parts briefly review the rationale behind asking questions, in coaching and teaching, and how each approach justifies asking questions.

1.1The importance of asking questions instead of telling in coaching

It was mentioned earlier that coaching is mainly a conversation in which the coach uses effective questions. This part reviews the justification behind asking questions instead of telling from the coaching approach perspective. (Stoltzfus, 2008)mentioned more than one reason behind asking the learner questions, during coaching conversation, instead of telling learners directly answers or solutions “Here are five key reasons to ask instead of tell: 1. All the information is with the coachee. 2. Asking creates by-in. 3. Asking empowers. 4. Asking develops leadership capacity. 5. Asking creates authenticity.” Moreover, the question is a tool to encourage learner to think and generate his/her own idea, and that gives the learner a reason to work on his idea “questions hold the power to cause us to think, create answers we believe in, and motivate us to act on our own idea.”.

1.2 The importance of asking question instead of delivering content in teaching

There is no doubt among educators and researchers that asking questions is important in teaching and learning process. Asking questions is not merely to elicit an answer rather it works beyond that, it taps on learners’ thinking “the questioning process is not only a vehicle for eliciting answers from students. It can also keep them thinking and learning beyond an initial correct response.” (Walsh & Sattes, 2005). Moreover, asking different levelled questions allows learners to use their mental ability to process answering them; Asking questions with different levels, types, and difficulties, exposes learners to use their levels of thinking “Teachers should also help students become familiar with the different levels of thinking and help them be aware of the kind of thinking required by the questions.” (Walsh & Sattes,2005).(Morgan & Saxton) pointed to the effectiveness of both teachers and students asking questions in creating an effective communication and active learning “questions from both teachers and students have the power to generate vivid ideas, spur the imagination, and provoke both teacher and students into shared, creative learning experience.”

It is clearly stated that the strategy of asking questioning is preferable in both approaches. In coaching, asking questions is connected withself-development, the learner is the source of answer which is considered to be learner’s motivation to adapt and work on his/her own ideas. Whereas, in teaching, asking questions is connected with encouraging learners to think at different levels, Bloom’s levels of thinking, which impacts learner’s learning and achievement.

Second: Types of classroom questions

  • Low and high thinking questions in education

The classroom questions are mainly related to the levels of thinking in Bloom’s taxonomy(figure 2). Bloom’s taxonomy includes low and high levels of thinking and based on the thinking levels; teacher should prepare classroom questions. Low and high levelled questions are important, but it is always recommended for teachers to ask high level questions rather than low level ones, for the positive effect of using them on learner’s thinking and learning outcomes “teachers should ask questions that are higher on Bloom’s taxonomy, students’ achievement is higher than when teachers ask questions that are lower on Bloom’s taxonomy.”(Chinn, 2011).

(Chinn, 2011)mentioned three types of low-level questions:

Tangential questions, vocabulary questions, and knowledge level questions

For the high-level questions, he mentioned the following types:

High-level questions require reflection and inferences.

High-level questions include questions at high levels of Bloom’s taxonomy.

High-level questions include questions about reasons and evidence.

Metacognitive questions ask learners to explain their own thinking.

Figure 2

Resource Vanderbilt University

2.2 Asking high level questions and thinking

The type of questions that encourage learners to think are high level questions. High-level questions in education are related and connected to Bloom’s taxonomy. Many studies showed that asking questions at high level in Bloom’s level of thinking impacts students’ thinking and achievements “In order to impact student’s learning, teachers should use high and metacognitive questions “when teachers shift to what I’ve called high-order questions and metacognitive questions, they are likely to promote greater student learning.” (Chinn, 2011)

Teacher should plan carefully classroom questions to guide students to experience thinking at different levels “teachers should purposefully plan and ask questions that require students to engage in higher-level thinking.” (Walsh & Sattes,2005).There are advantages of teacher asking high level questions such as assessinglearners’ real conception and revealing more about student’s thinking and understanding “when teachers ask questions to assess prior conceptions, the questions should require students to think so that they cannot give rote responses.” “If the teacher asksquestions that require students to think more creatively, she can get better idea of what their real conceptions are.” (Chinn, 2011). Adding to that, asking effective questions activate learners’ thinking and interest; motivatingchallenge to answer such question “Effective questions generate student thinking an interest in making answers.” (Morgan & Saxton)

To conclude, high level questions of Bloom’s taxonomy and metacognition ones are recommended to be used by teachersduring their classroom instructions. Using such questions enable learners to experience mental processes at different levels of thinking. Asking high level questions reveals learners’ thinking, evokes their interests, and impacts their learning performance as well achievement.

Third: The definition and characteristics of powerful questions in coaching

3.1 Powerful questions definition

Powerful questions have appeared in coaching approach as types of questions which empower learner’s thinking to enhance a performance or meet personal goals. The coach uses well-crafted questions to develop a self-directed learner by working on the learners’ cognitive processes and raisingtheirawareness to generate their own ideas and solutions “Powerful questions are open-ended questions with no hidden agenda and are asked for the solo purpose of providing maximum benefit to the receiver of the questions.” (Kee et all, 2010). (Clutterbuck, 2012) “Powerful questions we can define as ones that have a significant, positive impact on the quality and direction of a person’s thinking about issues important to them.

(Kee et all, 2010) mentioned the timing of asking powerful questions which requires, from the coach, attentive listeningto understand the learners’ perspective then asking the question, which provides more clarity, raises awareness, and impacts their thinking “Powerful questions are a reflection of committed listening and understanding the other person’s perspective that is confirmed through paraphrasing. This suggests a progression from listening, paraphrasing for understanding, and then asking powerful questions that yield clarity or mediation of thinking.

Ashigh-level questions in teaching, the power source of the coaching questions comes from the fact that they evoke and activate learners’ thinking “The power of the question comes from the positive impact somewhat like a human electrical charge, to the thinking of the receiver of the questions.” (Kee et all, 2010)

3.2 The characteristics of powerful questions

From the powerful questions’ definition, we can conclude the following characteristics(kee et al, 2010):

  1. Reflect active and powerful listening and understanding of the receiver’s perspective
  2. Presume positive intent
  3. Evoke discovery, insight, commitment, or action
  4. Create greater clarity, possibility or new learning
  5. Move the thinking forward to current and future actions

(Warden, 2013) mentioned other traits of the powerful questions:

  1. focus more on the person you’re talking to than on the situation you’re talking about.
  2. Questions are open-ended, and typically begin with the interrogative “What.”
  3. always come from a place of authentic, open curiosity.
  4. most Powerful Question is the “dumb” question, the question that makes no assumptions.

To sum up, powerful questions of coaching are high level questions with open ended. They work on activating and directing, or guiding, learners’ thinking for the purpose of developing whole self-directed learner; able to make decisions of their own, which is the source of learners’ motivation to work on their decisions. There is no hidden agenda behind asking such questions; merely to provide clarity, raise awareness, and activate learners’ thinking to achieve their goals.

Fourth: Problem solving and asking powerful questions

The strategy of asking powerful questions plays an important role in teaching problem solving skill. The core of problem-solving skill is to understand the problem and its organization and how it works, sothe learners be able to brainstorm suitable assumptions to solve it; the more ideas the learners come up with, the more they will be close to solve the problem. That’s why, teachers should ask effective and powerful questions to encourage learners to think answering them; helping learners to develop their problem-solving strategies and generate suitable solutions.

(Scot, A, Lee et all,2019) highlighted two important things the young problem solvers should master for 21st century learning:

  1. Solve different kinds of non-familiar problems in both conventional and innovative ways.
  2. Identify and ask significant questions that clarify various points of view and lead to better solutions.

(Van Gundy,2005)pointed to the importance of asking questions in teaching and learning problem solving to understand the organization of the problem “The important thing is to never stop questioning. Ask a lot of questions about whatever problem you’re trying to solve. The more questions you ask, the better you will understand your problem. (Albert Einstein)”.(Foshy & Kirkley, 2003) recommended teacherasking powerful questions toimpact learners’ thinking ,during implementing problem-solving strategy, andraise their awareness to the general steps of problem solving, which are applicable for other similar problems “Ask questions which encourage the learner to grasp the generalizable part of the skill, across many similar problems in different contexts.”. (Foshay &Kirkley, 2003)connected between teachers’ questioning and learners’ reflecting on the problem-solvingstrategies they use, the authors referred to (cognitive coaching) in teaching problem solving “Ask questions and make suggestions about strategy to encourage learners to reflect on the problem-solving strategies they use. Do this either before the learner take action. (this is sometimes called cognitive coaching).”Related to that, (Costa et all, 2016) mentioned the connection between cognitive coaching and problem solving in the cognitive coachingdefinition “cognitive coaching is a simple model for conversation about planning, reflecting, or problem solving.

(Rousseau &Khomenko,2009)studied the experience of having coaching approach, as an instructional intervention, in capstone projects to enhance learners’ problem solving in engineering. The researchers pointed to the role coaching played, specifying asking powerful questions, to affect learners’ problem-solving skill and enable them to form their own solutions “coaching involves asking the right questions and to structure the discourse in such a way that the student use and construct knowledge towards solving problems and designing solutions.” They also pointed that learners’ metacognitive strategies were developed when learners were exposed to coaching, and that impacted the learning process as a whole “Coaching also enables students to develop metacognitive strategies, which is the basis of active learning.” The researchers made recommendations, at the end of theirstudy, tocoach learners instead of teach to enable them to develop their creative problem solving and inventive design skills“coaching students to solve problems and design solutions.

In brief, there is more than one indication that using powerful questions of coaching develops learners’ problem-solving skill, metacognition strategies, and design solution skill. Learners generate their own ideas by answering effective powerful questions; helping learners to understand the problem organization and the general principles which are applicable for other similar problems.

Fifth: curiosity and asking powerful questions

As it was mentioned earlier in the introduction, curiosity is the core of active learning, at the same time, we cannot separate asking powerful questions from curiosity. The 21st century learning is shifting teacher’s traditional role from delivering the answers to eliciting them from learners “This represents a shift in the way we see the traditional role of a teacher, from one who asks and answers the questions, to one who elicits them.“(Ostroff, 2016).The main target from this shifting is to buildcurious learnerswho are engagedin adeep effective learning and who are eager to search and know more “Curious students learn more and learn better.” (Ostroff, 2016).(Minigan,2017)connected between curiosity and asking questions. He considered curiosity and asking questions as the 5th cognitive and suggested adding them to the 4 skills of21stcentury, creativity, critical thinking, communication, and collaboration “Curiosity and the skill of formulating questions supports the 4 Cs while also tapping into a skill that is not highlighted in the Framework for 21st Century Learning.”

(Minigan,2017) and (Washburn, 2016) noted on the importance of teacher modelling and teaching asking questions using simple strategies to evoke learners’ curiosity “one way to pivot to a curiosity-infused learning environment is by deliberately teaching students how to formulate questions with simple strategies…” “model curiosity; display an appetite for finding out.” As a suggested strategy to solve learners’ disconnection from school, (Washburn, 2016) recommendedasking powerful questions instead of explaining and direct teaching to evoke learners’ curiosity to be engaged in learning “question and support (i.e., scaffolding and coach) rather than directing and explaining question asking is contagious.” He also pointed to the timing of asking the questions “allow questions to follow knowledge: knowledge & curiosity form cycle.” (Mackenzie & Bathurst-Hunt,2018) stated that teachers who have inquiry classroom are working on evoking learner’s curiosity by thinking aloud; showing their wondering by asking questions “curiosity is at the heart of what they do, and they daily demonstrate and put voice to their own wondering for their students to see.” Mainly, asking powerful questions is the key driven which teachers depend on, in inquiry classroom “In inquiry classroom, questions spiral to shape lessons, direct instruction, and encourage critical thinking revision, which leads to even deeper questions.

In short, engaging learners in active learning depends on how much teachers evoke learners’ curiosity. Modelling curiosity and asking powerful questions aid in activating learners’ natural wondering instinct; tosatisfy the inner need by searching to learn more. Adding to that, learners’ attachment with their learning and school is strengthen, especially when they experience the passion and excitement to free their minds by generating their own questions and wonders.

Findings:

As a result of the massive informational technology, the answers are available within one click. Thus, focusing on the question is a logical shifting. Starting from this point and considering the 21st century cognitive skills and requirements, this study introduces the following findings supported with the later introduced literature review:

  1. Powerful questions are high level questions because they tape on learners’ thinking and direct them to own their decisions and solutions. Additionally, powerful questions have no hidden agenda, as a result, they put no pressure on learners during the instructional time. That matches and serves classroom questions.
  2. This study clearly proves that asking powerful questions enhances learners’ problem-solving skill because such questions bring clarity and raise learners’ awareness about the problem organization, problem solving strategy, and problem solution.
  3. Another drawn conclusion is that asking powerful questions, in classroom, evokes learners’ curiosity and keeps them engaged during learning; enabling learners to walk on the researcher’s path.
  4. The findings of this study confirm that including powerful questions in the daily lesson plan helps in enhancing communication, because it encourages teacher to give time for listening and understanding. As well, powerful questions enhance creativity because they encouragelearners’ generating ideas; developing self-directed learners.
  5. Practicing forming and using powerful questions in class impact positively the performance of both teacher and learner. We believe that asking powerful questions serves both teachers and learners; raising their awareness and develop their thinking in teaching and learning. For both teachers and learners learn at the same time. Another thing, asking powerful questions eliminates teachers concerns and worries, mentioned earlier, which preventing teachers from asking high level questions.
  6. There is a clear evidence that using powerful questions brings excitement and enthusiasm because it encourages learners’ buy in and adaptation, to end with working actively during learning. The source power of learners’ adaptation is owning the ideas, thoughts, and solutions they come up with as responses to teacher’s powerful question; they allow for such opportunity. Another thing, asking powerful questions (dumb ones) creats a mixture of joy and thought challenge which break the formal routine of teaching and learning; attaching learners with their learning and school.
  7. The study suggests that learners become partners in the teaching and learning process.
  8. The study connects between problem solving and curiosity, without curiosity no generation of genuine solutions. Powerful question is the key in bothmental cognition and innate human being.

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher recommends teachers and researchers to:

  1. Conduct further research to investigate teachers’ using powerful questions in class to enhance the performance of learners who perform behind.
  2. Include powerful questions in teacher’s daily lesson plan; giving learners opportunities to own their responses. Side by side with the assessment questions. As well, provide a supportive environment and learning context putting no pressure on learners; blocking them to express their thoughts.
  3. Investigate in depth the art of forming powerful questions.
  4. Balance between direct teaching and eliciting learners’ thoughts and ideas, through using powerful questions. Exposing learners to high order thinking questions needs time, patience, and good communicative skills of listening and understanding from teachers. Both approaches, teaching and coaching, support that.
  5. Though there is an indication that asking powerful questions develops learners’ metacognition, still we need to investigate more the impact of using powerful questions on the other three cognitive skills of 21st century critical thinking, decision making, and metacognition.
  6. Conduct workshops about classroom questions for teachers to know how to form powerful questions besides Bloom’s levelled ones. Other workshops could be titles (the change starts in the class) exposing teachers and educators to the global requirements and what need to be considered in the class to meet these requirements.
  7. Investigate about coaching approach and what more can be adapted.
  8. Model and think aloud for learners how to track their thinking to search and find answers of high levelled questions, in case the required answers are not within their knowledge scope. This is applicable also when solving a problem.
  9. Model waiting time for listening and understanding after asking a question, as well, accepting others’ responses and thoughts.
  10. Shift teachers’ focus towards developing a self-directed learner rather than delivering contents.
  11. Consider the timing of asking a powerful question. Teachers should ask question after introducing knowledge; let the knowledge and question form a cycle. This helps teachers to evoke learners’ curiosity and engage them; preventing from having a solo, stereotyped, one tuned boring classis. This is applicable for the subjects that depends mostly on contents and facts (e.g social studies)
  12. Using powerful questions in teaching is not expensive, it needs only teachers who are aware of the usefulness of using such questions. Young refugees can benefit from learning problem solving and exposing to powerful questions; helping them to think at high level to sort their life difficulties and decide for themselves. Additionally, teaching using powerful questions impacts the young refugee’s image about life; leaving them engaged on working, and raising their awareness on how to solve the problems they face.

Conclusion:

There is a serious need nowadays to shift the way of teaching in the class to be more focus on evoking learner’s thinking by using powerful questions. Using powerful questions by the teacher will not only impact learner’s thinking as well it will serve the global requirements of 21st century skills for both the teacher and learner.

References

1.Campbell, John &Van Nieuwerburgh, Christian. (2017). The Leader’s guide to Coaching in School: Creating conditions for Effective Learning. Crown: Thousand Oaks, USA.

2.Chinn, A, Clark. (2011). Educational Psychology: Understanding Students’ thinking. Rutgers University.

3.Costa, L, Arthur et all. (2016). Cognitive coaching Developing Self-Directed Leaders and Learners. Third edition, Rowman& Littlefield: USA.

4.Foshay, Rob & Kirkley, Jamie. (2003). Principals for Teaching Problem Solving Technical Paper. Plato Learning, Inc.

5.Higgins, Timothy, &college, Marist. (2014). Questioning Techniques for Classroom Management. Marist college.

6.Kee, Kathryn et all. (2010). Results Coaching: the new Essential for School Leaders. Crown: Thousand Oaks, USA.

7.Lamb, Stephen et all. (2017). Future Frontiers Analytical Report: Key skills for the 21st Century: an evidence-based review. NSW the department of education.

8.Mackenzie, Trevor & Bathurst-Hunt, Rebecca. (2018). Inquiry Mindset: Nurturing the Dreams, Wonders, & Curiosities of our Youngest Learners. Elevate Books Edu.

9.Marzano, J, Robert et all. (2013). Coaching Classroom Instruction. USA: Marzano Research Laboratory.

10.Morgan, Norah & Saxton, Juliana. (2006). Asking Better Questions, second edition, Pembroke Publishers: Ontario, Canada.

11.Ostroff, L, Wendy. (2016). Cultivating Curiosity in K-12 Classroom: How to Promote and Sustain Deep Learning. ASCD.

12.Rousseau, R, Paul & Khomenko, Nikolai. (2011). Improving Problem Solving and Solution Design Skills Using Problem Flow Coaches in Capstone Projects. University of Windsor, Auto 21 Research, Windsor Ontario, Canada.

13.Scot, A, Lee et all. (2019). 21st Century Learning for Early Childhood Guide. Bettelle for kids.

14.Stoltzfus, Tony. (2008). Coaching Questions A Coach’s Guide to Powerful Asking Skills. First edition, coach22 bookstore LLC.

15.VanGundy,B, Arthur. (2005). 101 Activities for Teaching Creativity and Problem Solving. P Feiffer: San Francisco, CA, USA.

16.Walsh, Acree, Jackie, & Sattes, Dankert, Beth. (2005). Quality Questioning Research-Based Practice to Engage Every Learner. AEI: Unite Kingdom, London.

Links

17.Armstrong, Patricia. Retrieved April 2019, from https://cft.vanderbilt.edu/guides-sub-pages/blooms-taxonomy/

18.Clutterbuck, David. (2012). Retrieved May 2019, from  https://www.davidclutterbuckpartnership.com/what-makes-a-powerful-question/

19.Minigan, P, Andrew. (2017). Retrieved May 2019, from https://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/global_learning/2017/05/the_5th_c_curiosity_questions_and_the_4_cs.html

20.Warden, Michael. (2013). Retrieved May 2019, from https://michaelwarden.com/4-essential-traits-of-powerful-questions/

21.Washburn, D, Kevin. (2016). Retrieved February 2019, from https://www.acsi.org/Documents/Northeast/PD%20Forum/Defined%20by%20Excellence.Sparking%20and%20Sustaining%20Curiosity%20and%20Motivation.pdf.

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