Research studies

Natural law, Basis of Panarab Rule of Law

 

Prepared by the researcher  :  Ghadir El Alayli – Adjunct Professor and Lecturer at Université Saint-Joseph – Attorney-at-Law, Consultant and Researcher  – Ph.D. in public law – Beirut- Lebanon

Democratic Arab Center

Journal of Afro-Asian Studies : Eleventh Issue – November 2021

A Periodical International Journal published by the “Democratic Arab Center” Germany – Berlin. The journal deals with the field of Afro-Asian strategic, political and economic studies

Nationales ISSN-Zentrum für Deutschland
ISSN 2628-6475
Journal of Afro-Asian Studies
:To download the pdf version of the research papers, please visit the following link

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Abstract

It is a contemporary pan-arabism, revisited and based on natural law, that may lead to an Arab Renaissance implementing the common good and the rule of law. It may also save the Arab civilizational identity from its denial and refusal by certain Arabs notably “minorities”. In addition, such pan-arabism m ay deeply contribute to achieving sustainable peace notably in the Arab world. The underlying principles of pan-arab rule of law are salutary, as they dispel the worries of Arab stakeholders. The main eight relevant credos are the following: progressivity and flexibility; transversal reform; opening-up to the world; transcommunautary priority; secularism; small steps policy; sovereignty; antidote to “terrorism”.

Introduction

“The biggest failure is not having the courage to dare”

“L’abbé Pierre” [2]

13 million square kilometers; 400 million persons; 22 States over two continents; a historic and potential bridge between Orient and Occident; a rich civilization promoting an abundant language spoken by 422 million persons around the world, and embracing many cultures and religions; numerous natural resources; lately a so-called Arab “Spring” which dramatically led to terrible bloodsheds and chaos. These are some characteristics of the Arab world which is the main subject of my new book (published in French in Paris at Editions A. Pedone) entitled “Natural law, Basis of Panarab Rule of Law”[3].

The subjects raised in the latter are topical in the current international and regional contexts. The numerous actual crises in the Arab world are tackled, including the collapse of the Lebanese State- which is analyzed (among others) as a case study. The COVID pandemic and the various measures taken worldwide to counter it reflect the crucial need for transversal thought and meditation notably regarding natural law, rule of law, fundamental rights and freedoms[4], inter-state relations, as well as regional and global cooperation.

Pan-arab rule of law and its underlying principles

Rule of law[5] is a necessary condition without which pan-Arabism cannot be substantially conceived as so and is not possible. In fact, it is a contemporary pan-arabism, revisited and based on natural law, that may lead to an Arab Renaissance implementing the common good. It may also save the Arab civilizational identity from its denial and refusal by certain Arabs notably “minorities”. In addition, pan-arabism may deeply contribute to satisfying the Palestinian cause, resolving the Arab-“Israeli”[6] conflict and achieving sustainable peace[7] notably in the Arab world.

Finding its roots in nature and in human reason, natural law is a universal binding system of legal norms, regardless what positive laws might state differently- that is: no matter what State laws and regulations provide. Rule of law is for a State to essentially acknowledge and abide by natural law as per the practically convenient dosage of its norms taking into consideration each society and period.

Whether it is Arab or not, a person or a State that respects the rule of law is pan-arab as long as it encourages or recommends implementing natural law in the Arab world. Therefore, pan-arabism is neither a nationalism[8] nor a patriotism[9]; In fact, the Arab world embraces several nations[10] and countries[11]. Pan-arabism is an ideational concept, relating to the formation of ideas and concepts; It does not only have a political connotation, it is rather a holistic concept. Its major underpinning is legal (natural law), but it is also imbued with philosophical, social, cultural, moral[12] and ethical values and virtues.

The main question raised and the major message conveyed in my recent book is that natural law is rule of law’s underpinning, including in the Arab countries. The latter crucially need to put a serious end to their aggravated aches. Rule of law is a necessary condition (“conditio sine qua non”) without which pan-arabism would not be possible and could not be substantially conceived as so. Therefore, pan-arabism is (also) a lever promoting rule of law notably in the Arab world.

The underlying principles of pan-arab rule of law are salutary, as they dispel the worries of Arab stakeholders, including “minorities”[13], and the doubts of fundamentalists, in a way that all Arabs be effectively equal towards law and live fully and abundantly their Arab civilizational identity and their humanity. Hence, it is crucial to reconstruct new and dynamic Arab and pan-Arab social contracts built on natural law, notably on its norm of solidarity[14] for better cooperation and collaboration[15]. The following eight main credos of pan-arab rule of law are linked and interact with one another:

First, progressivity and flexibility:

One of the major consequences of pan-arabism being based on natural law is that the content of pan-Arabism shall be regularly revised. The latter shall continuously adapt to the context and transformations for the sake of realism. Pan-arabism shall also respond to Arab peoples’ expectations as a guarantee of democratization, and shall be interactive and avoid rigidity or dogmatism.

Second, transversal reform:

 Multidisciplinary public policies should be guided by good governance, not by populist motivations and demagogic considerations[16]. Therefore, jurists, civil society activists, policy-makers and governors shall benefit from insights from all relevant fields and tackle their refinement. Enlightenment (tanwir), renaissance (Nahda)[17], modernism (tajdid)[18], and reformism (islah)[19] are a must.

Third, an opening-up to the world:

Arabs should engage against ghettos, discrimination, chauvinism and xenophobia. Their civilization’s humanist message to the entire world is to enhance effective Arab, regional[20] and international dialogues. The numerous languages[21] and cultures existing within the Arab civilization help achieving this goal.

Fourth, a transcommunautary priority:

As pan-Arabism is transcommunautary by definition, the priority of Arabs and their governments shall always be Arabism as a civilizational bond, not other links such as tribalism and clannism. Therefore, legal guarantees should be found for cohesive cultural and linguistic diversity, pluralism and multiculturalisation within Arab civilizational unity.

Fifth, secularism with openness to confessions:

The principle of separation of powers shall focus on an essential dimension in the Arab world: Separating religious authorities from the exercise of public power, without any offence to fundamental rights and freedom of conscience, religion and worship within public order’s limits. Therefore, confessionalist, theocratic and tolerance regimes shall be rejected[22], and rehabilitating civic virtues in the Arab world shall be a must. However, in order to be pragmatic, a progressive approach is recommended to gradually implement civil Arab States, taking into consideration Arab societies’ respective current situation[23]. The relevant policies should be planned and implemented on short, medium and long terms.

Sixth, ‘’small steps policy’’:

 For the sake of pragmatism, and without adhering to the alibi of relativism and culturalism exceptions (whether Arab, muslim, or oriental), it would be wiser to start by tackling the most feasible and urgent issues and needs of Arab societies. A special focus shall be made on the most vulnerable and marginalized social categories, and progressively guarantees shall be established through effective institutions guarding fundamental freedoms and rights, among which the long-awaited Arab court of human rights[24] that needs to be rethought[25].

Seventh, sovereignty:

Natural law, especially people’s rights and freedoms for auto-determination, commend the sovereignty of each Arab State (or any such official entity that might duly arise in the future). Therefore, foreign political interference in Arab internal matters, and occupation of Arab territories shall be refused by the international community and by Arabs in application of international public law. In addition, the concept of national Arab security shall be comprehensive and not exclusively military. As for the occupying “Israeli” entity[26], it shall only be recognized as a State once, and only if, it abides from now on by natural law and pan-arabism. The Arab anti-zionist resistance shall cleverly be revisited towards implementing a conditioned, de facto “reasonable”, feasible, efficient and sustainable Arab-“Israeli” compromise.

Eighth, antidote to “terrorism”[27] :

 Deriving from natural law[28], pan-Arabism has an essential message in the battle against “terrorism”, not only on the Arab level, but also on the Muslim[29] and international scales. A recent input in the legal side of this field is that of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, which is however an illustration of debatable Arab quasi-denationalizing judicial orders (especially that its proceedings and outcomes were deeply questioned by some jurists, researchers and activists). The concept of “terrorism” itself and its several definitions also need to be rethought[30] in order to avoid any discretionary, abusive or political use and manipulation thereof.

Conclusion

The abovementioned subject-matters and underlying principles of pan-arab rule of law are analyzed in my new book which is divided into three main parts as follows: First, theories of natural law as per Western authors from one hand, and as I personally perceive it as the basis of rule of law on the other hand. Second, natural law as conceived by Eastern authors, and as basis of Arab States in theory, as well as an evaluation of its practice in the Arab world; Third, pan-arabism based on natural law- especially as per few late Lebanese authors[31] on one hand, and on the other hand, in my view in the 21st century as a lever promoting rule of law notably in the Arab world.

Main Bibliography:

In English:

  • Michael Meyer-Resende and Hannah-Jil Prillwitz, Democracy Reporting International, Re:constitution programme, States of Emergency and the Rule of Law: A Primer, April 2020, pdf (reconstitution.eu) ; Siren Associates
  • Karim El Mufti, Shrinking Democracy in Lebanon, Democracy Reporting International, Briefing Paper, December 2020, https://democracy-reporting.org
  • Paul Mahoney, A ringing endorsement of the Rule of Law, in: The University of Virginia School of Law, Lawyer, Fall 2014, Vol.38, No.2,
  • Sanne Taekema- EGSL, Rethinking the Rule of law in an Era of Globalisation, Privatisation and Multiculturalisation, esl.eur.nl, 2012
  • Hisham Sharabi, in: Journal of Palestine Studies, Palestinians under Occupation, Vol.XI, No.1, Autumn 1981
  • Ella Habiba Shohat, Dislocated Identities: Reflections by an Arab Jew, Performance Journal, Issue N.05, Fall/Winter 1992
  • Jacob M. Landau, The Arabs in Israel, Oxford University Press, 1970
  • Anke Martiny, in: Bergedorfer Gesprächskreis, (Group of authors), Europe and the Future of the Middle East- an Agenda for Peace, No.106, Körber Stiftung, 1996, Hambourg
  • Michael Stürmer, Faisal Husseini, and Mahdi Abdul Hadi, in: Bergedorfer Gesprächskreis, op.cit., respectively, Franklin Lamb, The Price We Pay, Lamont, 2007, Great Britain.
  • Hisham Sharabi, Nationalism and Revolution in the Arab World, D. Van Nostrand Company, INC, 1966, USA
  • Jebran Chamieh, A Preliminary Study of Arab Nationalism and an Attempt at the Constitutional Organization of an Arab Federation, Master’s Thesis in political science at the American University of Beirut, June 1938
  • Tawfic Hineidi, The Problem of Arab Unity, Master’s Thesis in political science at the American University of Beirut, October 1943
  • Peter Gubser, U.A.R. (United Arab Republic) – A Study in Unity, Master’s Thesis at the American University of Beirut, 1966
  • Munzer Anabtawi, Arab Unity in Terms of Law, Thesis in Law at the Groningen State University, 6 July 1962
  • Rafi Madayan, The Lebanese communist party: from conventional marxism to radical nationalism (1968-1977), Master’s Thesis at the American University of Beirut, 1999
  • Edgar Boyd, The Struggle for Arab Unity, Master’s Thesis in History at the American University of Beirut, June 1959
  • Chibli Mallat, Federalism in the Middle East and Europe, CWRJIL, Vol.35, No.1, Winter 2003.
  • Robert Binkley, book review: The Morality of Law, by Lon Fuller, Duke Law Journal, Vol.1965, pp.668-670; Edwin Tucker, book review: The Morality of Law, by Lon Fuller, Indiana Law Journal, 1-1-1965, Vol.40, Iss.2, Article 5
  • Mahmoud Haidar, The Active Role of the Iranian Geo-strategy, Delta Centre, 2011, Beirut-Paris.
  • Azin Tadjdini, The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and Regional Challenges to international Law and Security, Amsterdam Law Forum- VU University Amsterdam, Spring Issue 2012, Vol.4:2,
  • Reza Shah-Kazemi, in: Group of authors, Edited by Reza Shah-Kazemi, Algeria: Revolution Revisited, Islamic World Report, 1997
  • Ibrahim Matar, Israeli Settlements in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, in: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Silke Schmidt, (Re-)Framing the Arab/Muslim, Transcript Verlag, 2014, Bielefeld
  • Jody Jaffe, Arabization in Algeria: The recovery of an Identity, Master’s Thesis at the American University of Beirut, June 1975.
  • Chibli Mallat, The Original Sin: ‘’Terrorism’’ or ‘’Crime Against Humanity’’?, CWRJIL, Vol.34, No.2, Fall 2002
  • Mohammad Hashim Kamali, Shari’ah and Civil Law: Towards a Methodology of Harmonization, in: Group of authors, Islamic Law and Society, vol.14, No.3, 2007
  • Ziyad Baroud and Ghadir El’Alayli, Lebanon in: Group of authors, Ed. Mahnaz Afkhami, Yakin Ertürk, and Ann Elizabeth Mayer, Feminist Advocacy, Family Law and Violence Against Women, Routledge, 2019, UK and USA
  • Abdul Wahhab Kayyali, Arab Federalism, Master’s Thesis in political science and public administration at the American University of Beirut, June 1965
  • Ania Skrzypek, Next Left, New Social Deal, Foundation for European Progressive Studies and RI-Renner Institut, Poland, 2017
  • Das Progressive Zentrum and Amadeu Antonio Stiftung, Countering Populism in Public Space, 2019, p.7; Will Marshall, Three Threats to Liberal Democracy, Progressive Policy Institute, April 10-11, 2018
  • John O. Voll, Abbas Amanat and Frank Griffel’s Book review: Shari’a: Islamic Law in the Contemporary Context, in: Islamic Law and Society, Brill, Vol.16, No.2, 2009

In Arabic:

  • كريم مروة، برهان غليون، ماهر الشريف، جلبير أشقر، أزمة النظام العربي وإشكاليات النهضة، مؤسسة الانتشار العربي، 2007
  • عبد المنعم شميس، الثورة العربية الكبرى: 23 يوليو، الدار القومية للطباعة والنشر، كتب قومية، 1963
  • مركز دراسات الوحدة العربية، المشروع النهضوي العربي: نداء المستقبل، مركز دراسات الوحدة العربية، ط.3، 2013.
  • ابراهيم العيسوي، المشروع النهضوي العربي: عرض وتقييم، مركز دراسات الوحدة العربية، أوراق عربية 7، شؤون سياسية 3، ط.1 2011.
  • شكيب إرسلان، النهضة العربية في العصر الحاضر، (محاضرة في “المجمع العلمي العربي” بدمشق) 1937، الدار التقدّمية، إعادة نشر: ط.1، 2008.
  • جمال عبد الناصر، بيان 30 مارس (آذار 1968) الى الأمة، nasser.bibalex.org .
  • هيئة التحرير المصرية بالبلاد العربية، العيد القومي الأول: مصر في عام: 23 يوليو 1952-23 يوليو 1953، 1953
  • مرفت رشماوي: مؤسسة المجتمع المنفتح- ومركز القاهرة لدراسات حقوق الإنسان، جامعة الدول العربية، حقوق الإنسان: المعايير والآليات، 2015

In French:

  • Ghadir El’Alayli, Le droit naturel, fondement de l’Etat de droit panarabe, Editions Pedone, Paris, 2021, 530 pp. ISBN: 978-2-233-00972-2.
  • http://pedone.info/livre/le-droit-naturel-fondement-de-letat-de-droit-panarabe/
  • Tarek Majzoub et Fabienne Quilleré-Majzoub, De l’utilité de la future Cour arabe des droits de l’homme, RTDH, N.103, 1er juillet 2015
  • Diane Khair, Unité de l’État et droits des minorités, Etude Constitutionnelle comparée du Proche-Orient, Fondation Varenne, Coll. de thèses, (Soutenue à l’Université Paris II), Vol.56, 2011
  • Marie Ghantous, La Cour Arabe des Droits de l’Homme: Défis et perspectives, Ed. Sader, 2017

[1] Ghadir El’Alayli, Le droit naturel, fondement de l’Etat de droit panarabe, Editions Pedone, Paris, 2021, 530 pp. ISBN: 978-2-233-00972-2.

http://pedone.info/livre/le-droit-naturel-fondement-de-letat-de-droit-panarabe/

[2]Henri Croye called Father Pierre, born on August 5, 1912 in Lyon and died on January 22, 2007 in Paris, a Catholic priest who participated in the French Resistance and a founding member of the Emaeus League, and the Father Pierre Foundation for the Housing of the Poor.

[3] This article refers to the recent book in French (by the author of this article himself): Ghadir El’Alayli, Le droit naturel, fondement de l’Etat de droit panarabe, Editions Pedone, Paris, 2021. The book itself refers to numerous publications in English, French and Arabic; However, and for linguistic reasons, the references mentioned in this article’s footnotes here-below are mainly the ones published in English.

[4] Michael Meyer-Resende and Hannah-Jil Prillwitz, Democracy Reporting International, Re:constitution programme, States of Emergency and the Rule of Law: A Primer, April 2020, Primer_SoE_FINAL_web.pdf (reconstitution.eu) ; Siren Associates, The State of Emergency in Lebanon, September 2020, The State of Emergency in Lebanon (sirenassociates.com) ; Karim El Mufti, Shrinking Democracy in Lebanon, Democracy Reporting International, Briefing Paper, December 2020, https://democracy-reporting.org ; Ghadir El Alayli, Lebanese Crises, State of Emergency and Policing: Revolt, Demonstrations, Pandemic Measures and Blast, Journal of Afro-Asian Studies, Democratic Arab Center (Berlin), 11th issue, November 2021 (another study published by the author of this article in the same Journal issue in hand).

[5] About the concept of rule of law, its history and its contemporary perspectives: Paul Mahoney, A ringing endorsement of the Rule of Law, in: The University of Virginia School of Law, Lawyer, Fall 2014, Vol.38, No.2, p.1 ; Sanne Taekema- EGSL, Rethinking the Rule of law in an Era of Globalisation, Privatisation and Multiculturalisation, www.esl.eur.nl, 2012.

[6] About the historic ties between Arabs, Muslims and Jews : Hisham Sharabi, in: Journal of Palestine Studies, Palestinians under Occupation, Vol.XI, No.1, Autumn 1981, p.2 ; Ella Habiba Shohat, Dislocated Identities: Reflections by an Arab Jew, Performance Journal, Issue N.05, Fall/Winter 1992. As for the Arabs in “Israel”, compare: Jacob M. Landau, The Arabs in Israel, Oxford University Press, 1970 ; Anke Martiny, in: Bergedorfer Gesprächskreis, (Group of authors), Europe and the Future of the Middle East- an Agenda for Peace, No.106, Körber Stiftung, 1996, Hambourg, p.103.

[7] Michael Stürmer, Faisal Husseini, and Mahdi Abdul Hadi, in: Bergedorfer Gesprächskreis, op.cit., respectively pp.7-8, 25 and 33; Franklin Lamb, The Price We Pay, Lamont, 2007, Great Britain, pp.546-547.

[8] Authors like Amos Elon consider that the concept of nationalism in the “Middle-East” is imported from Europe, in: Bergedorfer Gesprächskreis, op.cit., p.55.

[9] Concerning the difference between the concepts of nationalism and patriotism : Hisham Sharabi, Nationalism and Revolution in the Arab World, D. Van Nostrand Company, INC, 1966, USA, pp.95-96.

[10] Whereas numerous Arab nationalists base their nationalism on so-called Arab nationalist feeling: Jebran Chamieh, A Preliminary Study of Arab Nationalism and an Attempt at the Constitutional Organization of an Arab Federation, Master’s Thesis in political science at the American University of Beirut, June 1938, pp.1-2; Tawfic Hineidi, The Problem of Arab Unity, Master’s Thesis in political science at the American University of Beirut, October 1943, pp.ii and XV.

[11] Compare : Peter Gubser, U.A.R. (United Arab Republic) – A Study in Unity, Master’s Thesis at the American University of Beirut, 1966, pp.1-6 and 116-137; Munzer Anabtawi, Arab Unity in Terms of Law, Thesis in Law at the Groningen State University, 6 July 1962, drukkerij pasmans, pp.57-233, especially p.209; Rafi Madayan, The Lebanese communist party: from conventional marxism to radical nationalism (1968-1977), Master’s Thesis at the American University of Beirut, 1999, p.68; Edgar Boyd, The Struggle for Arab Unity, Master’s Thesis in History at the American University of Beirut, June 1959, pp.iv and 188; Chibli Mallat, Federalism in the Middle East and Europe, CWRJIL, Vol.35, No.1, Winter 2003.

[12] About the morality of law : Robert Binkley, book review: The Morality of Law, by Lon Fuller, Duke Law Journal, Vol.1965, pp.668-670; Edwin Tucker, book review: The Morality of Law, by Lon Fuller, Indiana Law Journal, 1-1-1965, Vol.40, Iss.2, Article 5, pp.270-279.

[13] For an interesting constitutional analysis of “minorities’” rights: Diane Khair, Unité de l’État et droits des minorités, Etude Constitutionnelle comparée du Proche-Orient, Fondation Varenne, Coll. de thèses, (Soutenue à l’Université Paris II), Vol.56, 2011 (in French).

[14] Concerning solidarity in international public law: Chibli Mallat, Non-violence and the rule of law, Beiruter Texte und Studien, Band 76, pp.419-430, see pp.426-427 and 430.

[15] Abdul Wahhab Kayyali, Arab Federalism, Master’s Thesis in political science and public administration at the American University of Beirut, June 1965, pp.1-2. Compare : Ania Skrzypek, Next Left, New Social Deal, Foundation for European Progressive Studies and RI-Renner Institut, Poland, 2017, pp.178 et seq.

[16] Compare : Das Progressive Zentrum and Amadeu Antonio Stiftung, Countering Populism in Public Space, 2019, p.7; Will Marshall, Three Threats to Liberal Democracy, Progressive Policy Institute, April 10-11, 2018, pp.1-3 and 6.

[17]  كريم مروة، برهان غليون، ماهر الشريف، جلبير أشقر، أزمة النظام العربي وإشكاليات النهضة، مؤسسة الانتشار العربي، 2007، ص. 86، 92-93، 96 و112.

[18]  مركز دراسات الوحدة العربية، المشروع النهضوي العربي: نداء المستقبل، مركز دراسات الوحدة العربية، ط.3، 2013.

ابراهيم العيسوي، المشروع النهضوي العربي: عرض وتقييم، مركز دراسات الوحدة العربية، أوراق عربية 7، شؤون سياسية 3، ط.1 2011.

[19] Compare:

شكيب إرسلان، النهضة العربية في العصر الحاضر، (محاضرة في “المجمع العلمي العربي” بدمشق) 1937، الدار التقدّمية، إعادة نشر: ط.1، 2008.

هيئة التحرير المصرية بالبلاد العربية، العيد القومي الأول: مصر في عام: 23 يوليو 1952-23 يوليو 1953، 1953، ص.26-27.

عبد المنعم شميس، الثورة العربية الكبرى: 23 يوليو، الدار القومية للطباعة والنشر، كتب قومية، 1963، ص.621 و631-634.

جمال عبد الناصر، بيان 30 مارس (آذار 1968) الى الأمة، www.nasser.bibalex.org .

[20] Compare : Mahmoud Haidar, The Active Role of the Iranian Geo-strategy, Delta Centre, 2011, Beirut-Paris.

[21] Compare : Jody Jaffe, Arabization in Algeria: The recovery of an Identity, Master’s Thesis at the American University of Beirut, June 1975.

[22] Compare : Mohammad Hashim Kamali, Shari’ah and Civil Law: Towards a Methodology of Harmonization, in: Group of authors, Islamic Law and Society, vol.14, No.3, 2007, Brill, p.420.

[23] Ziyad Baroud and Ghadir El’Alayli, Lebanon in: Group of authors, Ed. Mahnaz Afkhami, Yakin Ertürk, and Ann Elizabeth Mayer, Feminist Advocacy, Family Law and Violence Against Women, Routledge, 2019, UK and USA, pp.90-109.

[24] See the following contributions (in French) in : Collectif- CLEI, dir. Marie Ghantous, La Cour Arabe des Droits de l’Homme: Défis et perspectives, Ed. Sader, 2017: Christian Tomuschat, L’organisation et le mandat de la Cour, surtout pp.28-29, 48-49 and 53; Mohamad Al-Midani, Le statut des juges de la Cour, surtout pp.59 and 67; Paul Morcos, La relation entre la Charte arabe des droits de l’Homme et la Charte et les Conventions des Nations Unies, pp.68-72.

[25] Tarek Majzoub et Fabienne Quilleré-Majzoub, De l’utilité de la future Cour arabe des droits de l’homme, RTDH, N.103, 1er juillet 2015, pp.645-671, notably pp.649, 658-660, 664, and 667-671 (in French).

مرفت رشماوي: مؤسسة المجتمع المنفتح- ومركز القاهرة لدراسات حقوق الإنسان، جامعة الدول العربية، حقوق الإنسان: المعايير والآليات، 2015، ص.53-59.

[26] About the crimes, massacres and occupations perpetrated by the occupying State of “Israel”: Franklin Lamb, op.cit. ; Amnesty International, Enduring occupation, June 2007, especially pp.33-41 ; Ibrahim Matar, Israeli Settlements in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, in: Journal of Palestine Studies, op.cit., pp.95-98 and 103-110.

[27] About the legal aspect of the concept of “terrorism”: Chibli Mallat, The Original Sin: ‘’Terrorism’’ or ‘’Crime Against Humanity’’?, CWRJIL, Vol.34, No.2, Fall 2002, pp.245-248 ; About “State terrorism” : www.azdema.gov, Various Definitions of Terrorism, p.3, ‘’State Terrorism’’.

[28] Compare concerning the relation between natural law and Islam as per several Islamic doctrines : John O. Voll, Abbas Amanat and Frank Griffel’s Book review: Shari’a: Islamic Law in the Contemporary Context, in: Islamic Law and Society, Brill, Vol.16, No.2, 2009, p.237.

[29] Reza Shah-Kazemi, in: Group of authors, Edited by Reza Shah-Kazemi, Algeria: Revolution Revisited, Islamic World Report, 1997, pp.1-5. Compare: Silke Schmidt, (Re-)Framing the Arab/Muslim, Transcript Verlag, 2014, Bielefeld, pp.176-177.

[30] Azin Tadjdini, The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and Regional Challenges to international Law and Security, Amsterdam Law Forum- VU University Amsterdam, Spring Issue 2012, Vol.4:2, pp.36-48, notably pp.46-47.

[31] Yousof Bek Karam; Sheikh ‘Abdallah El’Alayli; Kamal Joumblat.

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