Research studies

Organizational climate and its relationship with love of leaderas perceived by Omani school teachers

 

Prepared by the researcher

Prof. Aieman Ahmad Al-Omari  -(Dept. of Foundations and Educational Administration, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman)

Dr. WaheedShahbourHammad – (Dept. of Foundations and Educational Administration, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman)

Dr. Rashid Sulaiman Al-Fahadi – (Dept. of Foundations and Educational Administration, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman)

Democratic Arab Center

International Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies : Fifteenth Issue – December 2021

A Periodical International Journal published by the “Democratic Arab Center” Germany – Berlin.

Nationales ISSN-Zentrum für Deutschland
ISSN  2569-930X
International Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies
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Abstract

The study aimed to investigate the relationship between organizational climate and love of leader (principal) as perceived by teachers in Omani public schools, and determine if there were significant differences according to teachers’ demographic variables. The study used a quantitative methodology and applied two survey instruments, namely “OCDQ-All Schools” and “Love of Leader” to collect data. The study sample included 242 teachers from public schools in Muscat selected randomly. The results revealed that high levels of organizational climate and love of leader in the sample schools.There were significant differences in the teachers’perceptions of the five dimensions of OC according to their gender in favor of male teachers in the dimensions (supportive principal behavior, directive principal behavior, frustrated teacher behavior, and intimate teacher behavior), and in favor of female teachers in the dimension (engaged teacher behavior). No significant differences found in relation to their academic qualification, teaching experiences, and specialization. Concerning love of leader, no significant differences found for the three dimensions in relation to gender, academic qualification, teaching experience, and specialization. There was a positive relationship between organizational climate and love of leaders’ dimensions. The results of this study can be useful in guiding future research on aspects of organizational climate and love of leader in Omani schools.

  1. Introduction

The study of the nature of school workplace has long attracted the attention of many educational scholars and researchers. Studies following this line of enquiry have used different labels including organizational character, milieu, atmosphere, climate, and culture. Interest in studying school workplace has been fueled by growing rhetoric about the link between workplace factors, school effectiveness and student achievement. This is despite a lack of solid, empirical evidence supporting this link(Hoy, 1990).

One of the workplace factors that has been extensively studied by researchers is organizational climate. In a school setting, this usually referred to as “school climate”, whose foundational work is attributed to Halpin and Croft (1963). In his review of the knowledge base on organizational climate and school improvement, Lindahl (2006) cited Halpin and Croft’s conceptualization of the school climate construct in terms of “the social interaction between the principal and the teachers. Such interaction includes factors such as “teachers’ perceptions that their personal needs are being satisfied and they are accomplishing positive things in their work, teachers’ enjoyment of friendly social relations with each other, principals’ aloofness and reliance on rules and policies rather than informal contacts with teachers, closeness of supervision of teachers by the principal, teacher perceptions that the principal is working to move the organization in positive directions, and teacher perceptions that the principal treats them humanely” (cited in Lindahl, 2006: 2)

Research has documented a strong relationship between leadership behavior and members’ perceptions of their organization (Miller, 1981). Loukas (2007) argued that all of its members do not necessarily experience the climate of a school in the same way; rather, there is variability in individual perceptions of a school’s climate. Teachers’ perceptions of a leader’s behavior play a vital role in the creation of school climate and culture. Building a positive school climate relies on school leaders who areproactive and interact with those they lead (Spillane, 2006). Teachers prefer a school climate in which they feel comfortable, accepted, and supported by school leaders. School leaders exhibit different leadership styles; some tend to empower their subordinates, while others abuse their authority as leaders by intimidating and coercing individuals. Teachers want the opportunity to be empowered so that they can carry out responsibilities in a manner in which they can effectively improve student achievement (Perez-Brandon, 2016). Vail (2005) found that supporting new teachers, empowering teachers and staff, treating teachers like professionals, and askingthem what is going on would help increase school morale.Xiaofu and Qiwen (2007) observed significant correlations between the various factors of school climate and the different dimensions of teacher job satisfaction. Moreover, Hoyle (2002) argued that human conflict decreases when leaders create a positive and appreciative school climate, culture and environment. The approach taken to manage and lead is critical in the development of high performing schools. The schools’ leadership positions are imperative in making the school reach the exemplary school model status every educational institute aspires to reach.

Emotions have also been extensively researched in the context of schools (Cross & Hong, 2012; Darby, 2008). Emotions form an important part of every school’s life, simply because, like all other organizations, schools are mainly composed of humans. “Organizations, not matter how technical, not matter how mechanical, no matter how structured, are comprised of people working together to accomplish a mission or a goal. Take the people away and there is no organization; there are ideas, theories, even dreams, but without people, there is nothing but infrastructure, not organization (Czarnecki, 2010: 18).

One of the emotions that has not gained much attention in the context of school leadership is love. Czarnecki (2019: 19) argues that love lies “at the heart of all leadership activity”. Yet, he draws our attention to the meaning of love in the workplace, stating: “The idea of love in the workplace may be disorienting, especially if you’re thinking of the kind of love the Greeks called “eros”, what we know as sexual or erotic love. Obviously, eros is not the appropriate type of love for leaders to practice in the workplace”

Love was a fertile topic for social psychological research during the mid-1970s, but then, both because political pressure deemed love “unscientific” and because empirical studies had to that pointfailed to capture the essence of love, interest in this field faded (Berscheid, 1988). In the mid-1980s love reemerged in a conceptually broader form as a productive area of inquiry. Much new theory and research examined interpersonal processes that affect the experience of love in human relationships—it is this research that this study is most interested in. Because the resurgence of love research is still new and theoretical statements have outpaced empirical findings, many of the most interesting propositions remain to be tested (Berscheid, 2010).

Rubin (1973) conducted important research on the difference between liking and loving and is commonly credited with the first empirical measurement of love. In his book Liking and Loving: An Invitation to Social Psychology, he states:Setting out to devise measurements of love is like setting out to prepare a gourmet dish with a thousand different recipes but no pots and pans. The recipes for love abound. Throughout history poets, essayists, novelists, philosophers, theologians, psychologists, sociologists, and other men and women of goodwill have written more about love than virtually any other topic… But whereas the nature of love has been a prime topic of discourse and debate, the number of behavioral scientists that have conducted empirical research on love can be counted on one’s fingers.

Rubin (1970) proposed that love is an attitude and that the conception of romantic love included three components: affiliative and dependent need, a predisposition to help, and an orientation of exclusiveness and absorption. Simply stated Clark & Reis (1988), love consists of attachment (needing), caring, and intimacy (willingness to self-disclose).

In contrast to the study of love as an attitude, Shaver, Hazan, Bradshaw, and O’Connor (1987) proposed that love is an emotion. They showed that the single-most word that people confidently described as an emotion was love (Shaver, Hazan, Bradshaw, & O’Connor, 1987). Shaver et al. (1987) conducted additional research that attempted to identify prototypic conceptions of love. His research looked at written accounts of love and found that love generally characterized in compassionate terms such as adoration, affection, and fondness. He also noted that a secondary, more passionate oriented, characterization also existed. This represented by concepts such as desire and lust (Clark & Reis, 1988). Attitude or emotion aside, his work continued to precipitate a core understanding of the foundation of what we call love.

Berscheid (2010) noted that as the research of love continued to advance, the structure and standards how love is classified also matured. She described how Kelly (1983) determined that any theories of love should include the following: certain observable phenomenon theorized to be its characteristic manifestations; the current causes responsible for the observable phenomena; the historic antecedents of the current causes; and the future course of the phenomenon.

Kelly (1983) also illuminated the relationship between love and commitment. He showed that while love can exist without commitment, for the relationship to be positive and stable, both love and commitment must be present (Kelly, 1983). This will prove an important concept in the discussion of what (if any) components of love influence effective leadership.Clark and Reis (1988) presented two studies particularly relevant to this research. They show how Davis and Todd (1982) built on Shaver, Hazan, Bradshaw, and O’Connor’s research and proposed that a cluster of affectionate-companionate traits characterizes love in general and that passionate arousal added to this core to differentiate the special case of romantic relationships.Clark and Reis (1988) discussed Fehr’s research on how central attributes are on love. Their research showed that lay attributes of love, such as trust, caring, honesty and friendship were more prevalent thanthe more “romantic” attributes such as passion and attraction (Fehr, 1987). Still, this data indicates that passionate arousal-lust is important secondary feature of romantic love in particular.

Sternberg (1987) proposed that love has three primary components: intimacy, passion, and commitment.The intimacy refers to those feelings in a relationship that promote closeness, bondedness, and connectedness such as affection, positive regard, self-disclosure, and supportiveness. The term “intimacy” derived from the Latin term intimus, meaning inner or innermost (Partridge, 1966). Other definitions of intimacy included Sullivan’s (1953) definition, which stated it as “a type of situation involving two people which permits validation of all components of personal worth” (p. 246). Clark and Reis (1988) defined intimacy as “a process in which one person expresses important self-relevant feelings and information to another” (p. 628). The concept that intimacy was simply a one-way street was challenged by Reis and Patrick (1996) when they presented that intimacy also depends on the favorable and warm response by the other and the resulting positive feeling from the discloser. Perhaps the simplest definition is “intimacy is the degree of closeness two people achieve” (Hendrick & Hendrick, 1983: 23).

Passion consists of those motivational and other sources of arousal that lead to the experience of passion. Within the context of this research, references to passion will focus on the non-sexual factors that contribute to the experience of passion, more specifically, the need for self-esteem, succorance, nurturance, affiliation, dominance, submission, and self-actualization (Sternberg, 1987). Hatfield and Walster (1978) defined passion as “a state of profound physiological arousal” (p. 9). In the context of love,it can be said that passion involves exceptionally strong positive feelings toward the other person (Baumeister & Bratslavsky, 1999).

The commitment component of love consists of two aspects: (a) the short-term decision where one loves another and (b) the long-term commitment to maintain that love. Interestingly, although a decision point implied in these two subsets, it is not always present. One can be committed to loving without admitting that he or she loves or in love with that person, it is proposed that effective leaders unconsciously or consciously love those whom they lead, short- and long-term commitment will refer to the leaders’ short-term resolve to maintain a closerelationship to those whom they lead and the long-term dedication to that same person’s success and well-being.

This model chosen because its main components have ties to those traits commonly referred to in the study of leadership. While there is increasing attention in leadership, there remains a rarity of research that deals in such love leaders and its relationship with organizational climate. In Oman vision 2040, developing the different levels of the educational system and improving educational outcomes have become necessary to build Omanis’ confidence in their identity and commitment to their social values. This is attainable through increasing the quality of basic and higher education and developing scientific and educational curricula, so developed educational system also entails the development of educational institutions, faculty and staff, the use of modern teaching and learning techniques, and the dissemination thereof as national culture. In addition to that entails maximizing national capabilities through a national system established to nurture talent, creativity and entrepreneurial potential (Oman Vision Document, 2019).

  1. PROPLEM AND QUESTIONS OF STUDY

This study will examine the organizational climate at Omani public school and its relationship to love of leader (principal) from the teachers’ perspective.  The study seeks also to determine if organizational climate and love of leader vary according to teachers’ demographic variables.

The organizational climate plays an important role in developing the school and ideas of the love of leader and the behavior of its subordinates. The leader of the organization sets the tone and develops the necessary tools to guide the organization climate to success. The modern schooling system in Oman established officially in 1970 when His Majesty, Sultan Qaboos, started ruling Oman. School numbers jumped from 3 schools before 1970 to nearly 1200 currently. There have been many reforms since then with the role of school principals as one of the major components of these reforms. As prescribed by the Office of Undersecretary for the Education Planning and Human Resources Development (2014), school principals in Oman are responsible for managing the learning and teaching processes inside effectively through creating a positive organizational climate and ethical leadership. The principals in Omani schools also entrusted to be the ones who deal with the issues of their fellow teachers and solve them. Moreover, the school principals are fully responsible for bringing solutions to any social, administrative, financial etc. issues facing the school.

In order to investigate the organizational climate of schools in Sultanate of Oman and love of leaders (Principals), and if these perspectives vary according to schools’ teachers’ demographics, this study proposed to answer the following questions:

1.How is the organizational climate perceived by school teachers in Oman?

2.What is the level of love of leader as perceived by school teachers in Oman?

3.Are there significant relationships between organizational climate and love of leader as perceived by teachers?

4.Do teachers’ perceptions of organizational climate differ based on their gender, academic qualification, teaching experience, and specialization?

5.Do teachers’ perceptions of the love of leader differ based on their gender, academic qualification, teaching experience, and specialization?

  1. Significance of Study

Until now, no research exists that ties together the psychology of love and leadership behavior. These two schools of thought have been individually studied and published in separate bodies of research. Although the word “love” appears in a few instances, in leadership discussions it is generally in the context of being “related” to leadership. A gap exists in the literature that connects love and leadership and this research is an initial exploration into whether such a connection exists. If this research shows that such a connection exists, it will justify the need for further in-depth research.

This study is important for several reasons. Organizational climatemay influence the love of leader of any given organization. The findings of this study will contribute to the knowledge of organizational climate of schools, revealing actions that will help to lead love of leaders (school principals). The study may also suggest areas where additional research in organizational climate and love of leader needed. It likewise anticipated that the findings of this study could improve the way educational organizations operate and leaders lead.

  1. Definitions

The following terms used in this research study: School Climate- The personality of the organization within the environment in which itcontinuously operates (Hoy et al., 1991). School climate describes the environment that affects the behavior of teachers and students; characterizes the organization at the school building and classroom level (Hoy, & Miskel, 2005). The feelings and attitudes that elicited by a school’s environment are often referred to as school climate (Loukas, 2007).Organizational climate: a set of measurable properties of the work environment perceived directly or indirectly by the people who live and work in this environment and assumed to influence their motivation and behavior (Litwin & Stringer, 1968).

Love of Leaders (Principals): For the purpose of this study, love defined as intimacy, passion, and commitment (Sternberg, 1987). Similarly, the word leadership meant to represent the common components of the theories contained in the neocharismatic leadership body of literature. This commonality is associated with leadership research in recent years that highlight the influence of values as part of leader’s ability to achieve sustained effectiveness.

  1. Methodology

A detailed description of the analysis and the validation of the scale given in the following section.

5.1 Research Design

This study used asurvey to collect data as a quantitative methodology.

5.2 Population and Sample

The population of this study included teachers who currently work in the participating public schools in Muscat governorate.The total number of the population is 7647(1808 males and 5839 females).  A sample of 242teacherswas randomly selected, which included117 (48%) and 125(52%) females. According to academic qualification,142 teachers(59%)held a Bachelor degree, and 100(41%)a graduate degree. Regarding teaching experience, 79 teachers (32.7%)had less than 5 years of experience, 80(33.1%)had5 to 10 years, and 83(34.2%)had more than 10 years.

5.3 Instrument

Two instruments used to gather the data from public school principals in Muscat.  Love of Leader Instrument:Sternberg’s (1987) 44-question Triangular Love Scale used to analyze an individual perceived level of a leader’s love. Respondents asked to complete the survey with respect to their current principal. The questionnaire is broken up into three sections, one for each of Sternberg’s main components of love. The first 15 items in the scale reflect intimacy, the second 14-measure passion, and the final 15 reflect commitment. Scores totaled and averaged to determine the degree to which the individual experiences each of these three components of love.

The Organizational Climate Descriptive Questionnaire (All Schools) (OCDQ-All Schools) used to measure organizational climate (Hoy, Tarter, & Kottkamp, 1991). The organizational climate instrument was a 34-item survey that consisted of five dimensions: supportive principal behavior, directive principal behavior, engaged teacher behavior, frustrated teacher behavior, and intimate teacher behavior.The instruments included a 5-point Likert scale as follows: (1) Rarely Occurs; (2) Sometimes Occurs; (3) moderate occurs; (4) Often Occurs; and (5) Very Frequently Occurs.

For examining the validity of the instruments in this study, face validity used. The instruments presented to five experts in educational administration, research and evaluation and educational measurement. They asked to check whether the items in the instrument were clear and linked appropriately with the problem of study. Based on the experts’ comments, some revisions regarding the language done to the instrument.

Regarding the reliability of the instrument in this study, an internal consistency procedure (to estimate the consistency across the items) used. A pilot study of 20 participants conducted. Those participants did not participate in the final study. The instructions were clear and all of the items of instrument functioning in appropriate manner. The values of alpha (the internal consistency coefficient) for the dimensions of the organizational climate instrument were as follows: The questionnaire consists of five dimensions with 34 items.Supportive principal behavior with Cronbach alpha: 0.83, directive principal behavior with Cronbach alpha: 0.89, engaged teacher behavior with Cronbach alpha: 0.82, frustrated teacher behavior with Cronbach alpha: 0.83, and intimate teacher behavior with Cronbach alpha: 0.79.The values of alpha (the internal consistency coefficient) for “Love of Leader Instrument” dimensions with 44 items: intimacy=0.82; passion=0.79; and commitment=.87.  The previous values considered reasonably satisfactory to achieve the objectives of the current study.

Statistical Package for Social Sciences used to analyze the data. Means, standard deviations, MANOVA and ANOVA analysis calculated for the research questions. Regarding cut points, the response scale of each item that ranged from 1 (Never) to 5 (Very often) will be determined as follows: 1-2.33 = low, 2.34 to 3.67 = moderate, and 3.68-5.00 = high.

  1. Results

6.1       Q 1.     How is the organizational climate perceived by school teachers in Oman?

Means and standard deviations for teachers’ perceptionsof the organizational climate in Omani schools were calculated for each dimension as follows: All dimensions of organizational climate for Oman were in high level (M=3.64, SD=.634), supportive principal behavior (M=3.65, SD=.616), directive principal behavior (M=3.59, SD=.791), engaged teacher behavior (M=3.70, SD=.698), frustrated teacher behavior (M=3.76, SD=.750), and intimate teacher behavior (M=3.49, SD=.910).

6.2       Q 2.     What is the level of love of leader as perceived by school teachers in Oman?

Means and standard deviations for teachers’ perceptions of the level of love of leader in Omani schools were calculated for each dimension as follows: All dimensions of the level of love of leader for Oman were in high level (M=3.94, SD=.567), intimacy (M=4.37, SD=.505), passion (M=3.62, SD=.798), commitment (M=3.83, SD=.607).

6.3       Q 3.     Are there significant relationships between organizational climate and love of leader as perceived by teachers?

Pearson correlation between OC and love of leader were used. Table1shows the Pearson correlation values. The values show a positive relationship between OC and love of leader “total” as perceived by Omani teachers (r=-.865). Table 1 also shows that there is a positive relationship between OC dimensions and love of leader dimensions as perceived by Omani teachers at Omani schools ranged from (r= .305) to (r= .873).

Table 1: Person correlation between OC and love of leader as perceived by teachers in Oman

OC dimensions Intimacy Passion commitment Total
supportive principal behavior .427* .689* .667* .689*
     directive principal behavior .349* .873* .810* .803*
engaged teacher behavior .638* .813* .806* .860*
frustrated teacher behavior .543* .598* .584* .651*
intimate teacher behavior .305* .745* .651* .673*
Total .523* .882* .828* .865*

*. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level

6.4  Q 4.          Do teachers’ perceptions of organizational climate differ based on their gender, academic qualification, teaching experience, and specialization?

To answer this question, descriptive statistics including means and standard dev were used. Table 2 includes the mean and standard deviation for teachers’ perceptions of the organizational climate of schools based on their gender, academic qualification, teaching experience, and specialization.

Table 2:  Means and Standard deviation for perceived OC based on study variables

Dimensions Gender Academic qualification Teaching Experience Specialization
Male Female BA Grad Less than 5 5 to 10 More than 10 Humanities Scientific
supportive principal behavior 3.66

(.659)

3.65

(.576)

3.69

.633

3.59

.590

3.67

.622

3.58

.676

3.71

.545

3.69

.650

3.62

.584

directive principal behavior 3.61

.809

3.59

.777

3.63

.772

3.56

.820

3.54

.832

3.58

.796

3.67

.751

3.58

.850

3.62

.736

engaged teacher behavior 3.62

.731

3.77

.660

3.75

.684

3.63

.716

3.61

.745

3.69

.674

3.79

.671

3.72

.711

3.69

.689

frustrated teacher behavior 3.78

.769

3.73

.733

3.76

.726

3.75

.786

3.67

.812

3.68

.695

3.92

.722

3.79

.721

3.76

.750

intimate teacher behavior 3.55

.936

3.42

.958

3.45

.897

3.54

.929

3.51

.933

3.46

.940

3.49

.868

3.48

.940

3.49

.823

Total 3.64

.660

3.63

.612

3.65

.616

3.61

.662

3.59

.672

3.60

.646

3.71

.584

3.65

.678

3.63

.594

To achieve the significant differences in the teachers perceived OC of school as related to their gender, academic qualification, teaching experience, and specialization, Multivariate analysis of variance (Four-Way MANOVA) were used, the results of MANOVA presented in table 3.

Table 3 shows that there are significant differences in the teachers’perceptions of the five dimensions of OC of school as related to their gender, in favor for male teachers in 4 dimensions: supportive principal behavior, directive principal behavior, frustrated teacher behavior, and intimate teacher behavior, and in favor for female teachers in one dimension, namely engaged teacher behavior. No significant differences related to their academic qualification, teaching experiences, and specialization were found.

Table 3:Four-Way MANOVA tests for teachers’perceptions of the five dimensions of OC of school as related to their gender, academic qualification, teaching experience, and specialization.

Effect   Value F Hypothesis df Error df Sig.
Gender Hotelling’s Trace .061 2.152 6.000 213.000 .049*
Academic Qualification Hotelling’s Trace .046 1.650 6.000 213.000 .135
Teaching experience Wilks’ Lambda .922 .1481 12.00 4.26 .128
Specialization Hotelling’s Trace .031 1.117 6.000 213.000 .353

6.5     Q 5. Do teachers’ perceptions of the love of leader differ based on their gender, academic qualification, teaching experience, and specialization?

To answer this question, descriptive statistics including means and standard deviations were used. Table 4 includes the mean and standard deviations for teachers’ perceptions of the love of leader based on their gender, academic qualification, and teaching experience.

Table 4:Means and Standard deviation for the perceived love of leader based on study variables

Dimensions Gender Academic qualification Teaching Experience Specialization
Male Female BA Grad Less than 5 5 to 10 More than 10 Humanities Scientific
Intimacy 4.35

.438

4.38

.563

4.42

.539

4.30

.464

4.26

.466

4.29

.461

4.53

.543

4.38

.469

4.35

.538

Passion 3.59

.760

3.65

.835

3.66

.801

3.58

.796

3.49

.812

3.60

.785

3.77

.785

3.67

.834

3.59

.765

Commitment 3.76

.563

3.90

.640

3.86

.622

3.79

.587

3.73

.594

3.82

.611

3.95

.603

3.85

.632

3.82

.586

Total 3.90

.519

3.98

.608

3.98

.581

3.89

.544

3.83

.558

3.90

.541

4.08

.576

3.97

.577

3.92

.558

A Four-Way MANOVA was used to test the teachers’perceptions of the three dimensions of love of leader as related to their gender, academic qualification, teaching experience, and specialization. The results of MANOVA are presented in table 5.The results indicate that no significant differences were found in the teachers’perceptions of the three dimensions of love of leader in relation to the above-mentioned variables.

Table 5Four-Way MANOVA tests for teachers’perceptions of the three dimensions of love of leader as related to their gender, academic qualification, teaching experience, and specialization.

Effect   Value F Hypothesis df Error df Sig.
Gender Hotelling’s Trace .036 2.576 3.000 216.000 .055
Academic qualification Hotelling’s Trace .010 .749 3.000 216.000 .524
Teaching experience Wilks’ Lambda .954 1.732 6.000 432.000 .112
Specialization Hotelling’s Trace .014 .987 3.000 216.000 .400

SUMMARY, DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

In summary, the results of this study revealed that the degree of organizational climate in Omani schools were in high level from the teachers’ perspective. There are significant differences in the teachers’perceptions of the five dimensions of OC of school as related to their gender, interaction between gender and qualification, interaction between gender and specialization. No significant differences found in relation to their academic qualification, teaching experiences, and specialization. The results of this study can be used to create opportunities for future research of aspects of organizational climate at Omani schools.

There aresignificant differences in OC in all dimensions related to interaction between gender and qualification, that female with BA have “supportive principal behavior”, “engaged teacher behavior”, “frustrated teacher behavior”, “intimate teacher behavior”, higher than male. Male with BA have “directive principal behavior” dimension higher than female. Male with Graduate have higher “supportive principal behavior”, “engaged teacher behavior”, “frustrated teacher behavior”, “intimate teacher behavior” than female. While female with Graduate have higher “directive principal behavior” than male. There is significance difference in “frustrated teacher behavior” dimension of OC related to interaction between gender and specialization, that female with Humanities specialization have “frustrated teacher behavior” dimension higher than male. While Male with Scientific specialization have higher “frustrated teacher behavior” than female. The results of this study can be used to create opportunities for future research of aspects of organizational climate at Omani schools.

The level of love of leader of Schools Principal’s in Omani schools in all dimensionswere in higher level. No significant differences in the teachers perceived the three dimensions of love of leader as related to their gender, academic qualification, teaching experience, and specialization.There is a positive relationship between ethical leadership dimensions and organizational health dimensions perceived by Omani teachers at Omani schools.

School climate shaped by quality relationships. Student, teacher, principal, parent and school–community relationshipsare all important matters in shaping the social dimension included in school climate (Demarayet al., 2012). The importance of positive relationships in schools reflected by students’ that encouraged them making positive life course decisions and positive perceptions regarding their cooperation, self-efficacy and the ability to solve social problems (Jimerson et al., 2012), decrease the probability of violence (Loukas, 2007), having a healthy informalorganization (Hoy & Miskel,2005).  Teachers can be more effective in providing increased and improved emotional support to students as they move through their education (Freeman et al., 2011). Teachers can work with parents of students, emphasizing that parents’ knowledge of their roles in supporting the school climate needs to be increased and more accessible (Craig et al., 2010).

Recommendations

In this research paper, we contributed significant theoretical and empirical aspects regarding organizational climate and love of leader as perceived by teachers. We reviewed literature on organizational climate and love of leader that led us to propose new understanding of the relationship between organizational climate and love of leader. Thus, we filled a research gap by translating the understanding the relationship between organizational climate and love of leader into understanding this relationship for the specifics of the school administration level.

Due to the limitations of this study, the following recommendations for future research are as following: This research can be done with larger sample of participants, can be done with basic and high schools, can be done in the public and private schools, and future research could survey perceptions of parents and community of the school.In general, these recommendations could also serve as a fundamental framework for further investigate studies in different districts of education in Sultanate of Oman and other countries that are not as familiar with the idea of organizational climate and love of leader

References:

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