Research studies

The Arabian Nights Galland translation the Result’s and the impacts

 

Prepared by the researcher  :  Dr Kouissi Aissa – Amar Telidji University laghouat  Algeria

Democratic Arab Center

Journal of cultural linguistic and artistic studies : Twenty-Second Issue – January 2022

A Periodical International Journal published by the “Democratic Arab Center” Germany – Berlin.

Nationales ISSN-Zentrum für Deutschland
 ISSN  2625-8943

Journal of cultural linguistic and artistic studies

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Abstract

We do not consider The Thousand and One Nights as a record of the indulgences of kings, princes, and merchants, and images of women’s slavery and oppression…. Rather, it is above all open texts, which did not stop at a fixed formula, and were not written by one person, but rather knew different formulations, additions and omissions as a result of the migration of the text from One place to another and from one culture to another thanks to the multiple translations, the most important of which is the translation of Antoine Galland, which introduced the West to its global cultural repertoire that contains legendary symbols, signs and melodies that restore their significance within the general framework of human culture in its early stages.

Introduction

    The first thing that drew Westerners to One Thousand and One Nights was the translation made by Antoine Galland, a French orientalist who specialized in oriental languages ​​and sciences, and worked in collecting historical artifacts and rare oriental manuscripts for temptation (abdelhalim ,1964,P23).

Galland  began translating the stories of Sindbad, and when he translated them, he knew that these stories were part of a large group of this kind. He was fortunate that four volumes of this huge author were sent to him from Aleppo, so he began the translation in 1704 and finished it in 1717.

1 Reasons for the succes of Galland translation.

  Immediately after its publication, this translation achieved an unparalleled success and spread through out France, where publishing houses competed for it, and for a century, it remained the only translation known to the Western world during the nights of Shahra Zad. There is no doubt that a great success of this type can only be explained by some reasons:

  1.1  The thirst reason is Galand himself was a talented storyteller and a gifted writer, with insight into the art of story, as he was able to present to his readers the finest tales contained in the nights in a smooth style and in a bright language that the readers circulated, as if he had written in French originally and not translated into it, and it is mentioned that some of his friends were familiar with the translated tales. before printing. (scheffer1881,,P113)

  1.2  The second reason attributed to the success of translation is its timely appearance: people, at the beginning of the eighteenth century, were tired of classical literature, which was frozen by artistic molds that did not accept development, and they searched for a new literature to match the classics.It seems that Galand translated the book “One Thousand and One Nights” with discretion, but with moderation and skill. “She chose several kinds of vegetables and fruits” without enumerating – in boring detail – the woman’s many purchases from the market.

1.3       Antoine Galland was aware that: “The Thousand and One Nights” has a lot of repetition, so the descriptions of people and places are almost similar in the tales. It is possible to dispense with some of them sometimes or summarize them at other times without affecting the content of the stories or changing their meaning.

1.4   It seems that Galand acted in translation to bring the Arabic text closer to the French mentality and taste. And let’s not forget that many critics praised his method of translation, because he did not drift behind the ostentatious workmanship that the nights knew in the original model. It is true that magic, supernatural works and the world of fairies and spirits have played a major role in The success of the text and translation, but the important thing is that the unusual was told with clarity, simplicity and grace . (Mommsen ,1980 ,P10)

   1.4 A literal translation of The Thousand and One Nights, in this era, would not have had any success in Europe, due to the dominance of rationality and classical taste that tire repetition and do not correspond to the narration of partial details and prefer that truth prevail in everything, even in fables (Hilal,1973 P17)

1.5    And because Galland was aware of that. The effect of brevity, accuracy, and revision of the text from boring repetition and some long details. It is sufficient for me to add brief notes and explanations in the footnotes in order to explain the eastern customs and traditions and everything that may blind the reader of matterrelated to the atmosphere of the nights and their meanings…

    All Translation .Dryden suppose, may be reduced ti these three    heads :First,that of Metaphrase,or turning and Author Word by Word,and Line byLine,from one Language into another Thus,or near this manner,was Horace his Art of Poetry translated by Ben Johnson.The second way is that of Paraphrase,or translation with Latitude,where the Author is Kept in view by the translator,so as never to be lost,but his words are not so strictly follow’d as his sence,and that too is admitted to be amplified,but not alter’d.Such is Mr .Waller’s Translation of Virgil’s Fourth AEneid The Third way is that Imitation,Where the translator(if now he has not lost that Name)assumes the liberty,not only to vary from the words and sence,but to forsake them both as he sees occasion ;and taking only some general hints from the original,to run division on the Ground –Work, as he pleases.Such is Mr .Cowley’s practice in turning two Odes of Pindar, and one Horace,into English.  (Dryden,1992 ,P17-31)

1.6  Galland seems to have preferred the second method, the method of mental method that pursues meaning and feeling rather than words, in order to bring the original text closer to the taste of the French reader and preserve the tale as much as possible. The issue, then, is a matter of elaborate and original work, rather than a translation in the narrow sense of the word.

1.7 It can be said that Galland introduced to his fans An elegant translation of a wonderfully cast style, characterized by clarity, grace and simplicity, “The pictures were painted by the hand of a poet, with confidence and steadfastness.” And the oriental atmosphere brought the French reader closer in a bright preamble. So, it is not an exaggeration to emphasize the merit of this orientalist in occupying Shahrzad’s group its excellent position in world literature.

1.8 If this translation was incomplete, this matter did not have a significant impact on the value of the work, as it was a pioneer that included the greatest and most important stories known in the copies of the original book, and it had the upper hand in introducing the book and mentioning its name and indicating its merit.

2 . Other European translations:

Antoine Galland’s translation achieved a resounding success, and soon it was translated into many other languages, but became popular in the West, the Odyssey and the Aeneid, and occupied an excellent place in world literature.

The Thousand and One Nights was translated into almost all the languages ​​of Europe from the French translation, but it turned out to be the most important of its languages ​​on the Arabic origin, and the orientalists were interested in publishing and presenting these translations. Even the Russian translation made by Sale was published by the well-known orientalist Krachkosky, and the orientalist Littmann published the German translation, but he preferred to re-translate it.

 2.1 French translations:

    I translated Galland  with French readers for almost two centuries, publishers added and repaired them until Mardrus finally translated his translation, which is not mentioned about its origin, except that it is an Arabic origin from the late seventeenth century, which he produced the best output in terms of paintings and printing. Translation is a scientific translation.(Alkalmaoui,1980,P11)

 2.2 English translations:

    England for a century remained dependent on Galland’s translation in its translations of The Thousand and One Nights, until some orientalists became active in translating from the Arabic verse. Macann’s finding of a manuscript copy of this book, of course, MacNatten in Calcutta, known as Calcutta’s second copy, was the greatest incentive for English orientalists to make translations based on the Arabic original. The first to do this was Jonathan Scott in 1811. Then he came after Scott Henry Torrens and relied on the same edition, so he took care of the original text. As much as possible, he was brief in the comments he made and translated poetry in The Thousand and One Nights into English poetry. Critics believe that this translation is almost the best translation and the closest to showing the literary beauty of this book, but there is only one part in the British Museum after it was found that its owner died after The completion of the first fifty nights. That is why we find it printed in London in 1839 under the title “The First Fifty Nights of the Arab Nights”, and in it there is poetry. Torrens’s work was the first serious work, done by the British to transfer this book to their peoples, and the Orientalist Lane came after him, so he rose between a year 1839 and 1841 with a full translation. He says in the introduction to his translation: “The news of Lanne’s translating from the original encouraged me to publish this translation.” Lanne says in his second translation that his first translation was from French on Galland, and to him her mistakes are traced back, but to me In his second translation, he relied on the well-known Bulaq version, and relied on his experiences in the East. And his translation of that faithful to the original as much as possible. He gave her a long and extensive introduction to the origin of the nights and its author. In the year 1882, Bain made a limited translation, which he claimed was the first complete English translation of the Arabic text. He is also proud of his introduction to the fact that his translation is the first in which poetry appears translated into poetry. Burton came in the year 1885 and publishes a huge translation of the Nights in ten parts, which he appends to an appendix in seven other parts. in it. The most important thing he wrote in this translation is the concluding article in which he reviewed his information on Arabic literature and everything that touches on the history of the nights. The most important. (Ibid,P09-10)

 2.3German translations:

    The Orientalist von Hammer was the first to transfer something of this antiquity to Germany. He translated stories in Cairo and Istanbul that were not found in Galland’s translation. He then printed the German translation of Galland’s translation. His stories were translated into French by Trébutien  in 1828. Then came Weil’s translation between 1837 and 1841 and he relied on it on the copy of Berslow and Bulaq and an Arabic manuscript in the Gotha Library. To European’s it was few and brief. The Greve translation also appeared based on Burton’s English translation, and this Greve translation was the nucleus of the latest and most famous German translations, which is the translation of the orientalist Littmann, who was commissioned to review the translation of  F.P.Greve on the Arabic original in 1918. Since the second part, he has started issuing a new translation, all of the grandmother. So this title was given to her, which is: “A complete German translation for the first time from the Arabic original, edition of Calcutta in 1839.” He used the Bulaq version, which mostly depends on the second Calcutta version, and he also used The Breslow version as well.. Since some of the famous stories in Europe are not found in the eastern editions of this group, he added them, mentioning them in the introduction as a reference for all these stories, such as the story of Ali Baba, Aladdin and Zain Al-Awsaf. (Ibid,P07-08)

3translation results:

   a general idea, but sufficiently precise, on the place of collection in the library of Galland. it is “to a thousand and one nights” and also to say, to them alone that it must not have fallen into the forget the most complete. Antoine Galland is recognized today mainly for this “work of fariboles” as he himself called it. (Charaibi, 2012,P13-38)

   the translation of Antoine Galland aroused in the West an unprecedented craze for the Thousand and One Nights, and many orientalists went to Egypt or Syria in search of an exhaustive manuscript intended to overcome the shortcomings of that of Galland . in front of such a demand, which in reality affected the whole of the heritage of the East (manuscripts, vestiges, works of art, medals etc …), there are very few Arab manuscripts of a thousand nights and nights in Arab countries.(Akel, 2012 ,P43-47)

   One of the introductions to the French edition of the book “Arabian Nights” mentions that Homer, Ossian, and the Nights fascinated civilized peoples in one way, despite their different content.(Mommsen,1980,P17-18)

   So, the results far exceeded what was expected, and the tales of Shahra Zad – thanks to their many translations – became wonderful masterpieces of world literature.

   There is a fact that will remain attractive, which is that the age of enlightenment, rationality and classical taste, i.e. the eighteenth century, was the one that embraced with all recognition and acceptance of the tales of Shahra Zad alone. (Ibid,P123)

    The sweetness captivates the minds, and secondly, the nature of the tales that respond to the reality of the European human being and what the nights depict from the reality of their characters and heroes in their pain and dreams.

   The Nights, then, were translated into various European languages, and this event was considered among the largest European cultural events. These numerous translations of the book, after alerting to its artistic value, resulted in various literary and scientific results, the most important of which are listed below:

3.1Taking care of collecting folk literature:

   The translations of the Nights aroused a passion in the souls of Europeans to collect and categorize their folk literature into collections.

   In France, many folk and fairy tales drawn from rural literature were published, the famous Charles Perrault collection was reprinted and the new Lissen collection published, Miss Dolibert’s collection, and Hamilton’s collection, all drawn from rural oral sources, paraphrased in a beautiful and bright style. (Barguillet,1961 ,P65-67)

   These verses have been published in the form of collections throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, composed by women in particular, after they were collected from the mouths of the French Rafis. It is worth noting that the researcher Morney recorded in a special bibliography fifty-nine groups that published between 1740 and 1780. They are all drawn from popular literature.

   In Germany, Achim von Arnim, Clemens, Brentano and the Brothers Grimm collected tales and categorized them into independent collections. The Grimm brothers (Jacob and Wilhelm), in the year 1812 published a group of folk stories called “Children’s Tales and the House” and relied in the process of collection on sources Oral folk. And they admitted in their commentary on this these tales.

   In Germany – always – Novalis published his collection “The Bulb and Pink Blood” in the first quarter of the nineteenth century. The writer Goethe was also interested in collecting tales, and he used to listen to his mother telling him many fairy tales such as “The Weaver’s Tale” who married the princess and the story “The Gardens of the Elves” and “The Tale of Magnet Mountain” and others … ( Von Doderlein,1973,P25)

   It is worth noting that European researchers have studied the stories a scientific study, and tried to determine, through comparisons, the locations of these original stories and how they migrated from one region to another, relying in their studies on different approaches….

   It can be said, then, that the Europeans’ care for collecting their folk literature – after translating the Nights – exceeded all imaginations, because they realized the importance of these literatures in the lives of peoples. And if these tales enjoyed all this respect, “the credit owes primarily to those features that distinguished the contents of “One Thousand and One Nights”…. Such folk literature should be transformed – so to speak – to the school of wisdom, because it It can offer culture, fun and philosophy.” (Mommsen,OP,Cit,P124)

3.2 Desire to discover the East.

   The tales of the nights inflamed the imagination of French readers, and left them dreaming of its warm atmosphere. Perhaps one of the manifestations of this effect is what the Europeans themselves recognized of their great position. Oysterp described its importance by saying:

 “Except for the Bible, there are only a few books that have achieved a wide spread and circulated around the world, such as the” One Thousand and One Nights ” collection… because there is hardly anyone in most developed countries who has not read this collection with pleasure at least once in his life. (Ibid,P129)

    If these tales have acquired great importance by their spread in the world, at the same time they have aroused in the hearts of their readers a desire to know the peoples who produced them, and urged them to travel to Egypt and Baghdad. And Levant, Iran and India. Some of them have actually begun to leave for these regions out of curiosity and longing. It is sufficient to take a look at the book of Jean-Marie Cary to see the increasing number of writers and travelers who visited the East in the eighteenth century, and admitted that the cities of the “nights” were One of the most important factors that prompted them to take these trips, despite the high financial costs. (Carre, 1956,P39-76)

    In fact, the translation of the Nights for the first time into French represents a significant turning point in the history of Western-Eastern relations. Recent research has shown that this translation was not an accident unrelated to what came before or after it, but rather was the end of a great movement towards depicting the Orient in imaginary images derived from the Moorish stories and the first trips to the Orient and descriptions of Eastern life that appeared, later, in the writings of Taverni, Chardin and Bernie And others…. They are undoubtedly strange images that are distinguished by their warm colors.

    Europeans in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries were ignorant of many aspects of the life of the Orient, because their knowledge of it was based on second-class sources: travel literature, missionaries’ reports, descriptions of merchants… And their perceptions of the Orient remained rigid, as if they had been put into pre-molded templates. (Magic, palaces, tyranny…) In spite of the benefit of the eastern languages ​​from the printing press founded by Cardinal Ferdinando de Medici in 1586 and the papal interest in this region in order to unite the Church.

    In the seventeenth century, the West began to gradually approach the East for political and economic reasons. It seems that the Europeans – in this period – felt that the Turks had become a great political danger, and therefore it was inevitable to establish contacts with them. France has already begun to send its diplomats and envoys to the Islamic East (the Count de Sese, the Marquis de Noatel, the Baron d’Argent…), and at the same time it was receiving ambassadors and envoys of the Ottoman Empire and building for them huge embassies that sometimes included entire neighborhoods.

    Despite these intense political contacts, the number of European travelers to the eastern world, in this period, remained small. In fact, the goals and objectives of these travelers did not depart from the following points: evangelization and archaeological excavations, trade and tourism, and assignment for military purposes. This is in addition to passing through this country located between the continents. The news of the tourists and envoys and their descriptions, which they convey to their countries upon return, remained incomplete, lacking the ability to describe honest and accurate, and they contained a kind of bias and prejudice sometimes. Oriental companies appeared, founded by the French minister Colbert (1619-1683), and Catholic missionaries became active. Interest in Orientalist studies increased. Darbilor wrote his famous encyclopedia “The Oriental Library” published by Antoine Galland after his death in 1697, and Richard Simon published his famous book “History.” The Criticism of the Doctrines and Customs of the Nations of the East”, 1684, analyzing the customs and rites of Eastern Christians first, then the customs and rites of Muslims, based on the books of jurists and historians, and many scholars also set out to defend Islam against the prejudices that it suffered in the Middle Ages and against the arguments of detractors from capacity.

    And the number of European travelers to the East, in this period as well, began to rise relatively. Minister Colbert encouraged his friends and those interested to take trips to the East, in search of rare manuscripts and artifacts, and Antoine Galland  himself was dispatched by Colbert to collect such antiques from Turkey, Egypt and others.And the translation of the nights emerged at the right time to change many many facts.

    With its emergence, the eighteenth century in Europe showed a distinct interest in everything related to the East, an interest that cannot be compared to previous eras. As a rational religion, far removed from Christian beliefs that contradict reason, a religion that reconciles the call for an ethical life and between the needs of the body and the senses society. (Schacht and Borzoth,1978,P54)

     It can be said, then, that the emergence of this translation has changed the European man’s view of this East, because it gave him a more clear picture and made its impact more influential. In many studies and arts, the eastern man appeared beautiful in appearance, good-natured, fertile in imagination, generous and tolerant, respecting the freedom of others in religion and behavior. (Martino,1906,P61)

     It is noticeable that scientific research focused, in the eighteenth century, on the study of this East and its siege, literature and religions. One of the results of this scientific interest was that a group of references emerged that study patiently and objectively the civilization of the Near and Far East, and the customs and morals of the Orientals. The Islamic East occupied a leading position in these studies, and a group of researchers studied the Arabic language and other oriental languages ​​alone, after the major universities allocated seats to them.

    It also seems that many Europeans, in the eighteenth century, yearned to visit these countries, which the nights depicted, so the trips to Baghdad, Mithr, the Levant, India and Persia were surprisingly numerous. So if the orthodox, after they were satisfied with the Arabic books or Western books they had in their hands, they themselves try to visit these Arab countries in particular and the East in general and get to know their people, their languages ​​and their civilization. As for travelers, they are not satisfied with describing the eastern cities and those they find in them, but rather analyze the characteristics of these people and their emotions and everything related to them.

     In sum, translating The Thousand and One Nights into European languages ​​is indeed an important and dangerous event in the history of Western-Eastern relations and in the history of world literature. We are not exaggerating if we say with the researcher Suhair Al-Qalamawi that The Thousand and One Nights was the most important incentive for the West to take care of the East, a care that goes beyond the colonial, commercial and political aspects.¨. (Alkalmaoui,OP,Cit,P64)

3.3 Influence on European literature:

One of the results of translating Al-Layali and its rapid spread in the West was that it had a clear impact on major literary works. Many European thinkers who have seen it have praised its unlimited literary influence on European literature.

European writers have become “craving for this artistic relic and for its own expressions and images quoted from it, whenever they want to separate in their literature talk about supernatural magic or eastern opulence in general….” (Alkalmaoui,Ibid,P68)

She was inspired by wonderful pieces for theatre, music, and stories for the cinema, and she also preferred to provide children’s stories with a new, simple and lively material.

Among the topics that Al-Layali broadcasted and enabled in the world of literature: The subject of travels. It is known that Antoine Galland translated the first of the tales of “Sindbad the Seaman” in which the wonderful novel atmosphere prevails and its events take place in unknown worlds between the children of mankind and the jinn.

    The researchers admit that travel literature in Europe began to develop since the eighteenth century, and to color new colors with the advent of The Thousand and One Nights. Travelers have spread to the lands of the East, and most of them have returned with very exciting news and information . (Schacht and Borzoth,OP,Cit,P69)

    The travel writers have come to move themselves to the East – after translating the Nights and being influenced by them – and some of those who did not travel to the East tried to write about the journeys they imagined. In English literature, Daniel Defoe and Jonathan Swift elevated the subject of travels to the level of general literary themes thanks to their two night-influenced books: Robinson Crezo and Jil Furn’s Travels. As for French literature, it won Gil vern’s many “journeys” – also derived from the Nights – were a resounding success.

     In fact, it was not surprising that the Nights had such admiration and that they affected European literatures with various and extremely dangerous influences, due to their unlimited richness in materials, ideas, characters and narrative formulas…Victor Chauvin gave a long list of European writers who were clearly influenced by the Nights’ tales. Wieland, Voltaire, Hoffmann, Montesquieu, Tennyson, Harriet, Dickens, Gedison…. He admits, however, that he mentions only a limited selection of writers for the lack of complete evidence

This is briefly about the impact of the Thousand and One Nights in European literature after translating the book into European languages ​​in the eighteenth and nineteenth   centuries.

 3.4 The effect of Arabian nights oral:

Did the West know the story of the Thousand and One Nights before its translation into European languages? And did these tales have an impact on European literature before the eighteenth century?

   Specialized scholars do not exclude the possibility that Europe received the Tales of the Nights several centuries before the advent of Galland’s translation. In their opinion, a number of elements from Arab and oriental stories were transmitted by mouth to wide parts of Europe, leaving a profound impact on European literature. This happened in an era when Europe hardly knew travel except with the intention of pilgrimage to the holy lands. (Alkhalouci,1980,P27-31)

    In fact, the transmission of tales of the nights to the West through the novel is natural. It is – above all – a popular literature in which freedom, flexibility and the ability to take and give is what makes it challenge the war dispute, political conflict and territorial borders.

    The researchers admitted that whenever there was contact between Eastern and Western literatures, the abundance of Eastern influence was able to increase in the currents of European folk literature a strength with which it could challenge the authority of Latin and Greek literatures in a some what successful challenge.. (Schacht and Borzoth ,1978 ,pp196-198) .

    And if the Europeans knew the tales of the nights in an early period and were influenced by them in their literary creativity, this does not mean that they read them in full, and all that is in the matter is that a specific part of them reached them, which can – after a comparative study – be identified and highlighted.

   It is not excluded that Andalusia, Sicily and southern Italy, in which direct contact between Arabs and Christians took place, have known tales from the nights, as historians of civilization admit that the Arab-Islamic heritage moved to Europe through these bridges and took its role there in the movement of neighborhoods in which history began Renaissance in Europe. Undoubtedly, these areas were rippling- During the Arab rule in it – in different colors of tales and stories, it is known – for example – that the voyages of Sinbad the Sailor were translated into Hebrew with the title of Sinbad’s mishlet and spread in Europe under the title of the Seven Wise Chiefs, and it was translated into Latin, a translation that is still preserved in many manuscripts (Badaoui,P81)                                                                                                               The Crusaders must have heard some of the tales of the Thousand and One Nights and carried them with them to their homelands and benefited from them. There are many sources that confirm that the Crusaders used to savor the verses of science, art and literature among the Arabs, especially after their settlement in the Levant lands. As their outlook developed, their revolution subsided, and they imitated the social aspects of the people, administrative systems, and intellectual and moral elements. (Annakach,1964,P194)

   There is also no doubt that the transmission of the tales of the Nights to Europe was a result of the movement of trade exchange on the Mediterranean stage between its northern shores in Europe and its southern shores in the Arab-Islamic world. The fleets of Venice, Luke, Genoa and Pisa were constantly sailing to the coasts of Syria, Alexandria and Tunisia. Algeria and Asia Minor… Add to that the Ottomans’ penetration into Europe until their conquest of Hungary and the extension of their control over Hungary and the extension of their control over the Balkan countries for several centuries. This spread a lot of Islamic literature in this country. (Badaoui,OP ,Cit,67)

     In fact, research on the influence of oral “nights” in European literature needs independent studies. Because the literary forms influenced by the book are numerous, their languages are different, and the spatial and temporal area is wide. For this, we will suffice – for the limited space – to refer to some literary works influenced by tales. We leave the door wide open for other studies dealing with exploration, scrutiny and comparison.

     In Spanish literature, the effect of the nights was embodied in several literary works, including the tale of the knight Sivar that appeared between 1299 and 1325, the tale but life is a dream by the writer Calderon Dolbarca, and the tale of the girl Theodore by the writer Lope de Fica. It is worth noting that the tales of Sinbad the Sailor were translated into the Castilian language in the year 1252 under the title The Book of Women’s Intrigues, and the matter was translated by Prince Frederick, brother of the world King Alfonso X… It is not excluded that these tales influenced some Spanish stories. (Gonzalez,1959, P592-598)

    As for Italian literature, we find two stories that are clearly affected by the nights: the first is the story of Astalavo by the writer Giovanni Sercampi (1742), and the second is the story of Hicondor, which is found in the thirty-seventh song of the writer Arlando Francevo, which was composed in the year 1530.

    The researchers believe that the writer Boccaccio (1315-1375) has drawn the material of the Decameron group from the nights. This collection was written by him in the year 1349, and included a hundred tales of the type of tales of the Thousand and One Nights, and attributed it to seven women and three men who had left the city in some suburbs to escape from the plague.

    Among the German stories derived from the Nights is the story of Herves Metz, which is an effective chant that was created at the end of the twelfth century. Jordan proved in a valuable research that there is a great similarity between this story and the tale of Noureddine in the Thousand and One Nights

On the other hand, we point out that Professor S. Singer was able to show the extent to which the story of Isiludah and Ishad took from Arab tales.

    As for the researcher, F. Rschöder, after reading the German text of the Book of Nights, he found the exact equations of the idea that scholars have long been standing before them in the poetic story Maurice von Crown, which was written in the Middle German language, where the knight falls asleep while he is waiting for his beloved according to the agreed time, which Aroused the indignation of the beloved upon seeing him in this state because of what she thought was a kind of indifference.

And in English literature, it seems that the story of Chaucer, called The Boy Knight, is influenced by the tales of the Thousand and One Nights, but is extracted from the core of these tales. And the field is still open for those who would like to make comparisons between Shakespeare’s plays and Arab tales: the play “The Storm” is almost one of the stories of the nights unparalleled in the tale of Treasures Island, and there is some similarity between the play of The Merchant of Venice and the tale of Masroor the Merchant and Zain al-awsaf…

To sum up, the link between the Nights and the European story in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance is a close relationship. There is no doubt that a careful examination of these influenced European stories in order to place it in its historical place in the genesis of the European story, to foretell that the Arab-Islamic novel, and with the myths and tales that the medieval consciousness memorized, was transmitted before translating The Thousand and One Nights and their lips to the European society that was Qualified to benefit from it in creating Conclusion :

  1. Conclusions:

ـThe appearance of this (Galland)translation changed the European view of the East and gave him a clearer and more positive image. The man of the East appeared beautiful, imaginative, generous and tolerant, respecting the religion of others.

ـThe translation of One Thousand and One Nights into European languages ​​is considered an important event in the history of Western-Eastern relations and in the history of world literature.

ـThe translation of the Nights changed many facts. With its appearance, Europeans in the eighteenth century showed great interest in everything related to the East.

ـScientific research in Europe and the West – in the eighteenth century – focused on the study of this East, its literature and religions, and the Islamic East occupied the forefront in these researches.

– A group of researchers studied Arabic and oriental languages ​​alone, after universities allocated seats to them.

– She was inspired by wonderful pieces for theatre, music, and stories for the cinema.

– Provided children’s literature with a new material characterized by simplicity and vitality.

ـThe nights broadcast the topic of travels and enabled it to become a literary world is literary models.

ـThe translation reconsidered the book “Arabian Nights”, where texts were marginalized in the official Arab-Islamic culture, despite their wide spread, circulation, and possession of people’s imagination, as the “moral” censorship combined with the representatives of rhetoric to make the “Arabian Nights” below the level that entitles it to rise to the top The position of high texts.

Recommendations:

 Through this brief presentation of Antoine Galland’s translation into various European languages ​​and its impact on the Western and Eastern world, we call for a re-reading of the Arabian Nights.

   Meditation, a deep reading that frees her from the negativity that has been cast upon her and restores her artistic, literary and cultural value

References :

-A.Gonzalez   ,Palencia ,Historia de la Literatura Arabigo-Espanola, Maktabat Althaqafa adynia ,El Cairo, (1959)PP592-598.

-Abdelhalim ,Mohamed , Antoine Galland :sa vie son œuvre , A. G. Nizet,Paris, (1964)p23.

-Akel Ibrahim ,la bibliothèque arabe des mille et une nuits , E.Bouffard et A–A.Joyard éd   ,Paris,(2012)p43-47.

-Alkalmaoui ,Soheir,Alf leila wa leila,Dar el-Maaref . 4ème(éds), ,Egypte(1980)pp07-12.

-Alkhalouci.safa ,Studies in Comparative Literature and literary schools, Association Press , Baghdad. (1957) pp27-31.

-Annakach Zaki, Social Cultural and economics relation between the Arabs and Francks during the crusades,Lebanese Book House For Printing ,Publishing and distribution,Beirut,1946,p194.

-Badaoui .Aberrahmane , The role of Arabs in the formation of European literature, 3ème eds , Dar –alkalam . Beirut,(1979)p67.

-Barguillet Françoise  ,Le Roman au 18 ème siècle , P .U.F. Paris (1961) p65-67.

-Carre ,J.M , Voyageurs et écrivains français en Egypte, , I .I. F .A, le Caire( 1956).pp39-76.

-Charles scheffer.le journal d’Antoine Galland ,édi .Ernest le roux, Paris,(1900), P113.

-Chauvin  ,V ,Bibliographie des ouvrages arabes ou relatifs aux arabes Vol12,Liège(1922)

-Chraibi Aboubakr, Galland et les mille et une nuits .le journal d’Antoine Galland(1646-1715)la periode Parisienne,Vol .1 :1708-1709, F.Bauden et R.Waller éd, Paris(2012)pp13-38.

-Dryden  ,J , Metaphrase, paraphrase, and  Imitatation .Extracts of Preface to Ovid’s  Epistles (1680) and Dedication of the Aeneis (1697) ,R.Schulte and J.Biguenet(eds)(1992),pp.17-31.

-Hilal Mohamed Ghounimi.Romantisme, dar el aouda,Bairout ,(1973),pp17-18.

-Jeep.H.R ,The Legacy of Islam,trans by Abdelatif Hamza,Cairo,Authoring and translation Commitee Press(1936)pp201-202 .

-Martino, Pierre  ,L’orient dans la littérature Française au 17ème et  au 18ème siècle, ,Hachette. Paris , (1906)p93 .

-Mommsen,Katrina ,Goethe and the Tousend and One nights,translated to arabic by Ahmed Al Hammou,  Ministry of Highet Education , Damascus, (1980)p10.

-Schacht.J .and Bozoth.C. ,Legacy of Islam.National council for culture,Arts and letters (1978),p54.

-Von Doderlein,Frederich ,Fairy Tales, translated to Arabic By NabilaIbrahim,Beirut,Dar el-kaiam. (1973)P25.

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المركز الديمقراطى العربى

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