Research studies

University Youth Attitudes to Follow Transformation on Facebook-A Field Study on the Media Students of Arab Universities

 

Prepared by the researcher 

  • Dr. Marian Tadrous – Ph.D. in Strategic Media – School of Communication and the Arts – Liberty University – USA
  • Dr. Eman Mohamed Ahmed Hassan, Assistant Professor of Radio and Television, Department of Educational Media, Faculty of Specific Education, Minia University, Egypt
  • Dr. Jad Oweidat – Ph.D. in Media and Communication – Bordeaux University – France
  • Dr. Noha Sabri Muhammad Al-Qatawneh – Ph.D. in Electronic Journalism and Media Legislation at the Institute of Journalism and News Sciences – Manouba University – Tunisia – Kingdom of Jordan

Democratic Arab Center

Journal of Afro-Asian Studies : Fifteenth Issue – November 2022

A Periodical International Journal published by the “Democratic Arab Center” Germany – Berlin.

Nationales ISSN-Zentrum für Deutschland
ISSN  2628-6475
Journal of Afro-Asian Studies

:To download the pdf version of the research papers, please visit the following link

https://democraticac.de/wp-content/uploads/2022/10/Journal-of-Afro-Asian-Studies-Fifteenth-Issue-%E2%80%93-November-2022.pdf

Abstract

The study aimed to identify the university youth’s attitudes toward following up on the transformation on “Facebook.” The study used the descriptive approach and a sample survey method for data collection from ” Bani Suef university in Egypt and El Yarmouk university in Jordan” The study concluded a statistically significant correlation between the respondents’ follow-up to the changes on “Facebook” and their attitudes towards it. The sample study interacts first by commenting on topics related to “Metavirus” techniques, followed by interaction with participation, and finally, interaction with admiration.

An Introduction

In light of the massive successive development, recent technological developments have brought about a qualitative leap in media and communication technology, which led to the emergence of social networks. These sites have changed users’ attitudes from passive consumers to active participants in content. The exchange of different issues and ideas among network users has shortened distances and changed social relationships between individuals.

The social networking site “Facebook” also plays an active role in shaping the public’s awareness of topics related to current events. It has gained evidence in discussing many societal issues that arouse the public’s interest in interaction, dialogue, and participation, especially interacting with topics related to the transformations in the Facebook institution, which are of great importance to users and various institutions. So, the study will examine the attitudes of university youth toward pursuing Facebook’s transformations from a modern perspective.

Literature Review

The attitudes toward following the transformations witnessed by the “Facebook” organization have been observed on several levels. Within the framework of previous studies related to the topic of research, under the axis of studies related to audience attitudes and the interaction of “Facebook,” the following is a review of the previous studies:

Suhair Othman (2021). aimed to identify the attitudes of the Egyptian public towards the satirical videos of influencers on the social network “Facebook,” and their role in addressing the issues of Egyptian society to determine the nature of the influencers who are followed by the public. The study used the descriptive approach. A sample survey method was also used as a data collection tool. The sample was (238) from the Egyptian audience; the study concluded that most respondents emphasized the importance of launching satirical videos from correct information and not resorting to personal judgments.([1]).

In the same context, Faisal Ahmed (2020). sought to monitor the attitudes of Saudi youth towards the social and moral responsibility of their interaction through “Facebook” and private chat rooms. as well as knowing the role that “Facebook” can play in influencing the cultural identity and moral values. The descriptive approach was used as a sample survey method to collect the data; the sample consisted of (200) Saudi university youth in the faculties of Umm Al-Qura University. It was found that there is a statistically significant correlation between the motives of Saudi youth using “Facebook” and their attitudes towards the type of impact of the contents displayed on the social and behavioral values ​​that exist in society.([2]).

Wahiba Masameh and Walida Haddadi (2020, 390). revealed the interactive dimensions available on the “Facebook” pages of the private Algerian satellite channels. They used the descriptive approach in the content analysis as a tool for data collection. They found an interest in employing interactive Facebook pages with varying dimensions and levels, with a disparity in the public’s use of them.([3]).

Jessica Troilo Bob Britten (2020, 160–169). aimed to identify the extent to which the university student can maintain relationships using social media; the descriptive approach was used in a sample survey as a data collection tool. (Inside, off-campus, acquaintances, close friendships). The authors concluded: the five tasks of strengthening relationships in the different types of friendships (positive, openness, affirmations, social networks, and everyday tasks) were primarily used to maintain relationships on and off campus and can be helpful in “University Facebook” and with acquaintances and close people. The results also indicated more intimate friendships between students outside the university campus.([4]).

Mustafa Rostam, Sabah Ahmad (Mustafa, Rostam; Sabah Ahmad, 2020, 125-142) identified the effect of “Facebook” on the social relations between individuals and their differences using the sample survey method as a tool for data collection. The sample consisted of (270) individual Facebook users in the Kurdish community. The authors concluded that: Permanently changing social and family life, some respondents’ relationships on “Facebook” are positive to achieve scientific, economic, social, and psychological benefits.([5]).

Nicholas, Jennings, Kevin (Nicolas M, Jennings, Kevin, 2019). aimed to identify the public’s use of “Facebook” to access political news as a viable source of political information and found that: Nearly half of Internet users use “Facebook” to learn and access political news as a possible source of information.([6])

Commenting on previous studies and their benefits:

  • Regarding the objectives: the two schools differed in defining the goals and results, whose results formed the scientific basis on which the Study relied, with an attempt to build on it to provide a scientific addition and benefited from its reading mainly in defining the Study’s problem, objectives, hypotheses, questions, and sample.
  • Regarding the approach: the studies unanimously agreed on using the descriptive approach using the sample survey method through the questionnaire and some content analysis methods. While the current study agreed with previous studies in using the questionnaire tool as part of the descriptive approach to verify the present study’s results.
  • Regarding the sample: the previous studies differed in the selection of the sample, as some of them depended on the sample of young people, others depended on the general public, as well as the reliance some of them on the pages of television channels. According to geographical distribution, Bani Suef – Egypt” and “Yarmouk – Jordan.”.

The Current Study benefited from previous studies in the following:

  • Defining the study problem scientifically.
  • Formulating the Study’s hypotheses and tools and determining the appropriate approach to verify the current study results.
  • The richness of the knowledge framework by relying on them as sources for the current Study.
  • Analyzing, interpreting, and commenting on the results in a correct scientific manner, as the theoretical frameworks of the scientific literature are linked to the trends of university youth towards following up on the transformations witnessed by the “Facebook” institution.

The Research Problem:

With the massive information revolution’s emergence and intrusion into various aspects of life in society, technical transformations have emerged for the “Facebook” institution can be used in multiple areas of life as a result of the free flow of information without restrictions, and the ease of people’s access to these networks and the abolition of the limits of time and space. The study’s problem is determining the effects of “Metaverse” technologies on users’ lives. Accelerating the pace of their daily lives through their interaction with their peers in various life matters provides the user with a new experience that exceeds what was expected in the virtual world and electronic games and the extent to which augmented reality technologies are compatible with objective reality. From this point of view, the problem of the study can be crystallized by identifying the following central question: What are the trends of university youth toward following the transformations witnessed by the “Facebook” institution?

The following sub-questions emerge from the central question:

  • What is the relationship between the respondents’ follow-up on the transformations that “Facebook” is witnessing and their attitudes towards it?
  • What is the relationship between respondents’ exposure to topics related to the type of transformations that the “Facebook” organization is witnessing and their degree of benefit?
  • Are there differences between the forms of interaction of the sample members with the transformations witnessed by the “Facebook” institution?

The Hypotheses:

To achieve the study objectives and answer its questions, the study hypotheses consisted of three main ones:

  • There is a statistically significant correlation between the respondents’ follow-up to the transformations that the “Facebook” organization is witnessing and their attitudes towards it.
  • There is a statistically significant correlation between the respondents’ exposure to topics related to the type of transformations that the “Facebook” organization is witnessing and their degree of benefit.
  • There are statistically significant differences between the forms of interaction of students of the two faculties of media, Beni Suef University, Egypt, and the media, Yarmouk University, Jordan, with the transformations that the Facebook foundation is witnessing.

The significance of the Study

The theoretical importance is due to the focus on the university youth’s attitudes towards following the transformations witnessed by the “Facebook” institution. It is an essential media tool that benefits university youth in knowing the latest developments regarding modern technologies developed by the institution to benefit from them in various areas of life, as well as knowledge of interaction patterns. With the opinion and the other opinion through dialogue and participation in the technical transformations witnessed by the institution.

  • As for the practical importance, it is for university youth to benefit from the transformations witnessed by the “Facebook” foundation, which was recently known as “Metaverse” in various areas of life. It allows the potential to open the way to new social, economic, and creative opportunities. It is an important media area in providing public services, such as content creation. In addition to changing the way of work, communication, entertainment, work, and education in any virtual environment. As well as the platform contains artificial intelligence tools to combine the virtual world and physical reality to reach new and innovative theories and perceptions within the framework of the relationship between the public and the new media.

Objectives of the Study

The study aims to identify the main objective: Attitudes of university youth toward following the transformations witnessed by the “Facebook” institution.

The following sub-objectives emanate from this goal:

  • Knowing the relationship between the respondents’ follow-up on the transformations that the “Facebook” organization is witnessing and their attitudes towards it.
  • To show the relationship between the respondents’ exposure to topics related to the type of transformations that the “Facebook” institution is witnessing and their degree of benefit.
  • Detecting the differences between the forms of interaction of students of the two faculties of media, Beni Suef University, Egypt, and Yarmouk University, Jordan, with the transformations that the Facebook foundation is witnessing.

The Study Hypotheses

To achieve the objectives of the study and answer its questions, the study hypotheses consisted of three main hypotheses:

  • There is a statistically significant relationship between the respondents’ follow-up on the transformations witnessed by the “Facebook” institution and their attitudes towards it.
  • There are statistically significant differences between the respondents’ exposure to topics related to the type of transformations that the “Facebook” institution is witnessing and their degree of benefit.
  • There are statistically significant differences between the forms of interaction of the faculties of media students at Beni Suef University, Egypt, and Yarmouk University, Jordan, with the transformations that Facebook is witnessing.

The Study Sample

            The study was conducted on a deliberate sample of (400) individual students from the Universities of “Bani Suef – Egypt” and “Yarmouk – Jordan,” who follow the transformations taking place in the “Facebook” institution, ranging in age from (18: 35, 40: 40, and over) a year. The reasons for choosing the university youth sample as a segment representing an active sector in the educational environment and its connection with the place of researchers’ study. In addition to the fact that university youth represent different age levels and a diverse academic level, males and females, the university youth have a desire to learn about topics related to the transformations provided by the “Facebook” foundation, which provides researchers with a sample that correctly represents the youth within the community. When selecting the sample, it was taken into account that it should be representative of both males and females, and the following is the description of the sample according to demographic variables:

Table (1) Description of the study sample according to demographic variables (n =400)

% F Demographics Characteristics
58.75% 235 Male Gender
41.25% 165 Female
56.25% 225 18: 35 Age

 

43.75% 175 More than 40
61.25% 245 Collage Educational level 
38.75% 155 Postgraduate
50% 200 Yarmouk University students – Jordan Geographical distribution
50% 200 Beni Suef University-Egypt students
100% 400 Total 

         The data in the previous table indicates the following:

  1. Gender: Males came at the forefront with a percentage of (58.75%), followed by females with a percentage of (41.25%). The superiority of males over females may indicate that they are more daring in following the transformations that the “Facebook” organization is witnessing to benefit from in various areas of life, which need A kind of boldness and initiative.
  2. Age: the results showed that the age group 18: 35 came with a high rate of (56.25%), followed by the age group: 40 and more, with a percentage of (43.75%).
  3. Educational level: The Study’s results revealed that the sample members with graduates came first with a rate of (61.25%), followed by those with postgraduates with a rate of (38.75%) Follow-up on the transformations taking place in the “Facebook” institution because of university students have a higher density than postgraduate.
  4. Geographical distribution: The results revealed that the sample items were distributed at an equal rate of (50%) for each of the two universities students of the Universities of “Bani Suef – Egypt” and “Yarmouk – Jordan.”

The Study Population

The population is represented by the students of the faculties of Media, Beni Suef University – Egypt” and “Yarmouk University – Jordan,” who are following the transformations taking place in the “Facebook” institution.

The limits of the Study

  • Human Limits: a sample of students from the faculties of “Media, Beni Suef University – Egypt” and ” Yarmouk University – Jordan,” who follow the transformations witnessed by the “Facebook” institution, aged between 18 to 35 years, 40 and over.
  • Spatial boundaries: they are limited to the faculties of media at the universities of “Beni Suef – Egypt” and ” Yarmouk University – Jordan,” and they were chosen due to their connection to the place of Study of the researchers.
  • Objective limits: limited to the transformations that the “Facebook” organization is witnessing, and these transformations are represented in “changing the way of work, communication and entertainment, establishing an economy for developers and content makers, training developers to learn to develop “Metaverse” applications for this world, developing the techniques of using hands and voice, facial expressions, hologram projection by default. It will open an application programming interface, “API,” to develop applications specific to their geographies to create tourist experiences, change how we spend time, and add artificial intelligence tools to combine the virtual world and physical reality. Also, change the work and education environment by working in any virtual environment of user choice, enabling him to change the communication between users by wearing virtual glasses.
  • Time limits: It is the period during which the researchers conducted the field study on a sample of faculties of media students, “Bani Suef University – Egypt,” and “Yarmouk university – Jordan,” who followed the transformations witnessed by the “Facebook” institution, at the period from 1/3/2022 to 30/4/2022.

Study Tool

A questionnaire was applied to a deliberate sample of (400) individual students from the faculties of media at Beni Suef University – Egypt, and Yarmouk University – Jordan,” who followed the transformations witnessed by the “Facebook” institution as the Study was applied in the period between 1/ 3/2022, until 30/4/2022.

Study Type and Method

This study belongs to the descriptive studies, which depend mainly on the use of the sample survey method through the questionnaire, as it is the best way to obtain quantitative and qualitative data for all paragraphs of the questionnaire newspaper. The sample survey method includes collecting the respondents’ data as essential to know the attitudes of university youth towards following the transformations witnessed by the “Facebook” institution. The respondents’ responses depend on the interpretation of the digital results reached because researchers in this study begin to monitor and extract the results through the data. We followed this approach because it responds to the study’s goal of knowing the attitudes of university youth toward the transformations, as mentioned earlier, by measuring their responses.

Study Variables

  • The independent variable: the transformations that the “Facebook” organization is witnessing.
  • Dependent variable: attitudes of university youth. Cognitive Framework.

Cognitive framework:

Facebook and technical transformations:

It is one of the sites where users publish videos, photos, articles, and numerous publications. They can also create their pages, which spreads awareness, culture, and knowledge. These contents are among the essential sources of understanding that help me know facts and information from the most beautiful development of our perceptions ([7]).

The social networking site “Facebook” is also an essential medium for covering current events, especially in presenting topics related to the transformations that this institution is witnessing, as well as knowledge of modern technologies that can be used in various areas of life. The social networking site “Facebook” is a technical institution that is the most widely used and widespread worldwide. It is considered the most successful overall model due to its ease of use, practicality, and simplicity of design ([8]).

There are many transformations that Facebook is undergoing (Al Khaleej newspaper, 2021), including:

  • Changing the way of work, communication, and leisure.
  • Establishing an economy for developers and content makers.
  • Training developers to learn how to develop Metaverse applications for this world.
  • Develop techniques for using hands, voice, facial expressions, and hologram projection by default.
  • It will open an “Application Programming Interface” (API) to develop applications specific to their geographic areas to create tourist experiences, etc. He pointed out that “Metaverse” will not “reduce the time we spend on the Internet but will change the way we spend this time.”
  • The platform contains artificial intelligence tools to combine the virtual world with physical reality.
  • Changing the work and education environment by working in any virtual environment of his choice that enables him.
  • Changing the way of communication between users by wearing virtual glasses.

Interact with the transformations taking place in the “Facebook” organization:

The efforts allow the recipient to participate as much as possible in communication processes and free selection of content and services available via the Internet according to his needs, preferences, and interests ([9]), Interaction represents additional roles that the audience plays on its own toward the content which interests him ([10]),  As well as his representation of the public’s reactions to the content provided by the institution through social networking sites and its position towards the policies and activities of the institution, which is something that the institution must study well for every modification of its policy and actions in line with audience needs ([11]). (Hurst, Bree, and Ihlen, Øyvind, 2018, p133).

Forms of interaction with the transformations taking place in the “Facebook” organization: There were many forms of interaction with topics related to the changes of the “Metaverse” by liking, commenting, and sharing, including:

  • LIKES records: It shows likes for content on the site and is available between friends, groups, and channels it joins (Khaled Mahdi, 2018, p59).
  • Comment interaction: It means that the user shows his comment to the content that interests him, whether it is published on the page of an organization, the pages of friends, or a shared group among them. It is a feature that depends on the interactive participation of the audience ([12]).
  • Shares: They are the most widely used communication mechanism because they enable the user to share the materials desired by the user from one page to another and are the reason behind the spread of millions of media materials, including images, texts, and others ([13]).

Validity and reliability procedures for the questionnaire:

            A questionnaire newspaper was applied to a sample of students of media faculties at the Universities of “Beni Suef – Egypt” and “Yarmouk – Jordan,” who are following the technical transformations witnessed by the “Metaverse” foundation. The apparent truthfulness of the questionnaire was verified by presenting it to a group of arbitrators in the media field. The form was modified according to their observations, as the questionnaire newspaper was applied during 2022, extending from 1/3/2022 until 30/4/2022. After collecting the data, they conducted a study on (5%) of the total items of the field study (20) individuals using “Cranach’s Alpha coefficient,” which indicates the presence of a high proportion of consistency between the respondents’ responses and the following table shows us calculating the value of the reliability coefficient for the questionnaire newspaper:

Table (2) Cronbach’s alpha coefficient to measure the stability of the form (n = 400

Cronbach’s alpha coefficient Domain
0.90 Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for all paragraphs of the questionnaire

    The data in the previous table indicates the following:

  • The value of Cronbach’s alpha coefficient came at a high rate of (0.90), which means that the stability coefficient is high and indicates that there is no significant difference in the respondents’ responses and that the questionnaire is valid for application.

Statistical Analysis

After completing the data collection of the field study, the data was encoded and entered into the computer. It was processed and analyzed, and statistical results were extracted using the statistical package for the social sciences program “SPSS” by resorting to the following transactions, tests, and statistical treatments: Simple statistical ratios and frequencies. Pearson correlation coefficient was also used to find the intensity and direction of the correlation between the respondents’ follow-up on the transformations witnessed by the “Facebook” institution and their attitudes towards it. The T-test was also used to find the relationship between respondents’ exposure to topics related to the type of transformations that the “Facebook” institution is witnessing and the degree of benefit from it. In addition to finding the differences between the forms of male and female interaction with the transformations in the “Facebook” institution.

The Results

The field study sample was represented in the age group (18: 40 and over) of media students at the Universities of Beni Suef-Egypt and Yarmouk-Jordan, who are following the transformations taking place in the Facebook foundation, in addition to the results of the hypothesis validity test and linking it to the questions and objectives of the study. The following is a presentation of the study results:

Table (3) Respondents’ follow-up to the transformations witnessed by the “Facebook” institution (n = 400)

% F Follow-up of the respondents to the transformations N
44.25% 177 I follow very highly 1
36.5% 146 I follow highly 2
19.25% 77 I follow in unspecified times 3
100% 400 Total

 The data in the previous table indicates the following:

  • (44.25%) of the respondents confirmed that they follow the transformations witnessed by the “Facebook” organization very highly, followed by follow-up highly with a percentage of (36.5%), and then follow-up at unspecified times (19.25%). It is clear from the previous results that the respondents’ follow-up to the technological developments of “Metavirus” has become imperative to obtain relevant information to keep pace with the rapid technological developments and benefit from them in various areas of life.

Table (4) Respondents’ attitudes toward following up on the transformations that the Facebook foundation is witnessing (n = 400)

% F Trends of Respondents N
27.75% 111 High attitudes toward Facebook 1
48.25% 193 Moderate attitudes toward Facebook 2
24% 96 Weak attitudes toward Facebook 3
100% 400 Total

 The data in the previous table indicates the following:

  • (27.75%) of the respondents confirmed that they tend to follow the transformations that Facebook is witnessing to high attitudes, followed by moderate attitudes (48.25%) and then weak attitudes (24%). It is clear from the previous results: that most of the respondents are willing to follow the new developments of the Metaverse Corporation, which represents the future of the Internet through the availability of parallel spaces over the Internet that allows users to immerse themselves in the content through the convergence of the physical and digital worlds.

Table (5) Sources of respondents’ access to information related to the transformations that the Facebook Foundation is witnessing (n = 400))

% F The sources of respondents’ access to information N
18.75% 75 Newspapers and news agencies on the Internet 1
29% 116 Administrators of the “Facebook” network 2
23.25% 93 Newspapers and T.V. news channels on social media 3
29% 116 Reports of delegates and correspondents 4
100% 400 Total

 The data in the previous table indicates the following:

  • (29%) of the respondents confirmed that they prefer to obtain information about the transformations that the Facebook through the administrators of the “Facebook” network, the reports of delegates and correspondents, followed by newspapers and T.V. news channels on social networking sites (23.25%), and finally newspapers and agencies news on the Internet (18.75%), and it is clear from the previous results: that the respondents depend on the reports of the correspondent delegates, and those in charge of the Metaverse corporation primarily as a source for obtaining information and news related to these technologies and transformations, in addition to the journalistic delegate possessing a complex mixture of skills logical thinking and critical analysis, proactively evaluating topics, There are also social interaction, creative skills, inference, multi-faceted communication, and feeling under various circumstances, according to an ethical system, and professional controls, as well as the public’s desire to understand everything related to it to benefit from it in various fields. As the ideal choice for information, communication, and social and community interaction.

Table (6) The elements of attracting respondents towards the transformations that the Facebook Foundation is witnessing (n = 400)

% F Attractions Elements N
64.25% 275 Videos about the most significant transformations of the “Facebook” organization 1
28.75% 115 Thematic Pictures 2
7% 28 Personal Photos 3
100% 400 Total

 The data in the previous table indicates the following:

  • (64.25%) of the respondents confirmed that they are attracted to videos that include the most significant transformations of the “Facebook” organization, followed by Thematic Pictures with a percentage of (28.75%), and finally, personal photos with a percentage of (7%). It is clear from the previous results: that respondents are attracted to Video clips about the transformations in the Metaverse foundation. It has become a digital world that allows users to register their avatar addresses with assets on platforms by making screens, holograms, virtual reality helmets, and augmented reality glasses gradually “moving” from virtual universes to physical places, similar to navigating by distance.

Table (7) The respondents’ exposure to topics related to the type of transformations that the Facebook Foundation is witnessing” (n = 200), (n = 200)

Total Students of the Faculty of Mass Communication, Yarmouk University, Jordan Students of the Faculty of Mass Communication, Beni Suef University

Egypt

 

The quality of the transformations that Facebook is witnessing

N
% F % F % F
11.75% 47 12.5% 25 11% 22 Changing the way work, communication, and leisure 1
10.5% 42 11% 22 10% 20 Creating an economy for developers and content creators 2
20% 80 20.5% 41 19.5% 39 Training developers to learn how to develop Metaverse applications for this world 3
15% 60 12.5% 25 17.5% 35 Develop techniques for using hands, voice, facial expressions, and hologram projection by default. 4
20% 80 20.5% 41 19.5% 39 Opening programming to develop applications specific to their geographical areas to create tourist experiences, and others 5
9.5% 38 9.5% 19 9.5% 19 The platform contains artificial intelligence tools to combine the virtual world with physical reality 6
8.25% 33 8.5% 17 8% 16 Changing the work and education environment by working in any virtual environment of his choice 7
5% 20 5% 10 5% 10 Changing the way users communicate by wearing virtual glasses 8
100% 400 100% 200 100% 200 Total

The data in the previous table indicates the following

  • (20.5%) of the respondents confirmed that they prefer to train developers to learn the development of “Metaverse” applications for this world, open programming to develop applications specific to their geographical areas to create tourist experiences, and other transformations that the “Facebook” organization is witnessing virtually. The development of technologies for using hands, voice, facial expressions, and hologram projection (15%) changed the way work, communication, and entertainment (11.75%). Followed by establishing an economy for developers and content makers (10.5%). Then the platform contained tools for artificial intelligence to combine the virtual world and physical reality by (9.5%). Followed by changing the work and education environment by working in any virtual environment of its choice (8.25%). Finally, changing the way users communicate by wearing virtual glasses increased by (5%).
  • In the follow-up of Beni Suef University students to the transformations taking place in the Facebook foundation: (19.5%) of the respondents confirmed that they prefer to be trained for developers to learn to develop Metaverse applications for this world, open programming to develop applications specific to their geographic areas to create tourist experiences, among the transformations that the “Facebook” institution is witnessing, followed by the development of techniques for using hands, voice, facial expressions, and projection by “hologram” by default (17.5%), and then changing the way of work, communication and entertainment by (11%), followed by the establishment of an economy for developers and content makers by (10%), then the platform contains artificial intelligence tools to combine the virtual world and physical reality by (9.5%), followed by changing the work environment and education by working in any virtual environment of his choice that enables him by (8%), Finally, changing the way of communication between users by wearing virtual glasses by (5%).
  • Regarding the follow-up of the students of “Yarmouk University – Jordan” to the transformations that the Facebook foundation is witnessing: (20.5%) of the respondents confirmed that they prefer to be exposed to training developers to learn to develop “Metaverse” applications for this world. Opening programming to develop applications specific to their geographical areas to create tourist experiences and the transformations that the “Facebook” organization is witnessing. This will be followed by changing the way of work, communication, and entertainment, developing techniques for using hands, voice, facial expressions, and hologram projection by default (12.5%), then establishing an economy for developers and content makers (11%). It was followed by the platform’s inclusion of artificial intelligence tools to combine the virtual world and physical reality by (9.5%). Followed by changing the work and education environment by working in any virtual environment of its choice (8.5%), and finally, changing the method of communication between users by wearing virtual glasses (5%). It is clear from the previous results that: The respondents prefer to follow up on the quality of information related to the new technologies of “Metaverse” that depend on the virtual reality modality so that all users can communicate with the people they want in the place to be determined as a resort in Syria or one of the scientific halls, as well as the qualitative leap that these technologies make in the fields of tourism and work by wearing the virtual meta glasses that allow the user to perform his work and then visit one of the tourist places such as the Eiffel Tower, and this may lead to a feeling of psychological saturation towards travel, everything is available within this charming technology, As it shows, there is superiority in favor of media students at Yarmouk University – Jordan in terms of training developers to learn to develop “Metaverse” applications for this world, opening programming to develop applications specific to their geographical areas to create tourist experiences, and also: There is an advantage in favor of media students at Beni Suef University in terms of developing the techniques of using hands, voice, facial expressions, and hologram projection virtually, changing the work and education environment, and this may indicate the degree of their confidence in the technologies of these institutions that need a kind of boldness and follow-up

Table (8) Forms of respondents’ interaction with the transformations that the “Facebook” institution is witnessing (n = 200), (n = 200)

Total Students of Faculty of Mass Communication, Yarmouk University – Jordan Students of Faculty of Mass Communication, Beni Suef University  

Forms of interaction Students

N
% F % F % F
13.25% 53 10% 20 16.5% 33 like 1
65.25% 261 67.5% 135 63% 126  comment 2
21.5% 86 22.5% 45 20.5% 41 Shear 3
100% 400 100% 200 100% 200 Total

The data in the previous table indicates the following

  • (65.25%) of the respondents confirmed that they prefer interaction with comments with the transformations that the “Facebook” organization is witnessing, followed by interaction with participation by (21.5%), and then interaction with admiration (13.25%).
  • In the interaction of male Beni Suef University students with the transformations taking place in the “Facebook” institution: (63%) of the respondents confirmed that they prefer to interact by commenting on the transformations taking place in the “Facebook” institution. Followed by interaction with participation (20.5%) and interaction with admiration (16.5%). This result is consistent with the findings of the Study of Hadeer Ahmed’s study (2021), where the interaction came by commenting in the foreground and came to the fore in the current Study.([14]).
  • In the interaction of male students of “Yarmouk University – Jordan” with the transformations witnessed by the “Facebook” institution: the results showed that (67.5%) of the sample members prefer to interact by commenting on the transformations witnessed by the “Facebook foundation,” followed by interaction with participation by (22.5%), and then the interaction with admiration by (10%), and it is clear from the previous results: that the respondents find that the interaction and its tools with the changes of “the Metaverse” is an essential thing because it helps them express their opinions openly about augmented reality technologies to benefit from them in various areas of life, being a digital reality that combines virtual reality technologies, digital currencies, and digital assets. It is linked to communication and interaction between millions of users around the world through the presence of virtual objects that are interacted with by linking these users and things accurately to the physical world, as A.R. technologies integrate digital technologies and visual elements in reality to enhance the user experience

Table (9): The degree to which respondents benefit from following up on the transformations that Facebook is witnessing (n = 400)

% F Degree of Utilization N
45.5% 182 I benefit greatly 1
30.75% 123 I benefit moderately 2
23.75%. 95 I benefit weakly 3
100% 400 Total

 The data in the previous table indicates the following:

  • (30.75%) of the respondents confirmed that they benefit from following the transformations that Facebook is witnessing greatly, followed by the benefit moderately (45.5%), and then the benefit weakly (23.75%). It is clear from the previous results: that the respondents benefit significantly from following the transformations witnessed by the Metaverse foundation, as it provides users with augmented virtual reality technologies, which enable them to experience normal life experience in all its details, including going to work, attending concerts and other events, playing games, traveling and tourism, dating, working, and shopping.

Hypotheses Test Results:

  • The first hypothesis states a statistically significant correlation between the respondents’ follow-up to the transformations witnessed by the “Facebook” institution and their attitudes towards it.

Table (10) The relationship between the respondents’ follow-up on the transformations witnessed by the “Facebook” institution and their attitudes towards it (n = 400)

The respondents’ follow-up to the transformations that the Facebook Foundation is witnessing  

Variables

The significance level The significance level The value of T
0.05  

0.01

0.59** Their attitudes towards it

* Significant at the level of (0.05) )                                            ** Significant at the level (0.01)                               

 

 The data in the table above indicates the following:

  • Using the “person” correlation coefficient, it was found that there is a statistically significant correlation between the respondents’ follow-up on the transformations witnessed by the “Facebook” institution and their attitudes towards it. The value of the correlation coefficient was (0.59**), a function at the level (0.01). This indicates: that they follow it with high intensity to employ it in their field of work and benefit from it in various areas of life.
  • The Second Hypothesis states that there is a statistically significant correlation between the respondents’ exposure to topics related to the type of transformations that the “Facebook” organization is witnessing and their degree of benefit.

Table (11) The relationship between respondents’ exposure to topics related to the type of transformations that the “Facebook” institution is witnessing, and the degree of benefit from them (n = 400)

The respondents’ follow-up to the transformations that the Facebook Foundation is witnessing  

Variables

The significance level The significance level The value of T
0.05  

0.01

0.22** Their attitudes towards it

* Significant at the level of (0.05) )                                            ** Significant at the level (0.01)                               

The data in the table above indicates the following:

  • Using the “person” correlation coefficient, it was found that there was a statistically significant correlation between the respondents’ exposure to topics related to the type of transformations that the “Facebook” institution is witnessing and the degree of benefit from them. The value of the correlation coefficient was (0.22**), a function at the level (0.01). This indicates: that the more follow-up, the greater the degree of benefit.
  • The Third Hypothesis states that there are statistically significant differences between the forms of interaction of students of the two faculties of media, Beni Suef University – Egypt, and media, Yarmouk University – Jordan, with the transformations that Facebook is witnessing.

Table (12) The significance of the statistical differences between the forms of interaction of males and females with the transformations witnessed by the “Facebook” institution (n = 400)

Significance Level Significance Level Value (T) Students of the Faculty of M.C Yarmouk University

 Jordan

Students of the Faculty of M.C  

 

Scale

 

 

0.05

 

 

0.01

 

2.13*

 

Total ranks Mean Total ranks Mean
3.87

 

19.24

 

4.30

 

20.11 The forms of interaction of males and females with the transformations witnessed by the “Facebook” institution

* Significant at the level of (0.05)                                              ** Significant at the level (0.01)

The data in the previous table indicates the following:

  • Using the “T-Test,” it was found that there were statistically significant differences between the forms of interaction of the two faculties of media students, “Bani Suef University – Egypt” and the media “Yarmouk University – Jordan,” with the transformations taking place in the “Facebook” institution, and in the attitudes of students of the Faculty of Media in Beni Suef” university. The value of (T) = (2.13**), which is a function at the level of (0.05), may indicate that they are more daring and conscious to follow up and interact with topics related to the transformations mentioned above, to know the benefit from them in various areas of life.

The Results of the Study considering the Hypotheses

       After conducting the field study, we reached a set of results, the most important of which are:

  • The validity of the first hypothesis: a statistically significant correlation exists between the respondents’ follow-up of the transformations witnessed by the “Facebook” institution and their attitudes towards it. This indicates that they follow it with a high intensity to employ it in their field of work and benefit from it in various areas of life
  • The validity of the second hypothesis: the existence of a statistically significant correlation between the respondents’ exposure to topics related to the quality of the transformations witnessed by the “Facebook” institution, which indicates that the more follow-up, the higher the degree of benefit.
  • Proving the validity of the third hypothesis: that there are statistically significant differences between the forms of interaction of students of the two faculties of media, “Bani Suef University – Egypt,” and ” Yarmouk University – Jordan,” with the transformations witnessed by the “Facebook” institution, and towards the students in” Bani Suef University.”

Conclusion

Through the Study, the researchers tried to find the relationship between following up on topics related to transformations in “Facebook” institutions and the differences between the forms of interaction. The results found that the augmented reality technologies of the “Metaverse” institution have a significant role in securing three-dimensional communication between users in benefiting from various areas of life. This institution is active and looking for a position among the communication websites, based on the need created during the period of social distancing during the pandemic and the desire to create a community for virtual communication between individuals.

  • The Study Recommended the need to pay attention to developing cooperation mechanisms with media technology institutions and training developers to learn the development of “Metaverse” applications and how to use them in various areas of life—also, considering the ethical principles of relying on artificial intelligence in the production of media content to combine the virtual world and physical reality as well as informing the audience about the production sources of this content.

Research Suggestions

Considering the Study, the researchers present a set of proposals:

  • Employing social networking sites to raise health awareness of the dangers of the Coronavirus.
  • University youth use social networking sites for information about technical fields.

References

  • Al Khaleej newspaper (2021). “Facebook” announces changing its name to “Meta,” available at the following link: https://www.alkhaleej.ae
  • Amal Hadef, Salima Saidi (2020). Interactiveness in electronic newspapers through social networking sites, research published in the Journal of Human Sciences, Algeria: Larbi Ben M’hidi University, Issue 3, Volume 7, December 2020DA, p492.
  • Eman Mohamed Ahmed (2020). The role of the communicator in achieving the goals of school radio through social networking sites, published research in Education and Child Culture, Minya University, Faculty of Early Childhood Education, No. 2, Volume 15, January 2020DA, ,P285.
  • Faisal Ahmed Saleh (2020). The interaction of Saudi youth through “Facebook” and chat rooms and its reflections on their attitudes towards social and moral responsibility, Research published in the Journal of Childhood Studies, Ain Shams University, College of Graduate Studies for Childhood, No. 87, Volume 23, June 2020.
  • Hadeer Ahmed Mohamed Taha (2021). The role of Facebook in providing Egyptian youth with news about the Israeli-Palestinian clashes, research published in the Arab Journal for Media and Communication Research, No. 35, December 2021,P543.
  • Hamish Nouria, Hamida Khaira (2017). The impact of social networking sites on family communication “Facebook as a model,” unpublished master’s thesis, Algeria: Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Media and Communication Sciences,P55.
  • Hurst, Bree and Ihlen, Øyvind (2018). Corporate Social Responsibility and Engagement: Commitment, Mapping of Responsibilities, and Closing the Loop, in Johnston, Kim A., and Taylor, Maureen (Editors). Op. Cit.,P133..
  • Jessica Troilo Bob Britten (2020). Facebook Use in Maintaining Close Friendships and Acquaintances”, Journal of Behavioral and Social Sciences, 2020, Vol.
  • Khaled Mahdi Hamed Al Shaer (2018). An unpublished master’s thesis, Al-Azhar University, Faculty of Mass Communication, Radio and Television Department is treatment in YouTube channels and the extent to which the Egyptian public is aware.
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  • Mustafa, Rostam Saber; Sabah Ahmad Muhammad Najar (2020). The Use of Facebook and its Impact on Relationships (Kurdish society as a Sample, Journal of Arts, Literature, Humanities, and Social Sciences, Emirates College for Educational Sciences, January,48(48).
  • Nancy Abdel Sayed Wahib (2021). Adolescents’ use of literary pages on Facebook and its relationship to the development of their cultural awareness, Research published in the Journal of Childhood Studies, Ain Shams University, Faculty of Higher Studies for Childhood, No. 90, Volume 24, January 2021DA,p74.
  • Nicolas M. Anspach1, Jay T. Jennings, Kevin Arceneaux (2019). A little bit of knowledge: Facebook’s News Feed and self-perceptions of knowledge, Research published in a new media society, Available at the following link: https://uk.sagepub.com
  • Suhair Othman Abdel Halim (2021). Attitudes of the Egyptian public towards the satirical videos of influencers on social networks and their role in addressing the issues of Egyptian society, Research published in the Arab Journal for Media and Communication Research, Egypt: Al-Ahram Canadian University, Faculty of Mass Communication, Issue 34, July 2021.
  • Theunissen, Petra (2018). Philosophy and Ethics of Engagement, in Johnston, Kim A. and Taylor, Maureen (Editors). The Handbook of Communication Engagement. Wiley-Blackwell, p49.
  • Wahiba Msameh, Walida Haddadi (2020). Interactive dimensions in the pages of the private Algerian satellite channels on Facebook, Research published in Al-Mayyar magazine, Algeria: Prince Abdul Qader University of Islamic Sciences, Faculty of Fundamentals of Religion, Volume 24, Issue 50, June 2020

[1] Suhair Othman Abdel Halim (2021). Attitudes of the Egyptian public towards the satirical videos of influencers on social networks and their role in addressing the issues of Egyptian society, Research published in the Arab Journal for Media and Communication Research, Egypt: Al-Ahram Canadian University, Faculty of Mass Communication, Issue 34, July 2021.

[2] Faisal Ahmed Saleh (2020). The interaction of Saudi youth through “Facebook” and chat rooms and its reflections on their attitudes towards social and moral responsibility, Research published in the Journal of Childhood Studies, Ain Shams University, College of Graduate Studies for Childhood, No. 87, Volume 23, June 2020.

[3] Wahiba Msameh, Walida Haddadi (2020). Interactive dimensions in the pages of the private Algerian satellite channels on Facebook, Research published in Al-Mayyar magazine, Algeria: Prince Abdul Qader University of Islamic Sciences, Faculty of Fundamentals of Religion, Volume 24, Issue 50, June 2020

[4] Jessica Troilo Bob Britten (2020). Facebook Use in Maintaining Close Friendships and Acquaintances”, Journal of Behavioral and Social Sciences, 2020, Vol.

[5] Mustafa, Rostam Saber; Sabah Ahmad Muhammad Najar (2020). The Use of Facebook and its Impact on Relationships (Kurdish society as a Sample, Journal of Arts, Literature, Humanities, and Social Sciences, Emirates College for Educational Sciences, January,48(48).

[6] Nicolas M. Anspach1, Jay T. Jennings, Kevin Arceneaux (2019). A little bit of knowledge: Facebook’s News Feed and self-perceptions of knowledge, Research published in a new media society, Available at the following link: https://uk.sagepub.com

[7] Nancy Abdel Sayed Wahib (2021). Adolescents’ use of literary pages on Facebook and its relationship to the development of their cultural awareness, Research published in the Journal of Childhood Studies, Ain Shams University, Faculty of Higher Studies for Childhood, No. 90, Volume 24, January 2021DA,p74.

[8] MikeThelwall, (2014) social network sites, Users and uses, advances in computers, Volume, Available at the following link: https://www.academia.edu

[9] Amal Hadef, Salima Saidi (2020). Interactiveness in electronic newspapers through social networking sites, research published in the Journal of Human Sciences, Algeria: Larbi Ben M’hidi University, Issue 3, Volume 7, December 2020DA, p492.

[10] Theunissen, Petra (2018). Philosophy and Ethics of Engagement, in Johnston, Kim A. and Taylor, Maureen (Editors). The Handbook of Communication Engagement. Wiley-Blackwell, p49.

[11] Hurst, Bree and Ihlen, Øyvind (2018). Corporate Social Responsibility and Engagement: Commitment, Mapping of Responsibilities, and Closing the Loop, in Johnston, Kim A., and Taylor, Maureen (Editors). Op. Cit.,P133..

[12] Eman Mohamed Ahmed (2020). The role of the communicator in achieving the goals of school radio through social networking sites, published research in Education and Child Culture, Minya University, Faculty of Early Childhood Education, No. 2, Volume 15, January 2020DA,P285.

[13] Hamish Nouria, Hamida Khaira (2017). The impact of social networking sites on family communication “Facebook as a model,” unpublished master’s thesis, Algeria: Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Media and Communication Sciences,P55.

[14] Hadeer Ahmed Mohamed Taha (2021). The role of Facebook in providing Egyptian youth with news about the Israeli-Palestinian clashes, research published in the Arab Journal for Media and Communication Research, No. 35, December 2021,P543.

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