Research studies

Comparative study of two products as ecto-parasite (pour on ) deltamethrin with Repeller(plant extract) on Buffaloes

 

Prepared by the researcher  : Howra Ali Aboudi – University of Kufa – Faculty of Veterinary Medicine

Democratic Arab Center

Journal of Afro-Asian Studies : Fifteenth Issue – November 2022

A Periodical International Journal published by the “Democratic Arab Center” Germany – Berlin.

Nationales ISSN-Zentrum für Deutschland
ISSN  2628-6475
Journal of Afro-Asian Studies

:To download the pdf version of the research papers, please visit the following link

https://democraticac.de/wp-content/uploads/2022/10/Journal-of-Afro-Asian-Studies-Fifteenth-Issue-%E2%80%93-November-2022.pdf

Abstract

Deltamethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide used worldwide in agriculture, home pest control, protection of foodstuff and disease vector control. The objective of this study was to investigate the propensity of deltamethrin to induce oxidative stress and changes in biochemical parameters and enzyme activities ,a comparison was made between deltamethrin treatment and repeller (plant extract)treatment is contain (cedrus deodara oil 50ml and Azadirachta indica 20ml) on two groups of buffaloes, each group consisting of 5 individuals. Blood samples were collected from the two groups after and before the treatment was administered. The effect of deltamethrin on cholesterol, AST and creatinine without affecting ALT was shown.

Introduction

Deltamethrin plays a key role in controlling malaria vectors, and is used in the manufacture of long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets. It is used as one of a battery of pyrethroid insecticides in control of malarial vectors, particularly Anopheles gambiae, and whilst being the most employed pyrethroid insecticide, can be used in conjunction with, or as an alternative to, permethrin, cypermethrin and organophosphate-based insecticides, such as malathion and fenthion. Resistance to deltamethrin (and its counterparts) is now extremely widespread and threatens the success of worldwide vector control programs. (Tunon,2006)

Deltamethrin belongs to a group of pesticides called synthetic pyrethroids. This pesticide is toxic to aquatic life, particularly fish, and therefore must be used with extreme caution around water.)Bradbury SP, Coats JR.1989) Although generally considered safe to use around humans, it is still neurotoxic. Pyrethroids like Deltamethrin can be allergens and cause asthma in some people. Deltamethrin temporarily attacks the nervous system of any animal with which it comes into contact. Skin contact can lead to tingling or reddening of the skin local to the application( Matthew C Kiefer et al. J Agromedicine. 2007).

If taken in through the eyes or mouth, the most common symptom is facial paraesthesia, which can feel like many different abnormal sensations, including burning, partial numbness, “pins and needles”, skin crawling, etc.(Wall,2011) There is one case report describing chronic intoxication from pyrethroid insecticides leading to a syndrome clinically similar to motor neuron disease. There are no antidotes, and treatment must be symptomatic, as approved by a physician. Over time, deltamethrin is metabolized, with a rapid loss of toxicity, and passed from the body. A poison control center should be contacted in the event of an accidental poisoning. Deltamethrin is able to pass from a woman s skin through her blood and into her breast milk, although breastfeeding remains safe under prevailing conditions. In South Africa, residues of deltamethrin were found in breast milk, together with DDT, in an area that used DDT treatment for malaria control, as well as pyrethroids in small-scale agriculture.( Yang,2003)

A 2015 study conducted in Brittany, France, found a negative correlation between deltamethrin exposure (measured through the presence of a metabolite in urine) and cognitive scores in infants. Cases of toxicity have been observed in cattle, following use of agricultural deltamethrin preparation in external application for tick control.[citation needed] It is also commonly known as having severe poisoning effects on the cattle, which are vulnerable to the pyrethroid. The main benefit of neem (Azadirachta indica)lies in its ability to prevent various types of insects, in particular mosquitoes and flies, from entering the house. (Konig, 2020)The effect of neem(Azadirachta indica) tree repellent for insects, especially mosquitoes and aphids, comes from these insects sucking the juice of neem(Azadirachta indica) leaves or flowers, which causes sterility for male mosquitoes, and it was found to have a repellent effect for flies, and its flower emits odors that humans do not feel and that are repulsive to insects. The neem (Azadirachta indica)  tree contains an active substance, azadizachtin, which is found in all parts of the tree but in different proportions, and is more concentrated in the seeds and fruits.

Cedar deodara oil(cedrus deodara oil)  ,also known as cedar wood oil, is an essential oil derived from various types of conifers, most in the pine or cypress botanical families. It is produced from the foliage, and sometimes the wood, roots, and stumps left after logging of trees for timber. It has many uses in medicine, art, industry, and perfumery, and while the characteristics of oils derived from various species may themselves vary, all have some degree of bactericidal and pesticidal effects.(Lima2019)

The aim of study

1.Research about alternatives for pesticidal that candider friendly to environment

2.Research about materials friendly to environment &no toxic to the human

3.Research about new materials act of deltamethrin but more safely to animal & less side effect

Materials and methods

A- The instruments and tools were used in this study with their companies and countries of origin in table

NO Instruments Supplied Company Origin
1 electronic sensitive balance Sartorius – Germany
2 Balance Shimadu company-Japan
3 Centrifuge Bastellkolb- Japan
4 Incubator Binder-Germany
5 Water bath K.F.T.LAB.Equipment-Italy
6 Deep freeze Samsung- Korea
7 Micropipette 100-1000 µl biorad -USA
8 Eppendorf tube (different size Ultracruz biotechnology- China
9 Disposable Syringe(10ml) Med-Germany
10 Gel Tubes Afco-Jordan
11 Cotton swab Lugle-Turkey
12 Face Masks pharma -China
13 Gloves Sg- Malaysia
14 Spectrophotometers  
15 Cold box China
16 Tincture Iodine Jordan
17 Speray Iraqi
18 Repeller  India-AMORVET)Cedrus deodara oil 50 ml+Azadirachta indica 20ml+Aqua Base 30ml)
19 Deltamethrin  

B-Animals uses:Buffaloes

Proceduer

  1. On the first day, ten blood samples were collected from ten buffaloes from the jugular vein area. The samples were placed in tubes (gel tubes) and placed in a container of ice And take it to the lab. Then the ten buffaloes were divided into two groups.
  • Five individuals of the buffalo animal were given a repeller treatment in the back area (pour on)
  • As for the other 5, the Deltamethrin treatment was also placed in the back area(pour on)

  1. After 24 hours, blood samples were collected from the animals that had been treated with the deltamethrin group and the Repeller group..
  2. On the third day, the last blood samples were collected from the animals

Result

 
  N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error 95% Confidence Interval for Mean Minimum Maximum  
Lower Bound Upper Bound  
AST zero time Repeller 5 183.0940ab 24.18874 10.81753 153.0597 213.1283 161.17 217.08  
zero time Deltamethrin 5 204.5000b 12.98069 5.80514 188.3823 220.6177 184.28 220.41  
day one time Repeller 5 200.6860b 22.48758 10.05675 172.7640 228.6080 160.47 211.38  
day one timeDeltamethrin 5 215.0300b 24.76067 11.07331 184.2856 245.7744 192.82 255.24  
day two time Repeller 5 214.9120b 32.25987 14.42705 174.8561 254.9679 183.48 265.25  
day two time Deltamethrin 5 159.7540a 23.41136 10.46988 130.6850 188.8230 135.62 195.99  
                   
ALT zero time Repeller 5 68.8820a 12.48725 5.58447 53.3770 84.3870 56.91 86.36  
zero time Deltamethrin 5 67.7380a 10.14480 4.53689 55.1416 80.3344 58.97 79.91  
day one time Repeller 5 58.8640a 5.41045 2.41963 52.1460 65.5820 52.99 66.11  
day one timeDeltamethrin 5 58.4340a 19.45245 8.69940 34.2806 82.5874 26.38 78.74  
day two time Repeller 5 62.1540a 29.92101 13.38108 25.0022 99.3058 15.47 88.18  
day two time Deltamethrin 5 44.3360a 17.51846 7.83450 22.5840 66.0880 20.39 66.56  
                   
cholesterol zero time Repeller 5 107.1220b 18.41292 8.23451 84.2593 129.9847 81.30 125.22  
zero time Deltamethrin 5 101.1420b 3.14996 1.40871 97.2308 105.0532 95.91 104.33  
day one time Repeller 5 103.0560b 8.15843 3.64856 92.9260 113.1860 90.04 112.55  
day one timeDeltamethrin 5 97.6760b 11.32443 5.06444 83.6149 111.7371 82.19 110.21  
day two time Repeller 5 123.9700c 8.52402 3.81206 113.3860 134.5540 112.47 133.01  
day two time Deltamethrin 5 73.8060a 10.88234 4.86673 60.2938 87.3182 61.05 86.07  
                   
creatinine zero time Repeller 5 1.6460b .21267 .09511 1.3819 1.9101 1.45 1.91  
zero time Deltamethrin 5 1.5660b .22075 .09872 1.2919 1.8401 1.28 1.90  
day one time Repeller 5 1.6440b .14433 .06454 1.4648 1.8232 1.56 1.90  
day one timeDeltamethrin 5 1.6360b .10784 .04823 1.5021 1.7699 1.50 1.76  
day two time Repeller 5 1.7020b .32011 .14316 1.3045 2.0995 1.38 2.21  
day two time Deltamethrin 5 1.2560a .28005 .12524 .9083 1.6037 .96 1.64  
                   

 The results of samples taken on animals treated with deltamethrin show changes in AST, cholesterol, and creatinine, but no change in ALT.

 Previous research was conducted on the effect of deltamethrin on some animals, and the results were, Similar results to the my research

Deltamethrin caused adverse effects in the form of hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, hypercholesterolemia, hypoglycemia, and a marked increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities.  Mazmancı, Mehmet Ali Mazmanci, Ali Unyayar, Serpil Unyayar, Fazilet Ozlem Cekic, Aysin Guzel Deger, Serap Yalin, Alike Comelekoglu‏) This search corresponds to the results of my search

  As well as ,deltamethrin in catfish resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) increase in lipid oxidation (MDA) in liver, kidney, and gills while catalase activity was significantly decreased in the same tissues.  This is accompanied by a significant increase in the activity of ALT, AST, urea and creatinine in the blood and a significant decrease in blood albumin and total proteins.( Khaled Hashem, Kamal Amin

 BMC Veterinary Research ) This search corresponds to the results of my search

in rats.  Deltamethrin treatment caused an increase in the activity of liver enzymes such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP).( Saudi Mongi, Masarah Mahfouz, working Boumenjal, Buffalo full)

My research also matches this research

Conclusion

1.Get the same result in field after use Deltamethrin&Repeller

2.Deltamethrin causes change in AST,cholestrol,creatinine

Recommendatoins

1-make several research about Repeller to get pesticides  friendly environment

2-suggestion to study each active ingredient alone material for cedrus deodara oil&Azadrachta indica

  References

  1. Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., Mikiver, A. & Malander, I. (2006) Arthropod ´repellency, especially tick (Ixodes ricinus), exerted by extract from Artemisia abrotanum and essential oil from flowers of Dianthus caryophyllum. Fitoterapia, 77, 257–261.
  2. Wall, R. & Bates, P. (2011) Sheep scab control using trans-cinnamic acid. Veterinary Parasitology, 175, 129–134.
  3. Yang, Y.C., Lee, S.H., Lee, W.J., Choi, D.H. & Ahn, Y.J. (2003) Ovicidal and adulticidal effects of Eugenia caryophyllata bud and leaf oil compounds on Pediculus capitis. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51, 4884–4888.
  4. Konig, I.F.M.; Oliveira, M.V.S.; Goncalves, R.R.P.; Peconick, A.P.; Thomasi, S.S.; Anholeto, L.A.; Lima-de-Souza, J.R.; Camargo-Mathias, M.I.; Remedio, R.N. Low concentrations of acetylcarvacrol induce drastic morphological damages in ovaries of surviving Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato ticks (Acari: Ixodidae). Micron 2020, 129, 102780.
  5. Lima, A.D.S.; Landulfo, G.A.; Costa-Junior, L.M. Repellent Effects of Encapsulated Carvacrol on the Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). J. Med. Entomol. 2019, 56, 881–885
  6. 11_Bradbury SP, Coats JR. Comparative toxicology of the pyrethroid insicticides. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol. 1989;108:133–177. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4613-8850-0_4.
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