Research studies

The Rule of Obtaining Benefits and Eliminating Evil and its Semantic Commonality among the Heavenly Religions Texts


Prepared by the researcher : Prof. Dr. Ali Smeaseam – Semantics, interpretation and comparative religions college of jurisprudence – university of kufa- Iraq

Democratic Arab Center

Journal of Afro-Asian Studies : Seventeenth Issue – May 2023

A Periodical International Journal published by the “Democratic Arab Center” Germany – Berlin

Nationales ISSN-Zentrum für Deutschland
ISSN  2628-6475
Journal of Afro-Asian Studies

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The research sheds light on the semantic commonalities among three heavenly laws – Judaism, Christianity and Islam – with which scientific libraries were filled, and intellectual, theological, jurisprudential, fundamentalist, literary and linguistic schools spread with their branches linked to other human sciences, and multiple sects and schools branched out of them; To regulate the behavior of the  and to elevate his moral values in this world by complying with the orders of God Almighty; As human souls are innate to love goodness and virtue, except for the deviant. With the progress of Man, intellectually, culturally and scientifically, he learns about the great meanings of the heavenly law, and he becomes closer to his Creator, the Almighty.


        The research sheds light on the semantic commonalities among three heavenly laws – Judaism, Christianity and Islam – with which scientific libraries were filled, and intellectual, theological, jurisprudential, fundamentalist, literary and linguistic schools spread with their branches linked to other human sciences, and multiple sects and schools branched out of them; To regulate the behavior of the  and to elevate his moral values in this world by complying with the orders of God Almighty; As human souls are innate to love goodness and virtue, except for the deviant. With the progress of Man, intellectually, culturally and scientifically, he learns about the great meanings of the heavenly law, and he becomes closer to his Creator, the Almighty.

       Since there are many semantic commonalities among the monotheistic religions, the research chose the highest one, namely, “The rule of obtaining benefits and eliminating evil.”

         Since God Almighty did not leave His creation without guidance; so He sent prophets and messengers; So the rule of the rule of obtaining benefits and eliminating evil was present in all his thinking and behavior, and all the heavenly laws came with it to organize human life and secure his happiness in this  world hereafter world; So the legal rulings came to be commands, prohibitions, and others, and the goal of the legal objectives was to bring interests and ward off evils that result in resurrection and rebuke.

       By this we know that rulings emanate from causes and reasons, and that their origin is interests and harms (1), and Islamic scholars almost unanimously agree on the preference of obtaining benefits and eliminating evil.”(2), where all Islamic scholars have made this rule base rule in Sharia.

      We find this in all religions without exception. In the Jewish religion there are clear differences between the semantics of the Babylonian Talmud texts and the semantics of the Palestinian Talmud texts. Its reasons are to obtaining benefits and eliminating evil in external issues, as “the Babylonian Talmud differs from the Palestinian Talmud in some jurisprudential issues, such as the attitude towards the pagans, where the Babylonian Talmud was more tolerant, because the situation of the Jews in Babylon was good. The Babylonian Talmud stated that Gentiles outside Palestine cannot be considered pagans, unlike what was stated in the Palestinian Talmud; we find that the Palestinian Talmud forbids selling any commodity to pagans in the three days preceding any pagan feast, but the scholars of Babylon, according to the Babylonian Talmud and its conditions, forbade selling in The days of the pagan feast only, the difference in this regard is due to the nature of the circumstances at the time of writing each of the two Talmud: the Babylonian Talmud was composed in a period of a century, in peace and security, while the Palestinian Talmud was compiled hastily and in unhelpful circumstances because of the persecution of the Jews by the Romans during its compilation period(3).

1-See: Al-Halaby 374 AH – 447 AH, Abu Al-Salah. Al-Kafi fi Al-Fiqh, p. 270.

 See: Al-Gharawy D. 1354 AH, Mirza Ali Al-Irwani . Hashiyat Al-Makaseb, Part 2, p. 18.

 See: Al-Kashany D 1340 AH, Mulla Habibullah Al-Sharif. Tesheel al-Mesalik ila Al-Medarik fi Re’oos Al-Qhwea’ed Al-Fiqhiyah,p. 24.

2-See: Al-Shirwany D. 1118 AH, Sheikh Abdul Hamid (Al-Shafi’i), and Al-Abedi, Sheikh Ahmed. Al-Sherwani’s footnotes, part. 3, p. 188.

 See: Al-Bahooty D. 1051 AH, Sheikh Mansur bin Yunus (Hanbali), Keshshaf Al-Qhina’’a, Part. 2, p. 117.

 See: Al-Ezz 577-660 AH, Ibn Abd A-Salam. Qhwa’d Al-Ahkam fi Islah Al-Anam, Volume One, pg. 9.

3- Center for Middle Eastern Studies. Introduction to the Babylonian Talmud. Volume One, p. 38.

         Benefits and harms are one aspect of the rule of rational good and bad. This fundamentalist rule is related to the authority of the mind, and it is meant by it: good: it is what the doer of it is not blamed for, and bad: what deserves to be criticized in some ways…People in this regard are sects, among them are those who say that good and bad are benefited from the mind, and that the influencer in that the actions, some others believe that goodness is due to the suitability of nature, and the ugliness to its repugnance. As for the entitlement of praise,reward, censure, and punishment, it can only be benefited from the Sharia.  Among them is the saying that goodness is what results in the interest system and ugliness is its opposite.

         Theologians and the fundamentalists of the differed Islamic schools had different opinions upon the validity of this rule, however, “The Shiites, the Mu’tazila, the wise men, the Brahmins, and other rational people believe of good and what is ugly except Al-Asha’rah. It seems that their denial is in the tongue and in the place of argument, otherwise they are in the place of exhortation and refinement of morals, they declare, confirm and exaggerate them… Al-Asha’rah believes of the pretext of analogy and approval, and the saying of them is not compatible except with rational good and ugly…” (4).

      Al-Ghazali – Al-Ash’ari – (5), had declared that,  and rational  do not differ on the task of the mind in bringing good and warding off harm, and working with it according to law purposes (6), and accordingly, do not be under the illusion that the rule of Obtaining Benefits and Eliminating Evil, and the rule of rational goodness and ugliness are among the competences of a particular religion, rather, they are for all wise people; Because these intellectual researches enter into all the investigations of the rational, regardless of their religions, as they are rational.

  4  – Al-BahbahaniyD. 1205 AH, Mohammad Baqhir Al-Waheed. Al-Fawa’id Al-Ha’iriyah, p. 362.

  5- Al-Ghazaly d. 505 AH, Abu Hamid Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Ahmad al-Tusi. Al-Mustasfa, Part 1, p. 127.

  6 – Al-Sanad, Sheikh Mohammad. Sheikh Mohammed, Principle of deducting Doctrines and Consideration Theory,  p. 25.

The First Topic:  Judaism.

       The  Israelis (Beno Israel)  entered history around the year 1200 before the birth of Christ, which is a long formation period – eight or nine centuries -, almost all of which is hidden from historians except for what was transmitted orally by the Jewish people, and was written after generations, and this weakens the transmission of the original facts; Therefore, scholars searched for the ancestors of the Israelis (Beno Israel)  among the Semitic Bedouin shepherds who moved throughout the second millennium before Christ on the borders of the semi-desert of the Fertile Crescent until they settled in some places and controlled them; the most prominent of them are two groups:

     The first: the Amorites, who settled between Mesopotamia, Syria, and Palestine in approximately 2000 B.C.

     The second: the Arameans, who settled in Syria around the thirteenth century B.C.(7)and “in this little-known period, the biblical tradition highlights some great personalities, including Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and the ancestors of the tribes of Israelis (Beno Israel)  ” (8), and we can assume – according to what It says in the introduction to the Bible – “The patriarchs settled in Palestine during the nineteenth and eighteenth centuries before Christ – the eighteenth and sixteenth according to other estimates -, and they were coming from Mesopotamia – Abraham came from Ur in Sumer, and Jacob came from Harran on the Middle Euphrates(9), some of them resided in Egypt. Studies and introductions to the books indicate that the Jewish people arose in approximately 1250 B.C., during the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II, and the historical journey led by the Prophet of God, Moses (P.U.H) (10), and after stability and the battles

7-See: Introduction to the Five Books of Sharia – The Holy Book, pp. 39-41.

 8- Ibid,P.41

 9-Introduction to the Five Books of Sharia –  The Holy Book, p. 41, pg. 89.

10- Details of the Journey in Exodus. Introduction to the Five Books of Sharia

In the twelfth and eleventh centuries B.C., the union of the Jewish tribes grew stronger, led by the tribes called “judges”; To be after that a kingdom, and royal rule begins with a strong unified kingdom, the most famous of which is the reign of the Prophet Suleiman.

      After that, it was divided into two kingdoms: the rich Kingdom of the North, especially during the era of Omri 886-875 BC, who was the founder of Samaria:  Jewish kings had succeeded until they were defeated by the Assyrians,  and the poor Kingdom of the South – Judah-, it was semi-subject to the Egyptian control; a century and a half after its independence, It falls into the hands of the Babylonians, led by Nebuchadnezzar, who exiled part of its population in 587 BC; So they dispersed in the lands where most of them went to Egypt. The Jews returned to their land when the kingdom of the Babylonians fell at the hands of the Persians, and the temple was built in Palestine – Jerusalem – after theorder was issued by the Persian king – Cyrus – in 583 BC. During this era, most of the parts of the Old Testament reached its final form, and they joined under the rule of Alexander the Great after defeating the Persians until 167 BC, when the Maccabees led a successful armed insurrection, and made Simon Maccabee the high priest; They gained independence in the year 141 BC, and the Hasmonean kings of the Jews succeeded them, and they remained in power for almost a century, only to be overthrown by the Romans at the hands of Pompey in the year 63 BC (11), and the Christian era would come after it..

Judaism went through well-known stages, namely:- The Tanakh: The Torah, the Books of the Prophets, the Books of Writings, and the Talmud: Halakhah, holidays, prayer, and ethics.

– And the (613) commandments: mitzvahs, customs (12) and the travels after which are

11- The Five Books of Sharia – The Holy Book, p. 43.

     See: Introduction to the New Testament.

 12 – Introduction to the Five Books of Sharia – The Holy Book, pg. 47.

called the second canon. And since the Jewish people were divided into factions and parties; those divisions affected his travels and books in terms of recognition of their sanctity, and their legal validity between acceptance and rejection by their sects (13). In order to obtain benefits and eliminate evil, this law proceeded in three stages: the first stage: biblical – from about 1000 BC until the emergence of Christianity -, the second stage: Talmudic – from 100 B.C. until 600 A.D. – and the third stage: Crystallization – from about 800 A.D. until 1300 A.D.

      So that Judaism – as it applies the rule of obtain benefits and eliminate evil – based on its first source, the Book, with its ancient extent.  By tracing, we know that the chapters of this book are the work of authors who were known to be the mouthpiece of God in the midst of their people, and history did not help us with their to know them well, but they conveyed to us their religious cultures, beliefs, and law which were written in manuscripts they called: “Sharia, Prophets, and Authors,” or “The Book.” These books were called the “Old Testament” (14), and they were transmitted orally to their people through their generations.

         The tablets of Moses (P.U.H)(15) and the books of His followers did not reach the researchers, but it was transmitted to us by a remarkable cultural development from generation to generation, which kept us away from important truths, yet this book remained sacred(16).

13 – Ibid, p. 47-pg. 49.

14- Books of Sharia – The Five Holy Books, p. 38.

15 – See: Details of the Journey in Exodus – Introduction to the Five Books of Sharia.

16   – See: Deuteronomy 47:32

      This law relied on principles, namely:

The first: The Old Testament, which is the first section of the Holy Book; it contains the Chapters and sayings of the prophets.

The second: The Talmud, which is “in the English language Talmud – and in the Hebrew language: תַּלְמוּד and in the Greek language: Ταλμούδ, a Hebrew name meaning “teaching”. This book is divided into two parts: the Mishna, which is the topic, and the Gemara, which is the interpretation. The Mishna is a collection of different Jewish traditions with some verses from the Bible, and “the Jews believe that God revealed to Moses two laws: the written law (the Torah), and the oral law (the Mishna), which is the text of the Talmud, and the Mishna and its explanations (the Gemara) written by Jewish scholars In Iraq and Palestine, it was the main component of historical Judaism, in which theoretical religious teachings were mixed with the scientific life of the Jewish communities” (17).

       The Jews claim: that these traditions were given to Moses when he was on the mountain, then Aaron, Eliezer and Joshua circulated them, and handed them on to the prophets, and then passed on from the prophets to the members of the Great Synagogue and their successors until the second century after Christ when Rabbi Judah collected and wrote them, … which is a collection of debates, instructions and the interpretations that took place in high schools after the end of the Mishna. The interpretations inscribed with the Mishna are of two types: the first is known as the Jerusalem Talmud; it was written between the third and fifth centuries, and those who wrote it were the rabbis of Tiberias, and the second is known as the Babylonian Talmud;  it was written in the fifth century A.D.(18), it   has its important feature because it is considered “the approved and legitimate interpretation of the biblical texts for the Orthodox Jews who represent the majority of the world’s Jews” (19 ); to derive from

17- Center for Middle Eastern Studies. Introduction to the Babylonian Talmud. Volume One, pg. 21.

18-See: Mark 7: 1-13.

19- Introduction to the Babylonian Talmud. Volume One, p. 21.

these principles their legislations – in accordance with obtaining benefits and Eliminating Evil- that relate to the manner of worship and transactions; to produce interests at the individual, family, community and humanitarian levels in general.

   Of the applied examples we have:

       The law that was revealed to Moses sought to protect the woman from the moods of the man’s domination, however, the Prophet of God Moses (P.U.H) permitted the divorce of the woman by saying: “If a man marries a girl and she does not like him after that because he discovered some defect in her, and he gives her a divorce book” (20), The legislators of this religion differed in interpreting the “defect” that the man discovers in the woman in order to allow him to divorce in two ways:

    The first: The Shamai School in the first century A.D.: They explained the defect by “nakedness” or “weakness in something.” They said: “A man has no right to leave his wife unless he discovers that she is unfaithful to him.”

   The second: Hillel School in the first century AD; it explained the defect by “something inappropriate,” and they considered it a failure to interpret, and it said: “He can divorce even if she neglected to cook for one time,” and also “if she did not find favor in his eyes.” Rabbi Aqaba deduced from this interpretation: “It is She can be abandoned if he finds a woman more beautiful than her.” However, their scholars chose to interpret the “Halil” school, which later became a law, justifying their choice as being more tolerant (21).

The second topic: Christianity

     The first principle: the basis of the Christian law is the Holy Book with its two Testimonies; it is that part of divine submission that has influence and supreme authority in the Church, it occupies the first and highest place in the consideration

20-Deuteronomy: 24: 1, 2.

21- See: Cohen, A. Talmud, p. 233.

and evaluation of the Orthodox Church(22”); Therefore, Bishop Gregorys (23) believes that the Holy Book is the first source of ecclesiastical laws since the beginning of the Catholic Apostolic Church, which continued until before the division due to the Council of Chalcedon in 451 A.D., and beyond, whether it was Orthodox or Catholic(24) and it seems from the trace in Canons and literature of the Christian religion, that: “The Bible is the main source of canon law, not only in the ancient Eastern Orthodox churches, but also for other churches”(25), and extends to the reform movement as it is called in Protestant history “From the time of Luther until today, it considers the Bible to be the main source of the ecclesiastical entity.”(26)

     Second: Tradition: The word “second” in the ecclesiastical concept does not mean that it is of a lower rank, rather, all of the aforementioned books and traditions are Christian heritage, and the word “tradition” in the Greek is “DadaparadisosIt; it consists of two sections(dadapara) which means from hand to hand – handed -, and “Disos”, which means a gift; So it took the idiomatic meaning of the handed thing from this person, as the father and the person after him is like the son (27).

       “The basic topics of this tradition were subjected, before the era of Paul, to a method of transmission similar to the methods of transmitting the Jewish tradition, but these topics constitute the essence of the life of the Church, and the basic material of _____________________________________________________________________

22- See: Mark’s Monthly Magazine. Message of Christian Thought to Youth and Servants:

23-He is: Wahib Atallah Zarzis, born in Aswan on October 13, 1919 AD, and died on October 22, 2001 AD. He was fluent in about ten languages. He wrote more than ninety books. He holds several academic degrees, including: a PhD in Literature from the University of Manchester. In 1955 AD, he was ordained a bishop for higher theological studies, Coptic culture and scientific research in the hands of His Holiness Pope Kyrollos VI and the bishops on May 10, 1967 AD.

24- See: Anba Gregory, Sources of Canon Law: Anba Wissa. Org

25- Ibid.

26- Anba Gregory, Sources of Canon Law: Anba Wissa. org.

27- Ibid

the Gospel, which is the law of faith and Christian behavior.” (28) ; So it is a legal axiom; because the church fathers received it from the first apostles, and this heritage is of a higher degree than what was taken from the later fathers (29).

The third Principle:

       Ecclesiastical laws, whether they were from the apostolic fathers, ecumenical councils, regional councils, or from the great teachers of the church among the patriarchs and bishops, and from this last type are the laws of Apollodes 170-235 AD, and the laws of Basil 329-379 AD, as they are recognized and effective laws in the world The Christian.(30), and all these laws that were established by the apostles, synods, and fathers, were based on the priestly and ecclesiastical authority granted to them by the Lord Christ(31); There are many things, very essential, in which the Christian world proceeded according to the traditions that were handed over to it, and were not mentioned in the Bible, for example, all the details of worship in the church; The Holy Book mentions that the Lord Christ commanded His disciples, saying: “Take disciples of all nations and baptize them in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit”(32). As for the rite of baptism, its method and prayers, he did not mention anything about it, as well as the prayers of the marriage contract of the Mass, and of funerals… etc. They were left to deductions by obtaining benefits and eliminating evil; so some of it was put by the Lord Christ apostles, and others were put by the Holy Synods, while a third was put by the fathers, patriarchs and bishops, and it became a tradition that has the force of law(33).

28- Lexicon of Biblical Theology, pp. 194-1952.

29- The Sons of Pope Kyrollos VI, died in 1971 AD. The Road to Paradise: web@st-takla.irg

30- Qhasha, the creek bishop of Pius. Lights on the Ecumenical Councils, p. 9

31- See: Matthew 18:18, The Second Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Corinthians, 3:6, The Gospel of John: 21:25.

32- The Matthew 28:19

33-   Amin, Emile. The Natural Law of Thomas Aquinas:

 Among the evidences of obtaining benefits and eliminating evil for all humanity in the three advanced principles are the following:

   * The Church stressed the marital bond, and the inadmissibility of divorce, relying on its religious foundations (34), and the words of the Apostle Paul (35), Christ explained the approval of Moses to divorce the wife by hardness of heart (36). However, the rule of bringing benefits and warding off corruption is not absent from the scholars of the Church; they permitted the severance of this contract in some cases, including:

– The imbalance in the conditions of the marital contract, which is the consent of the two contracting parties – the husband and the wife -, if they are subjected to coercion, or otherwise, they have the right to separate, even after a while, because the marriage is invalid from its origin due to the imbalance that afflicted an essential component of marriage (37), which is consent, and for other reasons make the marriage null and void (38).

* There are situations in which marital cohabitation becomes, from a practical point of view, an unbearable burden; for a very variety of reasons. In such cases, the Church accepts that the spouses separate physically and the cohabitation ends (39).

The Third Topic: Islamic:

        The beginnings of Islamic legislation resembled the beginnings of the religions that preceded it. As it  passed through the oral legislation, relying on what was revealed of revelation to the Messenger Muhammad(P.U.H.), and what the Holy Prophet clarified until the Holy Qur’an was collected after the death of the Messenger (P.U.H.),  in the era of the third caliph Othman bin Affan 35-47 AH / 656-577 A.D., and after a period


34- Matthew 19:5,6,7.35- The Letter to the Believers of Ephesians 5: 32, 33.

36- See: Matthew 19:8, Deuteronomy 24:1.

37 – Latin Legal Right, C 1057s2.

38 – Latin Legal Right, 1083-1108.39- Catechism of the Catholic Church, p. 490

39- Catechism of the Catholic Church. P.490

of time when the noble hadith was written down with the dispute over the date of its codification between the era of the Messenger (P.U.H.),  and at the hands of the Companions, or almost a century later – it is being discussed in its place -. The Islamic legislation develops after that; to base in its legislation on the following:

      The Holy Qur’an – the book of God Almighty – and the honorable Sunnah – considering the doctrinal disagreement about what the Sunnah is, then consensus, analogy  and reason– upon which there is a disagreement –  and there are those who add presumption (40), yet,  there is no disagreement about depending on the book of God Almighty, and the Sunnah of the Great Messenger (P.U.H.) – which is his words, his deeds, and his approval -, where these foundations were studied in various sciences, including the sciences of the Qur’an, the sciences of hadith, and the principles of jurisprudence.

      The first principle: the Holy Qur’an: the research   reviews the explanation of how to take the legislation from it after the confirmation of its issuance, and the confirmation of the obligation to take the divine legislation from it, and in its two cycles: the Maccay and Medany. Then the research shows the surahs of the Holy Qur’an and its verses in multiple topics, collected under the title “Sciences of the Qur’an.” One of the sciences closely related to the Holy Qur’an is the science of interpretation, that is: the explanation of the Holy Qur’an, with its various approaches and many directions according to the interpreter knowledge stock of the, as there are literary, philosophical, linguistic, rational, archaeological, and comprehensive interpretations, and others.

40-It is one of the fundamentals of jurisprudence, means: establishing the ruling in the second time, depending on its confirmation in the first.

    Then the honorable Sunnah, which is a science known as the science of hadith; with development, it included different sciences such as: the science of narration, the science of knowing, validating and invalidating; So those sciences were like filtering the hadiths, and from them the student works to reveal the places of obtaining benefits and eliminating evil

      Then the consensus: which is the special agreement, and it has many definitions, including: it is the agreement of Muslim jurists on a legal ruling. Or is the agreement of the people of the solution and the contract among the Muslims on a ruling. Or it is the agreement of the nation of Muhammad (P.U.H.) on ruling and others. The fundamentalists (Usuly) of the Sunnis made consensus: one of the four or three evidences of the Sharia rule with the Holy Book and the Sunnah. While the Imamiyyah considered it one of the evidence of the Sharia rule if it revealed, or based on, the saying of the infallible,  so the argument is not for consensus:, rather, it is for the saying of the infallible(the details of this subject will be mentioned in another section).

           Then we have the reason: it is the fourth principle of legislation according to the Imamiyyah, and the research on its authority, and revealing the realistic legal ruling, which is called in the science of principles “the mental associations topic”; it is divided into two sections: the first: the independent rational propositions, and the second: dependent rational propositions. Deducting obtaining benefits and eliminating evil appeared in:

       The mental topic: It comes within the topic of the requirements of rulings, even if those rulings are not indicative of the word, such as searching for the concomitant between the rule of reason and the rule of Sharia. The topics of argument: in which the authoritative phenomena of the Book, the authoritative of Sunnah, consensus, and reason are studied, and the topics of practical assets: it deals with the mujtahid’s reference when the ijtihadic evidence is lost, such as searching for the principle of exemption, precaution, and presumption.

The practical examples include:

       Some Qur’anic text indicates  the authority of men over women, but if the man becomes crippled or mentally ill, then the judgment comes from the specialists, that authority is for the woman, and this is a ruling that we did not find in the sacred texts, and it was put by the specialists, after we knew the authority of men over women from the Qur’anic text, so it is understood from the noble verse that the reason for delegating guardianship to the man is due to the nature of his formation that gives him the ability to work, spend and support, and if these privileges are disturbed, then there is no doubt that guardianship falls and turns to woman. On the other hand, the presence of the restriction “….what they spent of their money” makes guardianship an affair entrusted to the family, and is not specific or confined to men, as there is no way to deduce, from the verse, that all the men of the nation are the guardians of its women. Thus, we came to a ruling that was not explicit in the Sharia, and out of the rule of obtaining benefits and eliminating evil, we devised another ruling, which is inseparable from the tolerant Sharia.

           From what is previously mentioned, we can make a scientific balance between the divine religions that are famous obtaining benefits and eliminating evil after studying them in the previous topics during their worship legislation, and their transactional legislation among members of society in general; In the course of the research, we will reach, not by a Divine way or a non-objective mixing way, rather by mental and textual evidence, and with a precise objectivity, to the results of the research that confirm the unity of the source, the unity of the approach, and the union of the almost major methods of legislation, even if their forms and concepts differ, after examining the texts of the heavenly religions, and what the objective evidences produce at the heart of the research that showed the proof of this principle, and its implementation in these religions and in the doctrines of one religion, even if it does not call it by this name “obtaining benefits and eliminating evil”.  With this brief study, wide research spaces are opened for those who have deep thought and consideration. 

References & Resources

1- The Holy Quran.

2-The holy Book, translated by Fandick & al-Bustany, Germany, Shtotghart, Nidaa al-Rejaa. 1991.

3- Ibn Abd A-Salam Al-Ezz :Qhwa’d Al-Ahkam fi Islah Al-Anam, first editio . Investigation: Nazih Kamal Hammad and Othman Jumaa Dumayriah, Beirut: Dar Al-Qalam for Publishing, 1421 A.H.-2000 A.D. 2 volumes.

4- Al-Bahbahany, Mohammad Baqhir Al-Waheed, D. 1206 AH Al-Fawa’id Al-Ha’iriyah,.first edition. Iran- Qom: Baqheri Press, 1415 AH.

5-Al-Bahooty Al-Sheikh Mansoor bin Younus l-Heleby. D.1051 A.H., Keshaf Al-Qhena’a, first edition, Beirut, Dar Al-Kutub Al-Alamiyah, 1481/1997, seven parts.

6- Al-Gharawi, Haj Mirza Ali Al-Airwani, 1345 AH.. Hashiat al-Mekasib. Second edition. Tehran: Rushdia Press, 1379 AH. Two parts

 7-Al-Ghazali, Abu Hamid Mohammad bin Mohammad bin Mohammad, d. 505 AH.Al-Mustesfa fi Al-Ousul. Printed and corrected by: Mohammad Abd al-Salam Abd al-Shafi. Beirut: Scientific Books House, 1417 A.H.-1996 A.D.

 8-Al-Halaby, 374-447A.H., Abo Al-Salah, Al-Kafi fi al-Fikh, investgated by: Ridh Estady, Iran-Isfahan, Ameer Al-Mo’mineen public Al- Library, no date.

9- Al-Kashani Mulla Habibullah Al-Sharif. D 1340 AH, Tesheel al-Mesalik ila Al-Medarik fi Re’oos Al-Qhwea’ed Al-Fiqhiyah. Iran – Qom: The Scientific Press, 1404 AH.

10- Al-Sabky, Imam Al-Hesen Taqhel-Deen Ali bin Abd Al-Kafy .d.756 A.H., Fetawy Al-Ssbky, Bearut: Dar Al-Ma’arifah, no place, no date

11-.Al-Sanad, Sheikh Mohammed,Principle of deducting Doctrines and Consideration Theory. Investugated by: Sayyed Mohammed Hesen Al-Redhawy, Iran, Qum, Seroor Press. 1426 A.H.

12- Al-Shirwany, d.1118 A.H., Sheikh Abdul-Hameed .Al-Shafi’y & Al-Ady, Al-Sheikh Ahmed, Hashiya ala Tuhfat Al-Mohtaj, explained by Shihabul-Deen Ahmed bin Hejer Al-Haithamy Al-Shaf’’y, Bearut, Dar Ihiaa Al-Torath Al-Araby, no date.

13-Amin, Emile. Natural law according to Thomas Aquinas. The site of St. Terezia Church in Aleppo, available at:

14- Center for Middle Eastern Studies. Babylonian Talmud. Fisrt edition. Amman, 2011 AD. Twenty-two volumes.

15- Cohn, A. The Talmud – A comprehensive exposition of the Talmud and the teachings of the rabbis. Translation: Jack Marty. Translated into Arabic:  Dr. Salim Tannous. First edition1. Beirut: Dar Al-Khayyal for printing and publishing, 2005.

16- Cyril VI, sons of the Pope. The way to Paradise. Cairo: Deir Mar Mina press in Mariut, from the website of the Church of Anba Takla Haymanot the Abyssinian Priest, available at: web@st-takla.irg

17- Gregory, the bishop of scientific research. Sources of Canon Law. The forums of the Al-Balina Coptic Orthodox Diocese are available at: Anba wissa. org

18- Message of Christian Thought to Youth and Servants. Mark’s monthly magazine. It is issued by: Monastery of St. Anba Makar – in the desert of Shehit. Cairo: St. Macarius Monastery Press, April 2014 AD, Issue No.: 555, available at:

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المركز الديمقراطى العربى

المركز الديمقراطي العربي مؤسسة مستقلة تعمل فى اطار البحث العلمى والتحليلى فى القضايا الاستراتيجية والسياسية والاقتصادية، ويهدف بشكل اساسى الى دراسة القضايا العربية وانماط التفاعل بين الدول العربية حكومات وشعوبا ومنظمات غير حكومية.

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