Prepared by the researcher : Seif ennasr younes – Hassan first University of Settat, Morocco
Democratic Arab Center
Journal of Urban and Territorial Planning : Fifteenth Issue – March 2023
A Periodical International Journal published by the “Democratic Arab Center” Germany – Berlin
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The mountains have various territorials elements through which to create territorial development, where there is a rich spatial potential that allows to strengthen the level of mountain agriculture in the region of Beni Mellal Khenifra, due to the topographic specificities reflected positively at the climatic and hydrological level, by providing rich underground and surface water resources; however, agriculture according to the majority of mountain families is characterized by low profitability, and does not contribute significantly to the improvement of the living situation, except in a few cases that have used foreign investments, especially foreigners from the mountainous region, or Citizens of the region who are immigrants abroad or inside. Although there have been some transformations that agriculture has undergone in the mountains in light of the Green Morocco Plan, this plan focused on peasants whose ownership exceeds 5 hectares, and omitted numerous mountain peasants who do not meet this condition and do not have the investment potential; therefore, agricultural transformations remained limited in a few mountain families, especially in the Upper Malawiya region.
The economy is one of the most important pillars of development, and a fundamental building block of territorial development, as it contributes to the advancement of individuals and societies, by achieving positive social repercussions and providing a suitable framework for a decent living.
Territorial resources are important and fundamental mechanisms in creating a strong economy, through which a qualitative leap in territorial development can be created. Studying the repercussions and impact of this economy on mountain families is one of the important indicators in assessing the effectiveness of policies, programs and development plans adopted in the field of economic planning in the mountains in the region of Ben Mellal Khenifra; through these reflections, the effectiveness of the methods of preparation, preparation, valorization and exploitation of available earth resources is identified in order to create a strong mountain economy that meets all the needs of the population in the mountains. Especially in light of the rich, diverse and unique earthy resources enjoyed by the mountains in the Beni Mellal Khenifra region, in the field of agriculture, handicrafts and mountain tourism. Despite natural compulsions, these elements can be used as a locomotive for the economic development of mountain families.
- The Thoughtful Place :
Map No. 1
Source: Digital Altitude Map
The Beni Mellal Khenifra region is located in central Morocco, where its formation, after the regional division approved in 2015, resulted in the adoption of the advanced regionalization policy, which brought amendments to all regions of Morocco, due to the 2011 constitution.
The Beni Mellal Khenifra region is a strategic destination, with its presence on the large tourist hub, Fez-Meknes-Casablanca. It also has a diverse area in terms of terrain units, and includes a large part of the Middle and High Atlas, the monastery area, the Khenifra basin, part of the Central Plateau, the Phosphate Plateau and the Tadala Plain.
This region extends over an area of 28 374 square kilometers, and the mountainous area occupies about 65% of the area of the region, (Khenifra region, Azilal province and part of the Beni Mellal region) The boundaries of the administrative region are as follows: on the north it is bordered by the Rabat-Salé-Kenitra region, on the north-east it is bordered by the Fes-Meknes region, on the south and south-west it is bordered by the Daraa Tafilalet region, and on the west it is bordered by Casablanca Settat and Marrakech-Safi
- A significant proportion of mountain households depend on agriculture as a major or complementary economic activity
The majority of the mountain population is engaged in the activity of agriculture, whether Buria, Masqia or both, where agriculture is among the main pillars of the mountain economy in the region of Beni Mellal Khenifer, and a large percentage of families marry between agriculture and livestock breeding; there are other families, besides agricultural activity, that carry out other complementary work such as construction or internal migration, especially in the snow period such as work in companies and factories, in addition to some free economic activities.
Some heads of household have recently become engaged in dual transport, along with unstructured transport, which connects roundabouts with nearby village or urban centres, and some heads of households work in stone quarries (sand and gravel quarries in Beni Mellal, Khenifra and marble quarries in Azilal).
The characteristics of mountain agriculture vary in the Beni Mellal Khenifra region, and are characterized by a set of characteristics and compulsions according to mountain communities and according to roundabouts, where the cultivation varies from fruit trees, grains and vegetables, with differences in economic importance and in its developmental role, and in its repercussions on mountain families, depending on a range of natural and human factors.
2.1. The upper mountains in the direction of Beni Mellal Khenifra: characterized by the supremacy of apple production
The mountainous areas of Beni Mellal Khenifra have witnessed some transformations in the field of agriculture, especially the Upper Malawiya region (Agbala, Tighsalin, Sidi Yahya Ousaad, Lakbab), along with Tizi Nisli, Zawiya Ahnsal and Tebbant, where it is the first area at the level of transformations of agriculture irrigated by mountains, the agricultural productions on which this region depends can be mentioned in apples, along with other crops such as potatoes, in addition to carrots in small proportions (Agbala, Ghabalin, Dombab). Other mountain groups Zawiya Boufarda, Ahnsal, Tabant and Ait Mohamed also rely mainly on apple production; the majority of this production is directed to marketing.
The Green Morocco Plan has supported some mountain families, especially those with more than 5 hectares of ownership, to invest in watered agriculture, which has contributed to some transformations in these mountain areas at the level of watered agriculture.
Chart No. 1: The quality of trees prevalent in the upper mountains of Beni Mellal Khenifra
Source: Fieldwork 2020
There is a group of fruit trees in the mountains in the region of Beni Mellal Khenifra, the importance of these trees and their quality varies according to the mountain groups and according to the roundabouts as well; depending on the height and importance of water resources and arable areas found in each community, the territoriales communities, which often exceed 1500 meters in height, have fruit trees such as apples, walnuts, almonds, peaches, plums and quince; the most important of these crops are manifested in the mountains in the direction of Beni Mellal Khenifra in apples, by virtue of its compatibility with the characteristics of the climate prevailing in this region, and by virtue of the profitability of this type of Fruit trees.
The Upper Malawiya region occupies the first place in the level of apple production, especially tigsalin at 30%, and lakbab at 29.1%. It can be noted that this area is characterized by the importance of these trees, which are mainly directed to marketing, this irrigated agriculture is based on well water, and depends on modern means in the irrigation process, especially drip technology, in addition to employing some traditional processes of dependence on drivers.
There are also important trees in the mountains in the Beni Mellal Khenifra region such as pears, where this agriculture is considered old in these areas, its production is directed to marketing and its area varies according to the mountain communities and according to the percentage of families practicing it; the group of Aglmam Azegza comes in first place with 15.6%, then the group of Ait M’hamed in second place with about 15.2%, and the Tizi Nisli group in third place with about 14.4%.
Some other trees such as plums, plums and quince can be identified that are employed in the process of consumption and in weak proportions in the marketing process, where they are sold in local markets and on the side of roads, due to the absence of organized channels for marketing them at the national level, in addition to the lack of production.
In these mountainous areas there are also an important number of walnut and almond trees, especially in Ait Mhamed, which in turn are directed to marketing; it should be noted that almonds in the Azilal region are considered puria, while the almonds found in the province of Khenifra, especially lakbab, and some small areas in Beni Mellal, especially in Boutferda and Tizi Nisli depend on watering; almond production in Azilal province is affected during the drought years, due to its association with rainfall, and by virtue of its exposure to diseases.
Almond cultivation is not considered old in Beni Mellal province, as it is not used by the local population due to interest in other crops. Walnuts are also less present, especially in the domes, Tigsalin and Tizi Nisli, because they need important water resources, and they are found in the Azilal region more than in the Beni Mellal and Khenifra provinces.
The entry of foreign investors into the region, especially in the region of Mellouya and Tizi Nisli, contributed to a series of transformations, as he acquired the finest land and invested in apples along with the cultivation of potatoes and islands.
Upper Malouya and Tizi Nisli are among the areas with the most fertile land and abundant water compared to other mountainous areas in the Beni Mellal Khenifra region. Therefore, it contributes to attracting a group of foreign investors who have bought a group of land or rented it for more than 6 years.
Due to the weak material capacity of the mountain population, it rents land or sells part of it, and most investors in the mountainous region are immigrants in French, Spanish or Italian homes.
It is possible to identify two types of agricultural exploitation in the mountains in the direction of Beni Mellal Khenifra, the first of which is manifested in the traditional style, which is mainly concentrated in the foothills of the valleys, based on traditional watering by driveways, this pattern is considered inherited, its productivity is limited; traditional dwellings often prevail in these areas that know some transformations and renovations, and therefore mixed dwellings dominate. Then there is the modern style, which depends on the exploitation of land away from the foothills and valleys, this style is based on irrigated agriculture with important areas, and the irrigation process is based on digging wells or renting them from some neighboring families, and employs the drip technique significantly in irrigation methods whose productivity is important; models of these exploitations prevail, especially in the Upper Melweya region.
According to the heads of mountain families, if fruit trees are available and the necessary resources such as water resources, regular watering, fertilizing, pruning and keeping pace throughout the stages of growth, agricultural productivity is important and abundant, which reflects positively on the situation of families.
Agricultural transformations included only some mountain communities and not all communities, although they had important agricultural qualifications and ingredients that could be used as a lever for economic development.
Photos No. 1: Scene from the cultivation of apples in Tizi Nisli and boutferda
Source: Fieldwork 2020
Apples occupy the first place at the level of the upper mountains in terms of fruit trees, and are one of the most important cultivations irrigated in these areas; their density varies according to the studied groups, depending on water resources, arable areas and investment potential.
2.2. The central and lower mountains on the side of Beni Mellal Khenifra: characterized by the predominance of olive and almond cultivation
Chart No. 2: Sovereignty of olive and almond production in the central and lower mountains of Beni Mellal Khenifra
Source: Fieldwork 2020
The mountainous areas of Beni Mellal Khenifra vary in terms of the prevailing plantations depending on the height, where olive cultivation is one of the dominant trees in the mountainous areas, which are less than 1500 meters high; and it is found in a group of mountain groups such as Tifni, wawizagt, Ait ishak and a few proportions in lakbab, in addition to the lower areas in Ait Mhamed.
The percentage of olive cultivation varies from one mountain community to another, with the first place being occupied by the community of Wawizagt with 49.8%, due to the fact that this community has the lowest altitudes compared to other mountain communities, where there are important flat areas, and have important water resources to use in the irrigation process. In second place is the Ait Ishak community in Khenifra province, where this community also has the lowest altitudes despite the presence of hardened areas, which limit agricultural areas compared to Wawizagt.
The element of elevation greatly controls the quality of the agriculture prevalent in the mountains in the Beni Mellal Khenifra region, in addition to the abundance of water, material capacity and agricultural areas.
The cultivation of olives is not suitable in mountainous areas with an altitude of more than 1500 meters, due to the influence of the cold factor on its core where it does not bear fruit, and if it bears fruit in some areas its productivity is weak, compared to the lower elevation areas. Thus, the lower the height, the greater the proportion of olive trees in the mountainous region of Beni Mellal Khenifra.
Olives are heavily prepared in the mountain communities of Azilal, except in some limited areas of Ait Mhamed, wawizagt and wawla. Unlike olives found in the mountain communities of Khenifra, which is watered with few purified areas.
The largest area of olive irrigated is found in the community of Wawizagt, where it relies on a steak from the water resources of Ait Shreibo, three water resources from which the local population benefits from drinking, watering and washing clothes and household furniture; thus the abundance of water has made the local population of Bawizgit dependent on watered olives, which are more productive compared to other mountain communities.
Olive productivity is affected according to drought years, especially in light of climate change, where these trees become less productive and tender, which reflects negatively on the situation of mountain families, as a significant percentage of these families market olive production.
Almond trees also prevail in the studied mountain communities, especially in the Azilal province, and come in second place after olive trees, and occupy the first place with about 32.9%.
In the mountains on the side of Beni Mellal Khenifra there are some other fruit trees, but in small proportions such as figs, which are prepared for consumption with some of them marketed on the side of roads and in local markets, especially in the community of Ait Ishak, where there is a significant proportion of these trees compared to other groups.
The same is true for pomegranates and grapes, where these products are marketed locally on the side of the roads or in weekly markets.
Photos 2: Scene from the cultivation of olives in wawla and tifni
Source: Fieldwork 2020
The central and lower mountains are fertile areas for olives and almonds, and almonds are more concentrated in Azilal mountain communities than in other mountain groups. In recent years, however, its productivity has decreased due to drought and some of the diseases that have afflicted it.
2.3. Some mountain communities in the Beni Mellal Khenifra region are characterized by the cultivation of some marketing vegetables
Chart No. 3: Upper Malawiya region dominates the cultivation of potatoes and carrots
Source: Fieldwork 2020
The importance of these crops varies from one community to another and from one roundabout to another, where potato cultivation is concentrated in the Malwiya region significantly, in tigsalin by about 41.3% and lakbab 39.4%; this cultivation is also found in the Tizi Nesli community but in small proportions, where the percentage is estimated at 12.3%; and this mountainous region has also known the entry of carrot cultivation in recent times, which has become a new economic trend. Thus, the cultivation of greens intended for marketing is concentrated in the Upper Melweya region, due to the availability of flat areas, soil fertility, and the abundance of internal water resources.
The most important factors that contributed to these agricultural transformations are the importance of foreign investments from the region, where the Upper Malawiya region and Tizi Nisli have witnessed important investments, especially from those coming from the Saturday market, Beni Mellal, Souss and Faqih Ben Salah. whose investment efforts were focused on potatoes in the first place, and carrots in the second.
The cultivation of some other types of greens is also found in mountainous areas, but in weak proportions (Ait Mhamed, Ait Ishak), especially onions and pumpkins; they are often produced for self-consumption, with only a fraction marketed in local markets.
The majority of mountain families do not have the space to allocate to the cultivation of marketing vegetables, or find it difficult to water resources for the irrigation process, especially in light of the climatic changes that have greatly affected the potential of mountain water resources in the Beni Mellal Khenifra region, and contributed to the decline of the internal mattress and the depletion of a group of eyes, which were used in drinking, watering and the supply of livestock.
Photo No. 3: Scene from the cultivation of potatoes in tigsalin
Source: Fieldwork 2020
The Upper Malawiya region (the communities of tigsalin and lakbab) tends to focus on the cultivation of vegetables, as these areas have fertile areas and important underground water resources, but the problem of the decline in the potential of these resources may limit the effectiveness of this agricultural activity in the future, given its consumption of abundant amounts of water.
2.4. Cultivation of red watermelon in Tizi Nisli: one of the economic trends of some mountain families
Foreign investment contributed to the introduction of a group of new crops such as red watermelon, which became widespread in the community of Tizi Nisli in Beni Mellal, and was adopted by multiple mountain families in the community, and this cultivation is absent in the rest of the studied mountain communities; this cultivation is new in the mountains in the region of Beni Mellal Khenifra, where the issue of its adoption in the region is only about four years according to families.
After the experimentation and success of the red watermelon with the Amogr roundabout, it spread to some other roundabouts in Tizi Nisli, where the local population began to use this cultivation, and it is constantly increasing; therefore, red watermelon is almost exclusively the preserve of the Tizi Nisli community.
The mountain population that does not practice this agriculture has expressed its desire to introduce and adopt it, due to its profitability and economic importance; but the problem lies in the lack of water, and in the cost of digging wells, which are expensive for mountain families and therefore cannot invest in such new crops.
Some heads of households criticize the complexity and length of the support procedures within the framework of Green Morocco, and denounce the issue of obtaining support after investment, as they want to receive direct support in order to improve the ways of investing in their agricultural land, since most mountain families do not have a financial envelope to cover their needs for agricultural investment.
Photo No. 4: Scene from the cultivation of red watermelons in the Tizi Nisli community
Source: Fieldwork 2020
2.5. Saffron: A new agricultural bet for mountain families in the Beni Mellal Khenifra region, especially in Azilal
Some of the agricultural transformations and trends of the mountain families began in the Beni Mellal Khenifra region, especially in the Azilal rprovince, where the interest in the cultivation of saffron, as one of the profitable crops, is embodied in both the community of Wawizagt and Ait Mhamed among the studied groups. Some families in the Awwal community have also expressed their desire to use this type of planting; the cultivation of saffron is less in need of water compared to other crops.
Saffron also helped provide an important income for mountain women in Azilal province, and contributed to a kind of transformation in the income level of mountain families, where women became contributors to household expenses and to the subsidy of their husbands. This cultivation remains limited in scope only in the Azilal region and has not expanded to other mountainous areas;
The problem that limits the rapid spread of these new crops lies in the fact that it takes about 3 years for their productivity to be important and profitable.
2.6. Carob: Agriculture that has recently become of interest to mountain families in Azilal and Khenifra
The most important transformations involving some mountain communities in Azilal province and others in Khenifra province are reflected in the interest in carob cultivation as one of the new economically promising crops, which have contributed to the transformation of some families in the last two years, by investing carob revenues in other agricultural activities and raising livestock. The price per kilogram is up to 40 dirhams, depending on the mountain families engaged in this activity. The tender of one tree may reach between 30,000 and 40,000 dirhams, and the amount may increase even more depending on the nature of the tree’s productivity.
A significant proportion of these trees are originated in the forest and were used only for grazing, but in recent years they have undergone a shift in economic importance and have become in demand in the food and pharmaceutical industries; carob does not require large amounts of water compared to some other crops (such as red watermelon). The inhabitants of Azilal, especially wawla and some of the central and lower mountainous areas of Ait Mhamad, and the inhabitants of Khenifra, especially in Ait Ishak and the community of Aglmam azagza, are interested in these plantations, as carob is among the crops adapted to climate change.
2.7.Agricultural trends in the mountains in the direction of Beni Mellal Khenifra
The studied mountain communities differ in terms of agricultural trends, as the mountain regions of Azilal depend on crops adapted to climate changes, while the mountain communities in Beni Mellal region depend on crops that need important amounts of water, as they remain in this regard related to the degree of water abundance; the demand for these crops may decline, especially in light of the climate changes taking place, and these crops are only temporary for foreign investors; while they are key for stable mountain families in the region. The mountain communities of Khenifra marry water-consuming crops, such as potatoes and carrots, and water-saving crops such as carob.
Thus, the advantages of mountain agriculture lie in the interest of some mountain families in marketing agriculture, while most families rely on subsistence agriculture mainly, only part of the product is marketed to ensure basic expenses and expenses, in addition to ensuring the continuation of the agricultural cycle.
3.Sources of water used for irrigation by mountain families in the Beni Mellal Khenifra region
Chart No. 4: Irrigation water sources approved by mountain families
Source: Fieldwork 2020
The territorial communities in the mountains differ in terms of the water sources they use in the irrigation process, there is a significant percentage of families who employ wells in the process of watering crops, especially in the Upper Malawiya area, (tigsalin and lakbab), and they employ modern techniques in this process.
There are other mountain families that use the waterwheel, especially those located near water resources or in the foothills and banks of the valleys, and the watering process used in this context is predominantly traditional. These families are concentrated in different groups in Tizi Nisli, Ait Ishak, Lakbab, Ait Mhamedd, wawla and wawizagt.
Other families use the water resources nearby to water some agricultural areas, which combine fruit trees, alfalfa and some vegetables that are prepared for consumption with a small part of them marketed. The process of fetching water under this pattern is carried out on buggy or by dredged carts. Or extend channels from these water resources to neighboring agricultural crops, especially for watering alfalfa and olives. Such as the water resources (dilaa) according to the local population, and the water resources of maamar in Ait isak.
The process of fetching water from the water resources is cumbersome for distant families, and accordingly they water narrow and small spaces. Some of the water resources employed in the watering can be mentioned: Boufroukh in Tizi Nisli, Dilaa, maamar in Ait Ishak, Ait Shribo in wawizagt, Efasfas tifni and other water esources.
All the mountain families who are questioned are eager to build dams in their area, in order to benefit from their water in the process of drinking, watering and supplying livestock; water resources have recently been one of the main problems experienced by the mountains in the Beni Mellal Khenifra region, where the inhabitants of all mountain communities suffer with different suffering and damage, especially the community of Boutferda, Ait Mmhamed, wawla, labab, tigsalin and Ait Ishak, due to the decline of the inner mattress and the depletion of a group of water resources.
There is no complete compatibility between the size of the important mountain water wealth and the benefit of the mountain population from this wealth. This is due to the poor valorization, mobilization and management of this water wealth, as a result of the absence of a sufficient number of hill dams, which can be used in the irrigation process; And to stand on its possible limits, to make it a locomotive in order to serve the territorial development, in terms of providing safe drinking water and its use in various economic sectors, especially irrigated agriculture and various industries.
4.Waste and degradation of water resources
Sound No. 5: Scene from Ain Arogu in Aglamam Azegza
Source: Fieldwork 2020
These water resources are used by mountain families in the Beni Mellal Khenifra region in the traditional watering process, through the extension of a group of drivers to the fields. This process contributes to the waste of water wealth in the region, in the absence of mobilization strategies and the introduction of new technologies that help save water.
Photo No. 6: Scene from Ain Boufrokh in Tizi Nisli
Source: Fieldwork 2020
It is noted the absence of effective development strategies in dealing with the water resources in the mountains, where some water esources are still in their nature and have not been prepared, regulated and rationalized the use of their resources, such as Boufroukh in Tizi Nisli.
Photo No. 7: Scene from the Waterwheel of ait ishak
Source: Fieldwork 2020
Most mountain families are based on traditional irrigation techniques and methods, which have negative repercussions on profitability and mountain water resources.
Photo No. 8: Scene from the leg of Tizi Nisli
Source: Fieldwork 2020
The issue of the deterioration of the waterwheel in Tizi Nisli contributes to the waste of large quantities of water, in the absence of a development intervention for preparation. The mountainous population suffers from the weakness of the water that reaches it due to the infiltration of water into the ground, and the loss of important quantities at the level of the limbs of the leg.
- There are many compulsions suffered by mountain agriculture in the Beni Mellal Khenifra region.
The problem that mountain families have become suffering from lies in the lack of water resources, with successive droughts as a result of climate change, where this has affected the water resources of the mountains, through their significant decrease, and the depletion of a group of water resources that were employed in the process of drinking, watering and supplying livestock. In this regard, a decline in the esoteric mattress is noticed, with an estimated size of 10 to 50 meters in some mountainous areas such as Tizi Nisli, Tigsalin, Qubab, Ait Mhamed and Wawala.
The extensive drilling of wells, especially in the Upper Melweya region, contributed to the decline of the inner mattress and the depletion of a group of local eyes.
There is intensive exploitation in the Upper Mellouya region in addition to Tizi Nisli, where wells are heavily employed in the irrigation process, especially in light of the presence of crops that consume water significantly, such as red watermelons in Tizi Nisli, potatoes and carrots in Taghsalin and domes.
Thus, water is one of the main challenges facing the mountains, as mountain families have expressed their aspiration to build dams of different sizes, which contribute to meeting their needs in the region for drinking water and agriculture.
Mountain families suffer from several other problems that prevent the development of agriculture in the mountains, lies in the lack of material resources that enable investment in marketing agriculture, where the cost of drilling one well is estimated from 60 to 80 thousand dirhams; the cost rises in some areas where there are rocks as a region of domes and some areas in Ait Mohamed and Ouli. The cost is sometimes as high as 2,500 dirhams per meter, instead of 250 dirhams per meter in other mountain communities, which are somewhat easy to dig by modern devices (sonda or buraima); the material potential of mountain families prevents investment in the various possible crops in the mountains.
It should be noted that a significant percentage of the peasants do not know the Green Morocco Plan, its procedures and this is the result of the failure to promote and publicize this plan, its developmental role and possible steps in order to benefit from the support.
Some heads of household also know the importance of this scheme but its procedures require investment first, and then obtaining compensation, which the population does not like due to its weak potential as it needs direct support in order to invest.
The support of the Green Morocco Plan benefited foreign investors from the region who bought land in mountainous areas, especially in the Upper Malawiya region, and invested in irrigated agriculture and livestock breeding. Most mountain families have not benefited from this potential, except those with immigrant children who have been able to support him to invest in watered agriculture.
Among the other problems that limit the effectiveness of mountain agriculture, namely the weakness of agricultural areas and the small exploitation, it is among the real coercion to develop the agricultural potential of the mountains, especially in Azilal and some areas in Khenifra as a nickname. Where there are rocky lands where it is difficult to dig wells and engage in agricultural activity.
Due to this situation, agricultural activity must be developed to make it an important economic pillar in the mountains. In this situation with regard to agriculture, the Green Morocco Plan cannot be considered to have achieved great success in supporting solidarity agriculture and eradicating mountain poverty on the basis of agricultural activity. These data and indicators on the ground are a basic proof of the weakness of the plans and the limited development impact in the mountains in the Beni Mellal Khenifra region.
Photo No. 9: Scene from one of the dry eyes with domes
Source: Fieldwork 2020
Photo No. 10: Scene from the dryness of one of the drivers in Ait Mohamed
Source: Fieldwork 2020
The dehydration of a group of water resources is one of the most difficult problems experienced by the mountains in the Beni Mellal Khenifra region, which affects its agricultural future and neighboring areas; this fact may deepen the intensity of migration and contribute to the emptying of mountain areas of their population. As water resources are one of the main challenges on which various economic activities are built, they need an effective strategy that helps in confronting the phenomenon of climate change.
Despite the diverse territorial resources (agriculture, traditional industry, tourism…), this diversity and richness has not been reflected in the strength of the mountain economy, which is characterized by weak capabilities, entrances and choices. The most prominent indicator of the weakness of this economy is the situation experienced by mountain families, through the figures indicating the exploitation of land resources and their economic repercussions.
The preparing of territorial resources is a pivotal and decisive building block in the development of mountain territorial development visions and mechanisms, and it is not possible to recognize the existence of an effective development vision in light of the weakness of the mountain economy and its weak development repercussions on families. Management, territorial planning and approaches adopted are the main factors responsible for this situation, as a result of the shortcomings and weaknesses that it has experienced.
In this regard, it is necessary to value all available territorial resources, support farmers and artisans and provide all material and moral conditions to ensure their development and integration into the process of territorial development in a correct and sound manner.
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- External interests and administrative institutions :
-Um Al Rabie Basin Agency in Beni Mellal.
-Regional Investment Center in Beni Mellal Khenifra Region., 2016.